Presentation on theme: "Environmental, Economic, and Social Costs of the Car"— Presentation transcript:
1 Environmental, Economic, and Social Costs of the Car TREN 3P18: Sustainable TransportationEnvironmental, Economic, and Social Costs of the Car
2 ‘The World Car Crisis’ Wolfgang Zuckermann (1922- ) shakespeare.bookshop.free.fr/ GB/home_page.htm
3 ‘The World Car Crisis’ Wolfgang Zuckermann (1991) described the aggregate global impacts and influences of the automobile as ‘the world car crisis’
4 Problems and consequences 500 million vehicles were on the road in 1991More than 550 million were on the road by 2002 (1)More than 1 billion cars were on the road by 2013 (2), (3)people.hofstra.edu/.../ conc3en/carprodfleet.htmlGraph source: Worldwatch Institute
5 Problems and consequences Mounting traffic congestionAir, noise, and aesthetic pollutionNear-total dependence on fossil fuels (often dirty and imported)Highly wasteful usage of materials and energyMore than 250,000 traffic deaths each year
6 Problems and consequences Negative impacts on cities and land useApproximately sixty million new vehicles are added each year (165,000 per day) (1)Approaching the limits of the carrying capacity of the planetClimate modification with serious consequences
7 Increasing auto dependency Even with cleaner fuel, we’re driving more in low miles-per-gallon vehicles. Air pollution damages human health, crops, structures, and our climate.Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002
8 Percent of Trips by Travel Mode (all trip purposes) – compiled 1998 Countrybicyclewalkingpublic transitcarotherNetherlands30185452Denmark202114423Germany122216491Switzerland102938Sweden3911364Austria931138England/ Wales62France476Italy28Canada74United States84Source: John Pucher, Transportation Quarterly, 98-1 (from various transport ministries and depts., latest avail. year) (table from statistics.htm)
9 Increasing auto dependency: Urban density factors There is a strong link between urban population density and petroleum consumptionUSA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand have the lowest urban densities and highest per capita petroleum consumption- (Newman and Kenworthy 1989)
10 Increasing auto dependency: China China led the way in vehicle growth, with the number of cars on Chinese roads increasing by 27.5 per cent between (half the entire global growth)China now has the world's second largest car population, with 78 million vehiclesUnited States still constitutes by far the largest vehicle population in the world, with million cars
11 Increasing auto dependency: European cities Larger European cities are becoming more car dependent due to sprawlSince 1975, the average distance between home and the workplace has more than doubledjourneys by private car continue to increaseIn Europe, the car is used more often for leisure activities or for shopping
12 Increasing auto dependency: European cities European car use is approaching that of the USA: by 2002, 82% of urban journeys in European cities were undertaken by car(12% transit, 6% bicycle)
13 Increasing auto dependency: European cities However, modal split (walking / cycling / public transit / private car) is quite variable –Spanish cities are most walkableDanish and Dutch cities are most cyclableSlovakia, Switzerland, Estonia use public transit the mostItaly and Spain have highest car use(Modal split for European cities of over 250,000 population, data – )
14 Costs and impacts of the car …include the following (nonexclusive) categories:Internal economic costs(borne by car users)External economic costs (borne by society)Environmental costs (borne by the environment)Social costs (borne by all of society)
15 Internal economic costs (borne by users) Fixed costsOperating costsPersonal costsFinancial benefits?Download worksheet from course home page
16 Direct Costs paid by motorist Fixed costs – insurance, licensing, registration and taxesFinance charges – interest on borrowed money for vehicle purchaseDepreciation – The difference between what you paid for a car and what you can sell it forFuel and Oil ExpensesMaintenance and TiresParking
17 Direct Costs paid by motorist Annual costs of ownership of most vehicles in US and Canada can be compared online at Vincentric website:Brand Analysis by Segment - Ownership Costs
20 Direct and Societal Costs Travel timecost to drivers of unpaid timecost to employers for work time spent in travelcosts of opportunities lost to travel timeMeasured door-to-door (including time spent parking and walking to and from vehicle.) Variable rate depending on congestion and travel distancesLitman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002
