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Momentum and Impulse UCR MESA

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Lets start with everyday language What do you say when a sports team is on a roll? They may not have the lead but they may have ___________ MOMENTUM A team that has momentum is hard to stop.

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What is Momentum? An object with a lot of momentum is also hard to stop Momentum = p = mv Units: kgm/s^2 m=mass v=velocity Momentum is also a vector (it has direction)

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Lets practice A 1200 kg car drives west at 25 m/s for 3 hours. What is the cars momentum? Identify the variables: –1200 kg = mass –25m/s, west = velocity –3 hours = time P = mv = 1200 x 25 = 30000 kg m/s^2, west

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How hard is it to stop a moving object? To stop an object, we have to apply a force over a period of time. This is called Impulse Impulse = FΔt Units: Ns F = force (N) Δt = time elapsed (s)

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How hard is it to stop a moving object? Using Newtons 2 nd Law we get FΔt= mΔv Which means Impulse = change in momentum

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Why does an egg break or not break? An egg dropped on a tile floor breaks, but an egg dropped on a pillow does not. Why? FΔt= mΔv In both cases, m and Δv are the same. If Δt goes up, what happens to F, the force? Right! Force goes down. When dropped on a pillow, the egg starts to slow down as soon as it touches it. A pillow increases the time the egg takes to stops.

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Practice Problem A 57 gram tennis ball falls on a tile floor. The ball changes velocity from -1.2 m/s to +1.2 m/s in 0.02 s. What is the average force on the ball? Identify the variables: Mass = 57 g = 0.057 kg Δvelocity = +1.2 – (-1.2) = 2.4 m/s Time = 0.02 s using FΔt= mΔv F x (0.02 s) = (0.057 kg)(2.4 m/s) F= 6.8 N

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Car Crash Would you rather be in a head on collision with an identical car, traveling at the same speed as you, or a brick wall? Assume in both situations you come to a complete stop. Take a guess http://techdigestuk.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/car_crash.JPG

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Car Crash (cont.) Everyone should vote now Raise one finger if you think it is better to hit another car, two if its better to hit a wall and three if it doesnt matter. And the answer is…..

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Car Crash (cont.) The answer is… It Does Not Matter! Look at FΔt= mΔv In both situations, Δt, m, and Δv are the same! The time it takes you to stop depends on your car, m is the mass of your car, and Δv depends on how fast you were initially traveling.

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Egg Drop connection How are you going to use this in your egg drop? Which of these variables can you control? FΔt= mΔv Which of them do you want to maximize, which do you want to minimize (note: we are looking at the force on the egg. Therefore, m represents the egg mass, not the entire mass of the project)

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From the California Standards Test Copyright © 2004 California Department of Education.

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From the California Standards Test Copyright © 2004 California Department of Education.

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From the California Standards Test Copyright © 2004 California Department of Education.

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Momentum. Momentum is an expression of how hard it is to change the motion of an object. It has to do with the object's mass and velocity and is an indication.

Momentum. Momentum is an expression of how hard it is to change the motion of an object. It has to do with the object's mass and velocity and is an indication.

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