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TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Transport Modelling Traffic Flow Theory 2.

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Presentation on theme: "TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Transport Modelling Traffic Flow Theory 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Transport Modelling Traffic Flow Theory 2

2 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Basis of Microsimulation Car-following model Lane-changing model Gap-acceptance model Lane-choice model Models of intersection controls

3 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Car-following models Models of individual vehicle following behaviour –In a single stream of traffic (lane disciplined) –No overtaking Three main types: –Safety-distance model –Action-points: different rules for different driving states –Psycho-physical

4 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 The car following behaviour controls the motion of the vehicles. The models assume that there is a correlation between vehicles in a range of inter-vehicle spacing, from 0 to about 100 to 125 meters. Each driver in a following vehicle is supposed to be an active and predictable control element in the driver-vehicle-road system Car Following Model h n+1 t x t n – x t n+1 xtnxtn x t n+1 t

5 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 IIT BombayTraffic flow modelling - I5/44 Car Following Theory-notations n = the lead vehicle n+1 = the following vehicle = the position of vehicle n at time t = the velocity of vehicle n at time t = the acceleration of vehicle at time t = time interval for update Microscopic Traffic Flow Modeling

6 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Car Following Theories Describe how one vehicle follows another in an uninterrupted flow Describe how one driver react to the change in position of the vehicle ahead. General motion car-following theory in the most popular

7 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Car following theory : GM model response stimulus = f ( dv, dx ) Basic assumptions : driver maintains safe distance or driver wants to drive at the desired speed Microscopic Traffic Flow Modeling

8 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 IIT BombayTraffic flow modelling - I8/44 Microscopic Traffic Flow Modeling Car following theory : GM model Stimulus could be positive negative or zero α Sensitivity Coefficient

9 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Microscopic Traffic Flow Modeling Car following theory : General Form m speed exponent l distance exponent α l,m Sensitivity Coefficient

10 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Microscopic Traffic Flow Modeling Car following theory : Optimum Velocity Vehicle will tend to maintain a safe speed which depends on the relative position, rather than relative velocity.

11 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Car following theory: Discussion Microscopic Traffic Flow Modeling GM theory is the most popular because of its field agreement The GM microscopic model can be derived mathematically from the macroscopic hydro dynamic model OV models are more complex, but is behaviorally more accurate : driver can perceive relative space better than relative speed

12 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Car Following Model Model requirements Agree with experimental evidence –Microscopic: individual vehicle trajectories –Macroscopic: q-k-u relationships Be psycho-physically feasible Posses local stability –Perturbations in behaviour of lead vehicle not causing following vehicle to collide Possess asymptotic stability –Perturbations not magnified back over a line of vehicles

13 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Car Following Model Variants and constraints Variable reaction times Variable acceleration and deceleration Variable or multiple lead vehicles Lane-disciplined Stable traffic flow: do not produce incidents

14 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Gipps Car Following Model Car Following Model

15 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Car Following Model The Gipps car-following model Free flow model Accelerate freely to desired speed Safety-distance model Driver maintains a speed which will just allow him to stop in emergency without hitting the obstacle at distance S ahead

16 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 GM Car Following Model Car Following Model The research team developed 5 generations of car- following models; a general expression of is given by: Response = Function (Sensitivity, Stimulus) Response denotes the acceleration of the following vehicle due to a stimulus caused by the difference in speed of the lead and following vehicles. Sensitivity is a behavioural parameter that might depend on speed difference and distance headway.

17 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Lane Changing Model Lane changing might occur if there is a need for turning movement, speed change or on freeways to avoid exiting vehicles. Lane-changing opportunities become available under light traffic conditions. However, forced and co-operative lane changing may also be performed under congested conditions. These models are based on the gap acceptance model. Discrete choice is also used to model lane changing behaviour.

18 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Lane-changing models Models of individual drivers ability and propensity to change lanes Lane-changing objectives, e.g. –To overtake a slower moving vehicle –To bypass an obstacle –To move off/into a reserved bus lane –To get-in-lane for next junction turning –To give-way to merging traffic Decision-making behaviour: –Is it possible to change lane? (physically & safely) –Is it necessary to change lane? (for junction turning?) –Is it desirable to change lane? (to overtake?) Lane Changing Model

19 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Lane Changing Model Lane changing can be of two types, mandatory and discretionary Lane changing model,

20 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Lane Changing Model Variants and constraints Variable lane-changing objectives Variable hierarchical decision trees Variable acceptable gaps Look-ahead: anticipating a lane-changing needs a link ahead Cooperative lane-changing Courtesy yielding Lane disciplined: no overtaking in between lanes or lane in opposite direction

21 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Gap acceptance is an important element in most lane-changing models. In order to execute a lane- change, the driver assesses the positions and speeds of the lead and following vehicles in the target lane and decides whether the gap between them is sufficient. Gap acceptance models are formulated as binary choice problems, in which drivers decide whether to accept or reject the available gap by comparing it to the critical gap (minimum acceptable gap). Gap Acceptance Model

22 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Gap Acceptance Model The subject vehicle tends to move from its current lane to target Lane, into the gap between 2 vehicles travelling in the target lane. When a driver wants to do lane changing, the critical lead gap and the lag gap are required to be acceptable for the driver. Otherwise, it is not safe for the driver to do the lane changing.

23 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 subject= Vehicle which will do the lane-changing manoeuvre lead and following= Lead and following vehicle of the subject vehicle lead gap = Gap between the lead vehicle and the subject vehicle in the target lane lag gap= Gap between the following vehicle and the subject vehicle in the target lane front gap= Gap between the current lead vehicle and the subject vehicle in the subject lane S a and S b = Speed of the lead and following vehicle S n = Speed of the subject vehicle Gap Acceptance Model

24 TRANSPORT MODELLING 23 November 2010 Time-dependent acceptable gap Courtesy yielding Individual gap acceptance: no shadowing effects (e.g. on approaching roundabouts) Requires distinction of major/minor flows Variants and constraints Gap Acceptance Model


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