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Environmental, Economic, and Social Costs of the Car TREN 3P18: Sustainable Transportation.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental, Economic, and Social Costs of the Car TREN 3P18: Sustainable Transportation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental, Economic, and Social Costs of the Car TREN 3P18: Sustainable Transportation

2 shakespeare.bookshop.free.fr/ GB/home_page.htm The World Car Crisis Wolfgang Zuckermann (1922- )

3 The World Car Crisis Wolfgang Zuckermann (1991) described the aggregate global impacts and influences of the automobile as the world car crisis

4 people.hofstra.edu/.../ conc3en/carprodfleet.html Problems and consequences 500 million vehicles were on the road in 1991 More than 550 million were on the road by 2002 (1) (1) More than 1 billion cars were on the road by 2013 (2), (3) (2)(3) Graph source: Worldwatch Institute

5 Problems and consequences Mounting traffic congestion Air, noise, and aesthetic pollution Near-total dependence on fossil fuels (often dirty and imported) Highly wasteful usage of materials and energy More than 250,000 traffic deaths each year

6 Problems and consequences Negative impacts on cities and land use Approximately sixty million new vehicles are added each year (165,000 per day) (1) (1) Approaching the limits of the carrying capacity of the planet Climate modification with serious consequences

7 Increasing auto dependency Even with cleaner fuel, were driving more in low miles-per-gallon vehicles. Air pollution damages human health, crops, structures, and our climate. Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002

8 Percent of Trips by Travel Mode (all trip purposes) – compiled 1998 Countrybicyclewalkingpublic transitcarother Netherlands Denmark Germany Switzerland Sweden Austria England/ Wales France Italy Canada United States Source: John Pucher, Transportation Quarterly, 98-1 (from various transport ministries and depts., latest avail. year) (table from statistics.htm)www.ibike.org/library/ statistics.htm

9 Increasing auto dependency: Urban density factors There is a strong link between urban population density and petroleum consumption USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand have the lowest urban densities and highest per capita petroleum consumption - (Newman and Kenworthy 1989)

10 Increasing auto dependency: China China led the way in vehicle growth, with the number of cars on Chinese roads increasing by 27.5 per cent between (half the entire global growth) China now has the world's second largest car population, with 78 million vehicles United States still constitutes by far the largest vehicle population in the world, with million cars

11 Increasing auto dependency: European cities Larger European cities are becoming more car dependent due to sprawl Since 1975, the average distance between home and the workplace has more than doubled journeys by private car continue to increase In Europe, the car is used more often for leisure activities or for shopping

12 Increasing auto dependency: European cities European car use is approaching that of the USA: by 2002, 82% of urban journeys in European cities were undertaken by car (12% transit, 6% bicycle)

13 Increasing auto dependency: European cities However, modal split (walking / cycling / public transit / private car) is quite variable – Spanish cities are most walkable Danish and Dutch cities are most cyclable Slovakia, Switzerland, Estonia use public transit the most Italy and Spain have highest car use (Modal split for European cities of over 250,000 population, 2004 data – )Modal split for European cities of over 250,000 population, 2004 data

14 Costs and impacts of the car …include the following (nonexclusive) categories: Internal economic costs (borne by car users) External economic costs (borne by society) Environmental costs (borne by the environment) Social costs (borne by all of society)

15 Internal economic costs (borne by users) Fixed costs Operating costs Personal costs Financial benefits? Download worksheet from course home page

16 Direct Costs paid by motorist Fixed costs – insurance, licensing, registration and taxes Finance charges – interest on borrowed money for vehicle purchase Depreciation – The difference between what you paid for a car and what you can sell it for Fuel and Oil Expenses Maintenance and Tires Parking

17 Direct Costs paid by motorist Annual costs of ownership of most vehicles in US and Canada can be compared online at Vincentric website: Brand Analysis by Segment - Ownership Costs

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19 284, , ,454 Baht– exch.05 Feb 13

20 Direct and Societal Costs Travel time cost to drivers of unpaid time cost to employers for work time spent in travel costs of opportunities lost to travel time Measured door-to-door (including time spent parking and walking to and from vehicle.) Variable rate depending on congestion and travel distances Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002