21 External economic costs (borne by society) Infrastructure development and maintenance costsGovernment subsidies to auto industry, petroleum industry, etc.All other non-environmental external costs
23 Environmental impacts of cars Impacts to…Atmosphere (air)Hydrosphere (water)Lithosphere (soil)Biosphere (biota)… affecting ecosystem process and function
24 Waste Disposal CostsDisposal of tires, batteries, junked cars, oil and other hazardous and semi-hazardous materials are environmental costs paid by all.Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002
25 Resource Consumption Costs Cars use many nonrenewable natural resources – petroleum, metals and synthetic rubber.Passenger vehicles account for 40% of petroleum products consumed in the U.S. each year.Environmental and national defense costs associated with extraction, processing, transport, recycling and depletion of non-renewable resources are not covered by the purchase prices of gas and automobiles.Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002U.S. Department of Energy, "Conserve Resources for the Future Generations," [online] 2002Alliance to Save Energy, Increasing America's Fuel Economy, February 2002
26 Road NoiseNoise negatively affects human health and wildlife and it causes declines in property values. Noise mitigation measures are not always successful and come at a high price.Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002
27 Atmosphere Large scale atmospheric diffusion of pollutants Local concentration of pollutants (e.g. urban smog)Photochemical reactions e.g., ultraviolet light inducing reactions with ozone, SO2, NO2Climate change (global warming)Acidic precipitationSynergistic / cumulative effects (e.g. smog and greenhouse gases)
28 Hydrosphere Water Pollution Impacts include: crankcase oil and fluid dripsroadside herbicidesleaking underground storage tanksoil tanker spills contribute to water pollution, degradation of surface, ground and drinking water and destruction of wildlife habitat.Hydrologic Impacts include:increased impervious surfacesshoreline modificationsreduced groundwater rechargeLitman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002
29 Hydrosphere Diffusion of pollutants in a dissolved or colloidal state. Acidification of groundwater and underground water; loss of buffering capacityDecline of pH following snow melt (aquatic organisms are particularly vulnerable)Increased solubility and toxicity of heavy metals due to acidificationAdditions of organic compounds, aluminum, lead, manganese, calcium, magnesium and potassium to water bodies through runoffContamination of ground and underground water by nitratesModification of hydrological systems by the construction and maintenance of automotive infrastructure
30 LithosphereLiberation of toxic metallic ions from soil (aluminum, cadmium, etc.) through acidificationLoss of soil nutrients, notably calcium and magnesiumInhibition of nitrificationInhibition of microbial decomposition through pH changes and toxic effectsLoss of soil flora and faunaFixation by plants of heavy metals (e.g. lead) and contaminationConsumption of landImpacts of raw material extractions (metals, aggregates, fossil fuels)
31 Automobile production… is among the world's most resource-intensive and polluting industriesis expanding globallyconsumes the majority of the rubber, iron and lead in the United Statesis also a top user of steel, zinc and copperis responsible for a significant proportion of the massive pollution from primary resource industriesClean Production Action what/vehicles.htm
32 Specific toxicants attributable to automobile use Environmental impacts of cars:Specific toxicants attributable to automobile useImage credit: caa/caaenfstatreq.html
34 Lead gasoline additive banned in the 1970s still sold for use in older vehicles in some jurisdictions (e.g. sales reinstated in UK, despite initial ban in 2000)extremely toxic; can affect almost any organ in the bodylow level chronic exposure to lead affects the nervous system (learning disorders) and the blood (anemia)
35 Leadeven low levels of lead can impair the mental abilities of childrensoil in parts of West Oakland, CA is so highly contaminated with lead from highways and leaking underground petroleum storage tanks, that it qualifies as a Superfund Hazardous waste site
36 BenzeneFuel additive (up to 5% in some areas) which improves the performance of unleaded gasolinelimited in Canada (since 1999) to < 1% by volume CEPA Benzene in Gasoline Regulations (SOR/97-493)Sources in air: emissions from motor vehicles; evaporation losses during handling, distribution, and storage of gasoline
