Presentation on theme: "Re-inventing mobility: The emerging electric car technologies"— Presentation transcript:
1Re-inventing mobility: The emerging electric car technologies Bernadette GruberCorinna MitterhuberKS „Energy and Sustainable Development “Mai 2011
2Contents Historical development of electric cars General concept of electric carsCharacteristics of electric carComparison with a combustion engineStorage systems of electric carsHybrid propulsion
3Contents Economic aspects of e-cars Costs and profitabilityEnergy economical aspects of electric carsMarket development of electric car technologiesApplication possibilities for electric vehiclesConclusion & Outlook
4Historical development of electric cars Early Years of Electric Cars:First electric vehicle invented in 1828Many innovations followedThe interest in electric cars increased greatly in the late 1890s and early 1900sFirst real and practical electric car (with capacity for passengers) designed by William Morrison1902 Phaeton built by the Woods Motor Vehicle Company of ChicagoFigure: 1902 Wood's Electric Phaeton(Inventors, ).
5Historical development of electric cars Decline of Electric Cars: 1930 – 1990The electric car declined in popularity because of the following reasons:Better system of roads need for longer-range vehiclesReduction in price of gasoline gasoline was affordable to the average consumerInvention of the electric starter disposed of the need for the hand crank.Initiation of mass production of internal combustion engine vehicles by Henry Ford.
6Historical development of electric cars The mid-1930s until the 1960s: dead years for electric vehicle development and for their application as personal transportationIn the 1960s and 1970s: imperative necessity for alternative-fueled vehicles renewed interest on electric vehiclesThe first electric truck, the Battronic Truck, constructed in the early 1960s.The companies Sebring-Vanguard and Elcar Corporation = leaders in the electric car production
7Historical development of electric cars The Revival: 1990sEfforts by the governments to more stringent air emissions requirements and regulations requiring reductions in gasoline use and Zero Emission Vehicle requirements from several states revivalElectric conversions of familiar gasoline powered vehicles as well as electric vehicles designed from the ground up became available(reached highway speeds with ranges of 50 to 150 miles between recharging)Since 2001: Phoenix designs fully functional electric trucks and Sport Utility Vehicle for commercial fleet useFigure: Phoenix Motorcar(Inventors, Vehicles.htm, ).
8General concept of electric cars Characteristics of electric carsCore elements: battery, electric motor, plug- in system, differentialEfficiency ratio is close to 90 percent needed energy depends on battery (type, age, temperature), the way of charging and the general construction of motor and car itselfMaximum power of the motor is reached from standstill, leads to “smooth” way of drivingPossibility to use energy of break application to refeed it into battery
9General concept of electric cars Comparison with a combustion engine powered carProviding energy:E-cars get energy out of batteryConventional car gets energy out of combustion engineEfficiency ratio:Electric motor: close to 90 percentCombustion engine: percentIn case of e-car mature efficiency losses occur during electricity production
10General concept of electric cars Comparison with a combustion engine powered carEmissions:E-car: Occur during electricity production; positive for e.g fine dustCombustion engine: emissions occur during drivingElectric cars produce much less noise than combustion engine powered carsElectric cars have no gearbox
11General concept of electric cars Combustion engine powered car:Figure: Coparison convential car/ electric car (Electrification Coalition 2009)Fuel system is on the back side, where it transmits power to the gearbox, which powers the wheelsBattery is stored at back side, where it transmits the energy to the electric motor which powers the wheels
12General concept of electric cars Storage systems for electric carsLead acid batteriesno essential role for powering electric vehiclesNickel cadmium batteriesInferior to new technologies due to low energy density and high toxicityNickel metal hydride batteriesVery high energy density, good efficiency-to- size-ratio, very long lasting and unproblematic in terms of safety BUT very high price for raw materialsLithium ion batteries
13General concept of electric cars Lithium ion batteries:most promising storage technology for electric vehiclesAdvantages:Highest energy density of all battery systems operating at room temperature lower number of cells needed20-30 percent lighter than nickel cadmium batteriesNo memory effectDisadvantages:In case of destruction toxic gases and flammable material can occurVery expensive