21 External economic costs (borne by society) Infrastructure development and maintenance costs Government subsidies to auto industry, petroleum industry, etc. All other non-environmental external costs

22 Environmental costs

23 Environmental impacts of cars Impacts to… Atmosphere (air) Hydrosphere (water) Lithosphere (soil) Biosphere (biota) … affecting ecosystem process and function

24 Waste Disposal Costs Disposal of tires, batteries, junked cars, oil and other hazardous and semi- hazardous materials are environmental costs paid by all. Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002

25 Resource Consumption Costs Cars use many nonrenewable natural resources – petroleum, metals and synthetic rubber. Passenger vehicles account for 40% of petroleum products consumed in the U.S. each year. Environmental and national defense costs associated with extraction, processing, transport, recycling and depletion of non-renewable resources are not covered by the purchase prices of gas and automobiles. Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002 U.S. Department of Energy, "Conserve Resources for the Future Generations," [online] 2002 Alliance to Save Energy, Increasing America's Fuel Economy, February 2002

26 Road Noise Noise negatively affects human health and wildlife and it causes declines in property values. Noise mitigation measures are not always successful and come at a high price. Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002

27 Atmosphere Large scale atmospheric diffusion of pollutants Local concentration of pollutants (e.g. urban smog) Photochemical reactions e.g., ultraviolet light inducing reactions with ozone, SO 2, NO 2 Climate change (global warming) Acidic precipitation Synergistic / cumulative effects (e.g. smog and greenhouse gases)

28 Hydrosphere Water Pollution Impacts include: crankcase oil and fluid drips roadside herbicides leaking underground storage tanks oil tanker spills contribute to water pollution, degradation of surface, ground and drinking water and destruction of wildlife habitat. Hydrologic Impacts include: increased impervious surfaces shoreline modifications reduced groundwater recharge Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002

29 Hydrosphere Diffusion of pollutants in a dissolved or colloidal state. Acidification of groundwater and underground water; loss of buffering capacity Decline of pH following snow melt (aquatic organisms are particularly vulnerable) Increased solubility and toxicity of heavy metals due to acidification Additions of organic compounds, aluminum, lead, manganese, calcium, magnesium and potassium to water bodies through runoff Contamination of ground and underground water by nitrates Modification of hydrological systems by the construction and maintenance of automotive infrastructure

30 Lithosphere Liberation of toxic metallic ions from soil (aluminum, cadmium, etc.) through acidification Loss of soil nutrients, notably calcium and magnesium Inhibition of nitrification Inhibition of microbial decomposition through pH changes and toxic effects Loss of soil flora and fauna Fixation by plants of heavy metals (e.g. lead) and contamination Consumption of land Impacts of raw material extractions (metals, aggregates, fossil fuels)

31 Automobile production… is among the world's most resource-intensive and polluting industries is expanding globally consumes the majority of the rubber, iron and lead in the United States is also a top user of steel, zinc and copper is responsible for a significant proportion of the massive pollution from primary resource industries Clean Production Action. what/vehicles.htm what/vehicles.htm

32 Image credit: caa/caaenfstatreq.html caa/caaenfstatreq.html Specific toxicants attributable to automobile use Environmental impacts of cars:

33 Fuel and additives

34 Lead gasoline additive banned in the 1970s still sold for use in older vehicles in some jurisdictions (e.g. sales reinstated in UK, despite initial ban in 2000) extremely toxic; can affect almost any organ in the body low level chronic exposure to lead affects the nervous system (learning disorders) and the blood (anemia)

35 Lead even low levels of lead can impair the mental abilities of children soil in parts of West Oakland, CA is so highly contaminated with lead from highways and leaking underground petroleum storage tanks, that it qualifies as a Superfund Hazardous waste site

36 Benzene Fuel additive (up to 5% in some areas) which improves the performance of unleaded gasoline limited in Canada (since 1999) to < 1% by volume CEPA Benzene in Gasoline Regulations (SOR/97-493) CEPA Benzene in Gasoline Regulations (SOR/97-493) Sources in air: emissions from motor vehicles; evaporation losses during handling, distribution, and storage of gasoline