37 Benzenelevels are higher in urban areas (highest near filling stations, gasoline storage tanks and benzene producing and handling industries)proven carcinogen; no known safe threshold level
38 MMT (Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl) used for many years in Canada as an additive to boost octane and to prevent valve problems in old cars designed for leaded fuela suspected neurotoxin and respiratory toxin (manganese may cause memory impairment, tremors, and psychosis similar to Parkinson's Disease)
39 MMT (Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl) banned in California and most of the US eastern seaboard85% of U.S. gasoline is MMT freevirtually every European country has also banned the additiveGovernment of Canada banned trade and transportation of MMT in 1996 due to health concerns
40 MMT (Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl) Ethyl Corporation (now Afton Chemical) used Chapter 11 of the NAFTA to sue Canada for 350 million dollars - the amount Ethyl says the ban cost them in lost profits and damage to their reputation (Chapter 11 allows corporations to sue a government for compensation if that government passes a law that harms a corporation's profits or reputation)
41 In an out of court settlement, the Govt. of Canada: paid US $13 million in damages to Ethylagreed as a part of the settlement to allow MMT back into the Canadian marketissued a statement through Health Canada (now buried, and available through special request only) saying that the additive poses no health threatContrast health concerns with industry position (Afton Chemical, manufacturer of MMT)
43 Carbon monoxide (CO) colorless and odorless gas affects human health by impairing the oxygen-carrying capacity of bloodFatal at high concentrationsLower levels of CO can result in impaired perception, slowed reflexes, drowsiness, headaches and effects on the central nervous system, the heart, and blood circulation around the body
44 Carbon dioxide (CO2)one of the major greenhouse gases contributing to global climate changeOne-third of CO2 emissions in the U.S. are transportation-relatedCars, SUV’s and light trucks in the U.S. account for more than 300 million tons of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere each yearLitman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002Environmental Defense, "Carbon Emissions Fact Sheet: Clearing the Air on Climate Change," [online] July 2002
45 Oxides of nitrogeninclude nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O)derived from automobile emissionsirritate the respiratory tract, reduce lung function, and increase susceptibility to asthma and viral infectionsplay a major role in the formation of acid rain and ground-level ozone
46 Hydrocarbons / VOCs unburned or partly burned fuel from exhaust some are carcinogenic; others cause drowsiness, eye and respiratory tract irritation, and coughingreact with nitrogen oxides to form tropospheric ozone, a principal component of photochemical smog
47 Photochemical smogcauses eye irritation, headaches, coughing, impaired lung function, and eye, nose and throat irritation.asthmatics and children are most at riskadverse health effects increase during heavy exercise or outdoor activity
48 Particulatesfine particles such as soot that result from the incomplete combustion of fuelhigher output from diesel enginescan aggravate respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and asthmacarcinogenic
49 Aldehydesa group of chemicals emitted from car exhaust as a result of incomplete fuel combustionpungent odor; responsible for much of the smell associated with traffic, particularly diesel vehicles
50 Aldehydescause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat; sneezing, coughing, nausea, and breathing difficulties.Children, the elderly, and asthmatics most sensitiveSome (e.g., formaldehyde) are carcinogenic
52 Trace metalsinclude arsenic, beryllium, mercury and cadmium, as well as leadtrace quantities emitted in exhaustpresent in used oil, lubricants and other fluids which are drained or leak from old and scrapped vehiclescan be highly toxic at low concentrations
54 Trace metals: mercury (pre-2003) High Intensity Discharge (HID) mercury vapour lightsSwitches (trunk and hood lights, ABS systems, antitheft systems, some airbag systems.Left: Mercury switch. Each switch contains about1.2 g of metallic mercury.Centre: Ball bearing switch (no mercury)Right: US dime, for size comparison
55 Trace metals: mercury = 1901 kg Metallic lead = 1112 kg Metallic lead = minimum3010 kgmetallic lead(assuming 1switch pervehicle!)