14General concept of electric cars Hybrid propulsion:Combination technology between combustion engine and electric engineIn parallel hybrid systems both engines power the shaftIn series hybrid systems the combustion engine is powering a generator which transmits energy to the electric motorIn combined hybrid systems one can change between parallel and series propulsion
15General concept of electric cars Hybrid propulsionHybrid-electric vehicle:Either parallel, series or combined systemContains liquid fuel tank and batteryNo plug-in system for charging the battery externalFigure: Hybrid-electric-vehicle (Electrification Coalition 2009)
16General concept of electric cars Hybrid propulsionPlug-in hybrid vehicle:Either series or combined systemContains an on-board generatorPossible to run as sole electric vehicle through plug-in for external charging of batteryFigure: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (Electrification Coalition 2009)
17Economic aspects of e-cars Costs and profitability:Electric vehicles of the middle class with range of about 150 km: 10,000 to 15,000 euroVery low operating costsDaimler: sells its future e-cars quickly profitably hopes for a start-up funding from the Federal GovernmentIn many countries: purchase of e-cars remunerated by subsidiesFigures: Costs of vehicles (2010 and 2030)(Kloess et al., 2009: 4,5)
18Economic aspects of e-cars Energy economical aspects ofe-cars:Construction of a corresponding charging infrastructure (charging stations)In Austria: 2,600 electric service stations (May 2010)To recharge 15 to 20 kWh, which a small car on 100 kilometres requires, lasts via a normal household outlet from six to eight hours.Figure: Uniform charging connector(Mennekes,).Figure : Charging station for electric cars(Mennekes, ).
19Economic aspects of e-cars The electric propulsion: efficiency = about 90%Electric propulsion is principally as "clean" as the energy sourceA photovoltaics-carport (solar service station) considered as a charging station of electric cars for the futureFigure :Photovoltaics-carport as a charging station of electric cars(Das Photovoltaik Portal, ).
20Economic aspects of e-cars Market development of electric car technologies:Market for e-cars still depend on direct subsidies, tax subsidizations or on clearly higher fuel pricesAccording to the most probable scenario: in 2020 26 % of new cars in China, Japan, the USA and Western Europe could have electric or hybrid propulsionChallenges for the electric car market: energy storage capacities, recharge times, infrastructure requirements, costs of the batteries,…Without any technological breakthrough: the range of an electric car will furthermore amount to only 250 to 300 km.At the present time: automotive corporations cooperate closely with manufacturers of electric car batteries
21Economic aspects of e-cars In 2009: global electric vehicle market = more than 26 billion dollars worth & probably grows at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 18.5% between 2010 and 2015The plug-in hybrid electric vehicles-segment probably increase at a CAGR of 81.6%The hybrid electric vehicles market: CAGR of 19.1%Figure: Summary figure – electric vehicle shipments and value by configuration from 2005 to 2015 (Concensus scenario) (in $ Millions)(Bcc Research, ).
22Application possibilities for electric vehicles The development of electric cars or vehicles can be divided broadly in the following directions or trends:Industrial vehiclesFigure: Mafi- electric load cart at Daimler-Chrysler(Schnitzler, )
23Application possibilities for electric vehicles Development of new passenger cars:Urban vehiclesElectric vehicles suited for highwayFigure: CityEL(Firma Haberhauer, )Figure : Think City(Stegmann, )
24Application possibilities for electric vehicles Alteration from customary cars to electric vehiclesStudy vehicles and experimental vehiclesFigure: Renault Twingo Electra(MobiLEM, )Figure: Keio University Eliica(Deep Dive Media Automotive Network, )
25Conclusion & OutlookHuge potential for the further emerging of electric carsAlthough there are still problems, it is important to push this technology R&DElectrical outlet and electric cable are not required in future anymore, because the electric car of the future "refuels" its power fully automatically and without contacting by induction while driving or parking.Figure: Power from the street. The electric car of the future "refuels" its power fully automatically and without contacting by induction while driving or parking.(Glocalist, )
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