37 Benzene levels are higher in urban areas (highest near filling stations, gasoline storage tanks and benzene producing and handling industries) proven carcinogen; no known safe threshold level

38 MMT (Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl) used for many years in Canada as an additive to boost octane and to prevent valve problems in old cars designed for leaded fuel a suspected neurotoxin and respiratory toxin (manganese may cause memory impairment, tremors, and psychosis similar to Parkinson's Disease)

39 MMT (Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl) banned in California and most of the US eastern seaboard 85% of U.S. gasoline is MMT free virtually every European country has also banned the additive Government of Canada banned trade and transportation of MMT in 1996 due to health concerns

40 MMT (Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl) Ethyl Corporation (now Afton Chemical) used Chapter 11 of the NAFTA to sue Canada for 350 million dollars - the amount Ethyl says the ban cost them in lost profits and damage to their reputation (Chapter 11 allows corporations to sue a government for compensation if that government passes a law that harms a corporation's profits or reputation)

41 In an out of court settlement, the Govt. of Canada: paid US $13 million in damages to Ethyl agreed as a part of the settlement to allow MMT back into the Canadian market issued a statement through Health Canada (now buried, and available through special request only) saying that the additive poses no health threatnow buried, and available through special request only Contrast health concerns with industry position (Afton Chemical, manufacturer of MMT)industry position

42 Combustion Byproducts

43 Carbon monoxide (CO) colorless and odorless gas affects human health by impairing the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood Fatal at high concentrations Lower levels of CO can result in impaired perception, slowed reflexes, drowsiness, headaches and effects on the central nervous system, the heart, and blood circulation around the body

44 Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) one of the major greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change One-third of CO 2 emissions in the U.S. are transportation-related Cars, SUVs and light trucks in the U.S. account for more than 300 million tons of CO 2 emitted into the atmosphere each year Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002 Environmental Defense, "Carbon Emissions Fact Sheet: Clearing the Air on Climate Change," [online] July 2002

45 Oxides of nitrogen include nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) derived from automobile emissions irritate the respiratory tract, reduce lung function, and increase susceptibility to asthma and viral infections play a major role in the formation of acid rain and ground-level ozone

46 Hydrocarbons / VOCs unburned or partly burned fuel from exhaust some are carcinogenic; others cause drowsiness, eye and respiratory tract irritation, and coughing react with nitrogen oxides to form tropospheric ozone, a principal component of photochemical smog

47 Photochemical smog causes eye irritation, headaches, coughing, impaired lung function, and eye, nose and throat irritation. asthmatics and children are most at risk adverse health effects increase during heavy exercise or outdoor activity

48 Particulates fine particles such as soot that result from the incomplete combustion of fuel higher output from diesel engines can aggravate respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and asthma carcinogenic

49 Aldehydes a group of chemicals emitted from car exhaust as a result of incomplete fuel combustion pungent odor; responsible for much of the smell associated with traffic, particularly diesel vehicles

50 Aldehydes cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat; sneezing, coughing, nausea, and breathing difficulties. Children, the elderly, and asthmatics most sensitive Some (e.g., formaldehyde) are carcinogenic

51 Other Auto-related Toxics

52 Trace metals include arsenic, beryllium, mercury and cadmium, as well as lead trace quantities emitted in exhaust present in used oil, lubricants and other fluids which are drained or leak from old and scrapped vehicles can be highly toxic at low concentrations

53 Trace metals: mercury (pre-2003)

54 High Intensity Discharge (HID) mercury vapour lights Switches (trunk and hood lights, ABS systems, antitheft systems, some airbag systems. Left: Mercury switch. Each switch contains about 1.2 g of metallic mercury. Centre: Ball bearing switch (no mercury) Right: US dime, for size comparison

55 Trace metals: mercury = 1901 kg Metallic lead = 1112 kg Metallic lead = minimum 3010 kg metallic lead (assuming 1 switch per vehicle!)