57 References for this section: Beard J, ed The environmental impact of the car: a Greenpeace report. Greenpeace, Seattle, Wa. PpHolmes, Henry Building Healthy Communities for Children: The Transportation Link. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 103, Supplement 6, September 1995.Menke, Dean M Toxic by design: the Automobile Industry's Continued Use of Mercury. The Pollution Prevention Alliance / Environmental Defense, New York.
59 Direct and Societal Costs Accidents – The UN has estimated that road crash injuries cost between one and two percent of a nation’s gross national product annually. Insurance only covers about one-third the cost of accidents with the societal costs in lives, property and productivity borne by all.Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002UN World Health Organization and World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention, April 2004
60 Traffic DeathsLaube, Felix Optimizing Urban Passenger Transport, Ph.D. Dissertation, Sustainable TransportResearch Group, Murdoch University (Perth; Cited in Litman, 2002
61 Accident rates have declined significantly per vehicle mile, but not much per capita: 14 Facts and Figures ‘95, Motor Vehicle Manufactures Association (Detroit), 1995.
62 Societal Costs we all Pay Construction, Improvements and Repair of Roadways – In the USA in 2000, the total cost was $64.6 billion with about 64% of that covered by fuel taxes and user fees. The remaining $23 billion is paid by taxpayers through state and local sources (36% subsidy)U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Highway Statistics 2000
63 Societal Costs we all Pay Maintenance and Operation of Roadways –In the USA in 2000, about 64% of the $30.9 billion cost in 2000 came from fuel taxes and user fees but the remaining $11 billion is financed by taxpayers (36% subsidy)U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Highway Statistics 2000
64 Societal Costs we all Pay Commercial and Employer Parking – ‘Free’ parking is a major hidden cost which encourages driving.Other parking subsidies increase driving by 20 to 40%, even where direct subsidies are not provided.Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002Shoup, Donald, "Cashing Out Employer-Paid Parking" in Curbing Gridlock, 1994
65 Parking costs typically constitute a greater portion of poor household expenditures than for wealthier households, indicating that they are regressive.Litman, Todd The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at (current to 22 Jan 2005).
66 Social CostsTransportation Diversity and Equity – Those who don’t or can’t drive cars are at a distinct disadvantage in our car culture. Non-drivers have fewer options when it comes to jobs, housing, education, social services and activities.Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002
67 USA – 1997 dataLitman, Todd The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at (current to 22 Jan 2005).
68 Social CostsBarrier Effects on Pedestrians and Cyclists – Roads may be transportation links for some, but they can also impact the mobility and safety of pedestrians and bicyclists. These barriers tend to affect mostly disadvantaged populations including children, students, the elderly and those with disabilities.Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002
69 Social CostsLand Use Impact Costs – Automobile dependency drives urban sprawl and the loss of farm and recreational lands. Land use decisions based on automobile needs further disadvantage pedestrians and bicyclists and increase costs for schools and municipal and emergency services.Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002
70 Litman, Todd The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at (current to 22 Jan 2005).
71 Costs of sprawl60 James Frank, The Costs of Alternative Development Patterns, Urban Land Institute, 1989, from p. 40.
72 Social CostsRoadway Land Value – Roads are under-priced compared to other land uses. Roadway lands don’t pay rent or generate property taxes. They don’t provide the same degree of secondary value as other public lands like parks, wetlands, open spaces or wildlife habitat.Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002
73 Social CostsCongestion – Congestion results in increased travel times, air pollution, vehicle operating costs and stress. It contributes to lost productivity and insurance rate increases.Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002
74 Litman, Todd The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at (current to 22 Jan 2005).
75 Litman, Todd The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at (current to 22 Jan 2005).
76 - USALitman, Todd The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at (current to 22 Jan 2005).
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