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SOLAR CARS. AN OVERVIEW Powered by suns energy Powered by suns energy Solar array collect the energy from the sun and converts it into usable electrical.

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Presentation on theme: "SOLAR CARS. AN OVERVIEW Powered by suns energy Powered by suns energy Solar array collect the energy from the sun and converts it into usable electrical."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOLAR CARS

2 AN OVERVIEW Powered by suns energy Powered by suns energy Solar array collect the energy from the sun and converts it into usable electrical energy Solar array collect the energy from the sun and converts it into usable electrical energy Power trackers convert it into the required voltage Power trackers convert it into the required voltage Motor controller sends power to the motor Motor controller sends power to the motor Divided into five Divided into five Driver Controls & Mechanical Systems Driver Controls & Mechanical Systems Electrical System Electrical System Drive Train Drive Train Solar Array Solar Array Body and Chassis Body and Chassis

3 Borealis III Raycing with the Sun - Photo by Colin Burnett

4 DRIVER CONTROLS & MECHANICAL SYSTEMS Standard features Standard features Steering Steering Precise steering alignment Precise steering alignment SUNRUNNER utilized a rack and pinion system that was attached to the steering arms by means of tie rods SUNRUNNER utilized a rack and pinion system that was attached to the steering arms by means of tie rods Brake Brake Designed to move freely by eliminating brake drag Designed to move freely by eliminating brake drag Hydraulic disc brakes Hydraulic disc brakes Regenerative braking Regenerative braking

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6 Suspension Suspension front suspension- MacPhearson struts or double A arms front suspension- MacPhearson struts or double A arms MacPhearson strut requires a large vertical clearance MacPhearson strut requires a large vertical clearance Double A arms require less vertical clearance, but consist of more components Double A arms require less vertical clearance, but consist of more components rear suspension is a trailing arm, similar to that in motor cycles rear suspension is a trailing arm, similar to that in motor cycles Wheels Wheels rolling resistance rolling resistance three or four wheels three or four wheels wheel designs are similar to those of bicycle tires wheel designs are similar to those of bicycle tires

7 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Made up of batteries and power electronics Made up of batteries and power electronics Batteries Batteries Lead-Acid Lead-Acid Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) Nickel-Cadmium (NiCad) Nickel-Cadmium (NiCad) Lithium Ion Lithium Ion Tesseract uses 512 li-ion batteries Tesseract uses 512 li-ion batteries

8 Energy Flow Diagram of a Solar Car

9 Peak Power Trackers Peak Power Trackers maximize the power maximize the power protect the batteries from being damaged by overcharging protect the batteries from being damaged by overcharging efficiencies above 95% efficiencies above 95% Motor Controllers Motor Controllers decides how much current actually reaches the motor decides how much current actually reaches the motor up to 90% efficient up to 90% efficient

10 DRIVE TRAIN Consist of the electric motor and the means to by which the motor's power is transmitted the wheel Consist of the electric motor and the means to by which the motor's power is transmitted the wheel power generated is less than 5 hp power generated is less than 5 hp only one wheel in the rear of the car is driven by the electric motor only one wheel in the rear of the car is driven by the electric motor motor types motor types brushed DC brushed DC dual winding DC brushless dual winding DC brushless induction induction

11 Dual-winding DC brushless Dual-winding DC brushless used as an electronic transmission used as an electronic transmission Types of transmissions Types of transmissions variable ratio belt drive variable ratio belt drive hub motor hub motor

12 SOLAR ARRAY made from silicon, by joining an n-type and a p- type semiconductor made from silicon, by joining an n-type and a p- type semiconductor grouped into space grade and terrestrial grade categories grouped into space grade and terrestrial grade categories Encapsulation Encapsulation Array Array SUNRUNNER'S array consisted of 14,057 razor- blade sized, 16% efficient space grade cells. SUNRUNNER'S array consisted of 14,057 razor- blade sized, 16% efficient space grade cells.

13 Solar array

14 LIMITATIONS Only 1000 W/m2 of energy reaches the earths surface in an hour of peak sun Only 1000 W/m2 of energy reaches the earths surface in an hour of peak sun average solar array configuration spans 8m² average solar array configuration spans 8m² total amount of energy hitting the solar car during peak sun is 8KWh/m² total amount of energy hitting the solar car during peak sun is 8KWh/m² average solar cells are only able to convert 12% to 18% to electricity average solar cells are only able to convert 12% to 18% to electricity the total amount of converted energy available to a car consists of Watts the total amount of converted energy available to a car consists of Watts three primary areas of energy loss consist of three primary areas of energy loss consist of aerodynamic drag, braking, and rolling resistance aerodynamic drag, braking, and rolling resistance

15 BODY & CHASSIS goals goals minimize the aerodynamic drag minimize the aerodynamic drag maximize the exposure to solar insolation maximize the exposure to solar insolation minimize weight minimize weight maximize safety maximize safety

16 Body Shapes Body Shapes Unified aero body and panel Unified aero body and panel Fixed or tilting, flat panels with a separate driver cab Fixed or tilting, flat panels with a separate driver cab Catamaran shape Catamaran shape uniquely designed shape uniquely designed shape MAIZE & BLUE and SUNRUNNER are catamaran shaped. MAIZE & BLUE and SUNRUNNER are catamaran shaped.

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18 Chassis Chassis space frame space frame welded tube structure to support the loads and the body welded tube structure to support the loads and the body body is a lightweight, non-load bearing, composite shell body is a lightweight, non-load bearing, composite shell Semi - monocoque or carbon beam Semi - monocoque or carbon beam composite beams and bulkheads to support the loads composite beams and bulkheads to support the loads integrated into a non-load bearing composite belly pan integrated into a non-load bearing composite belly pan monocoque monocoque uses the body structure to support the loads uses the body structure to support the loads

19 MATERIALS USED composite material composite material combination of a filler material sandwiched between layers of a structural material combination of a filler material sandwiched between layers of a structural material structural materials structural materials Carbon fibre, Kevlar and fibre glass Carbon fibre, Kevlar and fibre glass filler materials filler materials Honeycomb and foam Honeycomb and foam bonded together using epoxy resins bonded together using epoxy resins

20 FALLING SHORT characteristics that a commercially viable car characteristics that a commercially viable car extremely reliable extremely reliable comfortable comfortable be able to function on its own be able to function on its own maintain the required speed maintain the required speed amenities such as air conditioning, radio, and power locks and windows amenities such as air conditioning, radio, and power locks and windows Solar cars Solar cars Limited seating capacity Limited seating capacity Frequent flat tyres Frequent flat tyres Often was incapable of maintaining highway speeds Often was incapable of maintaining highway speeds

21 THE FUTURE IN THE SHORT TERM terrestrial application of the rovers that NASA uses in space terrestrial application of the rovers that NASA uses in space Data collection in a hot, sun rich area Data collection in a hot, sun rich area Carry-over of expertise Carry-over of expertise substantial advances to the design of electric vehicles substantial advances to the design of electric vehicles better motors, better use of batteries, and better motor controller design better motors, better use of batteries, and better motor controller design composite hull car composite hull car spread the word about the use of harnessing solar power spread the word about the use of harnessing solar power

22 IN THE LONG RUN Electric car Electric car Increase in petroleum prices Increase in petroleum prices short distance commutation short distance commutation improvements improvements

23 THANK YOU


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