56 Trace metals: mercury

57 References for this section: Beard J, ed The environmental impact of the car: a Greenpeace report. Greenpeace, Seattle, Wa. Pp Holmes, Henry Building Healthy Communities for Children: The Transportation Link. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 103, Supplement 6, September Menke, Dean M Toxic by design: the Automobile Industry's Continued Use of Mercury. The Pollution Prevention Alliance / Environmental Defense, New York.

58 Social Costs of Automobile Dependency

59 Direct and Societal Costs Accidents – The UN has estimated that road crash injuries cost between one and two percent of a nations gross national product annually. Insurance only covers about one- third the cost of accidents with the societal costs in lives, property and productivity borne by all. Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002 UN World Health Organization and World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention, April 2004

60 Traffic Deaths Laube, Felix Optimizing Urban Passenger Transport, Ph.D. Dissertation, Sustainable Transport Research Group, Murdoch University (Perth; Cited in Litman, 2002

61 Accident rates have declined significantly per vehicle mile, but not much per capita: 14 Facts and Figures 95, Motor Vehicle Manufactures Association (Detroit), 1995.

62 Societal Costs we all Pay Construction, Improvements and Repair of Roadways – In the USA in 2000, the total cost was $64.6 billion with about 64% of that covered by fuel taxes and user fees. The remaining $23 billion is paid by taxpayers through state and local sources (36% subsidy) U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Highway Statistics 2000

63 Societal Costs we all Pay Maintenance and Operation of Roadways –In the USA in 2000, about 64% of the $30.9 billion cost in 2000 came from fuel taxes and user fees but the remaining $11 billion is financed by taxpayers (36% subsidy) U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Highway Statistics 2000

64 Societal Costs we all Pay Commercial and Employer Parking – Free parking is a major hidden cost which encourages driving. Other parking subsidies increase driving by 20 to 40%, even where direct subsidies are not provided. Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002 Shoup, Donald, "Cashing Out Employer-Paid Parking" in Curbing Gridlock, 1994

65 Litman, Todd The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at (current to 22 Jan 2005).www.vtpi.org/ecodev.pdf Parking costs typically constitute a greater portion of poor household expenditures than for wealthier households, indicating that they are regressive.

66 Social Costs Transportation Diversity and Equity – Those who dont or cant drive cars are at a distinct disadvantage in our car culture. Non- drivers have fewer options when it comes to jobs, housing, education, social services and activities. Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002

67 USA – 1997 data Litman, Todd The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at (current to 22 Jan 2005).www.vtpi.org/ecodev.pdf

68 Social Costs Barrier Effects on Pedestrians and Cyclists – Roads may be transportation links for some, but they can also impact the mobility and safety of pedestrians and bicyclists. These barriers tend to affect mostly disadvantaged populations including children, students, the elderly and those with disabilities. Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002

69 Social Costs Land Use Impact Costs – Automobile dependency drives urban sprawl and the loss of farm and recreational lands. Land use decisions based on automobile needs further disadvantage pedestrians and bicyclists and increase costs for schools and municipal and emergency services. Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002

70 Litman, Todd The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at (current to 22 Jan 2005).www.vtpi.org/ecodev.pdf

71 Costs of sprawl 60 James Frank, The Costs of Alternative Development Patterns, Urban Land Institute, 1989, from p. 40.

72 Social Costs Roadway Land Value – Roads are under- priced compared to other land uses. Roadway lands dont pay rent or generate property taxes. They dont provide the same degree of secondary value as other public lands like parks, wetlands, open spaces or wildlife habitat. Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002

73 Social Costs Congestion – Congestion results in increased travel times, air pollution, vehicle operating costs and stress. It contributes to lost productivity and insurance rate increases. Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute, June 2002

74 Litman, Todd The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at (current to 22 Jan 2005).www.vtpi.org/ecodev.pdf

75 Litman, Todd The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at (current to 22 Jan 2005).www.vtpi.org/ecodev.pdf

76 - USA Litman, Todd The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at (current to 22 Jan 2005).www.vtpi.org/ecodev.pdf

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79 82 Patricia Hu, Jennifer Young, 1990 NPTS Databook, Vol.1, FHWA (Washington DC), Nov

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81 Litman, Todd The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at (current to 22 Jan 2005).www.vtpi.org/ecodev.pdf


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