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Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction? Aron Geelan Adam Kirkpatrick.

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Presentation on theme: "Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction? Aron Geelan Adam Kirkpatrick."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction? Aron Geelan Adam Kirkpatrick

2 Introduction Definitions Definitions Electric vs. Internal Combustion Electric vs. Internal Combustion Timeline for Hybrid technology development Timeline for Hybrid technology development The Batteries The Batteries Study: Insight vs. Prius Study: Insight vs. Prius The Future The Future

3 Definitions Combustion vs. Electric (http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car1.htm) Combustion vs. Electric (http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car1.htm) Combustion vs. Electrichttp://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car1.htm Combustion vs. Electrichttp://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car1.htm Parallel vs. Series Hybrid (http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car2.htm) Parallel vs. Series Hybrid (http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car2.htm) Parallel vs. Series Hybridhttp://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car2.htm Parallel vs. Series Hybridhttp://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car2.htm Honda Insight Honda Insight Toyota Prius Toyota Prius Full Hybrid Full Hybrid Mild Hybrid Mild Hybrid Stop/Start Hybrid Stop/Start Hybrid Integrated Starter Alternator with Damping (ISAD) Integrated Starter Alternator with Damping (ISAD) Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) Plug-in Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid

4 Electric Motor Lots of torque Lots of torque Zero emissions Zero emissions Tax breaks Tax breaks No transmission needed No transmission needed Starts more efficiently Starts more efficiently Can turn off motor when you stop Can turn off motor when you stop

5 Gasoline Higher energy density than batteries Higher energy density than batteries 1,000 pounds of batteries = 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gas 1,000 pounds of batteries = 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gas Cheaper initial cost for car Cheaper initial cost for car Hybrids are $ more Hybrids are $ more Reliable, more history Reliable, more history

6 Cost Per Mile Electric vs. Gas

7 Timeline 1839: First electric vehicle 1839: First electric vehicle 1886: Electric powered taxicab in England 1886: Electric powered taxicab in England : Significant improvements in battery technology (lead-acid, nickel-iron) : Significant improvements in battery technology (lead-acid, nickel-iron) 1898: Ferdinand Porsche built a hybrid 1898: Ferdinand Porsche built a hybrid

8 Timeline 1900: Pieper introduced hybrid 1900: Pieper introduced hybrid 1905: Gas-Electric car 1905: Gas-Electric car 1970s: Arab oil embargo; hybrid VW Taxi 1970s: Arab oil embargo; hybrid VW Taxi 1979: hybrid car built with lawnmower engine 1979: hybrid car built with lawnmower engine 1991: US Advanced Battery Consortium launched major program to produce super battery 1991: US Advanced Battery Consortium launched major program to produce super battery

9 Timeline 1997: Toyota Prius available in Japan 1997: Toyota Prius available in Japan 1999: Honda Insight released in US (70 mpg) 1999: Honda Insight released in US (70 mpg) 2000: Toyota Prius available in US 2000: Toyota Prius available in US 2002: Honda Civic Hybrid introduced 2002: Honda Civic Hybrid introduced 2004: Toyota Prius II introduced; Ford Escape Hybrid introduced 2004: Toyota Prius II introduced; Ford Escape Hybrid introduced

10 The Batteries Behind It All Early Prius and Insight NiMH D Cells Early Prius and Insight NiMH D Cells Stick Arrangement Stick Arrangement (http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_maru.html) (http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_maru.html)http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_maru.html

11 Prismatic Ni-MH 15% pack volume reduction 15% pack volume reduction 25% pack weight reduction 25% pack weight reduction Less battery module per pack number Less battery module per pack number

12 Metal Case Prismatic Ni-MH Improvement 14% less volume 14% less volume 40% higher cooling 40% higher cooling (http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_kinnzoku.html)

13 ECU Electronic Control Unit Electronic Control Unit Regulates temperature and state of charge Regulates temperature and state of charge Ensures safe and reliable driving Ensures safe and reliable driving

14 Study: Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of Prius and Insight Honda Insight vs. Toyota Prius Honda Insight vs. Toyota Prius

15 Charge, Discharge and SOC

16 Battery Energy and Battery Temperatures

17 Hybrid Cars Today Table 1. Light-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles OEM Model Body StylePower Type Fuel Date Introduced/Announced Production Date Currently in Production DaimlerChrysler Ram Pickup Contractor Special Truck Mild Hybrid Diesel Nov (Limited) Ford Escape SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan General Motors Silverado/Sierra Truck Mild Hybrid Gasoline Jan (Limited) Honda Accord Sedan IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Jan Honda Insight Coupe IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Dec Honda Civic Sedan IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Jan Lexus RX400h SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan Toyota Prius Sedan Parallel Hybrid Gasoline Jun Toyota Highlander SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan Suzuki Twin Mini Hybrid Gasoline Nov (Japan) Toyota Estima Minivan Parallel Hybrid Gasoline Jun-01 In Japan Only Toyota Crown Sedan Mild Hybrid Gasoline Aug-01 In Japan Only Toyota Alphard Minivan Hybrid Gasoline Jul-03 In Japan Only Planned for Production Ford Fusion Sedan Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr General Motors Silverado/Sierra & Tahoe/Yukon Truck & SUVStrong Hybrid Gasoline Nov General Motors Equinox SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan General Motors Malibu Sedan BAS2 Hybrid Gasoline Jan General Motors Graphyte SUV Full Hybrid Gasoline Jan Hyundai Click Sedan Hybrid Gasoline Nov /06 (Korea) Mercury Mariner SUV Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr (limited) 2006 (full) Nissan Altima Sedan Hybrid Gasoline Jun Saturn Vue SUV BAS2 Hybrid Gasoline Jan Toyota Camry Sedan Unknown Gasoline Unknown Unknown Toyota Sienna Minivan Hybrid Gasoline Recent Concepts - Production Plans Unknown Honda ASM Minivan IMA1 hybrid Gasoline Oct-03 Unknown Ford Focus C-MAX Sedan Hydrogen ICE Hydrogen Jul-04 Unknown Daewoo S3X SUV Unknown Unknown Oct-04 Unknown Opal Astra Sedan Unknown Diesel Jan-04 Unknown Mercury Meta One Unknown Hybrid Diesel Jan-04 Unknown Mercury Milan Unknown Unknown Unknown Jan-04 Unknown 1 Integrated motor assist. 2 Belt alternator starter. (Source: Collected by Robb Barnitt and Leslie Eudy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, from various sources) Table from

18 Future of Hybrid Hybrid buses Hybrid buses ~1,000 in use ~1,000 in use Seattle Seattle California California Tax Break Increase Tax Break Increase

19 Future of Hybrid Cars Toyota Volta 3.3 liter V6 gas engine Toyota Hybrid Sports Car 408 horsepower 30 miles per gallon

20 Summary Definitions Definitions Electric vs. Internal Combustion Electric vs. Internal Combustion Timeline for Hybrid technology development Timeline for Hybrid technology development The Batteries The Batteries Study: Insight vs. Prius Study: Insight vs. Prius The Future The Future


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