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Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction?

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Presentation on theme: "Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hybrid Cars: How have they improved since introduction?
Aron Geelan Adam Kirkpatrick

2 Introduction Definitions Electric vs. Internal Combustion
Timeline for Hybrid technology development The Batteries Study: Insight vs. Prius The Future

3 Definitions Combustion vs. Electric (http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car1.htm) Parallel vs. Series Hybrid (http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car2.htm) Honda Insight Toyota Prius Full Hybrid Mild Hybrid Stop/Start Hybrid Integrated Starter Alternator with Damping (ISAD) Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) Plug-in Hybrid

4 Electric Motor Lots of torque Zero emissions Tax breaks
No transmission needed Starts more efficiently Can turn off motor when you stop

5 Gasoline Higher energy density than batteries
1,000 pounds of batteries = 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gas Cheaper initial cost for car Hybrids are $ more Reliable, more history

6 Cost Per Mile Electric vs. Gas

7 Timeline 1839: First electric vehicle
1886: Electric powered taxicab in England : Significant improvements in battery technology (lead-acid, nickel-iron) 1898: Ferdinand Porsche built a hybrid

8 Timeline 1900: Pieper introduced hybrid 1905: Gas-Electric car
1970’s: Arab oil embargo; hybrid VW Taxi 1979: hybrid car built with lawnmower engine 1991: US Advanced Battery Consortium launched major program to produce “super” battery

9 Timeline 1997: Toyota Prius available in Japan
1999: Honda Insight released in US (70 mpg) 2000: Toyota Prius available in US 2002: Honda Civic Hybrid introduced 2004: Toyota Prius II introduced; Ford Escape Hybrid introduced

10 The Batteries Behind It All
Early Prius and Insight NiMH D Cells Stick Arrangement (http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_maru.html)

11 Prismatic Ni-MH 15% pack volume reduction 25% pack weight reduction
Less battery module per pack number

12 Metal Case Prismatic Ni-MH
Improvement 14% less volume 40% higher cooling (http://www.peve.panasonic.co.jp/catalog/e_kinnzoku.html)

13 ECU Electronic Control Unit Regulates temperature and state of charge
Ensures safe and reliable driving

14 Study: Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of Prius and Insight
Honda Insight vs. Toyota Prius

15 Charge, Discharge and SOC

16 Battery Energy and Battery Temperatures

17 Table 1. Light-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Hybrid Cars Today Table 1. Light-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles OEM Model Body Style Power Type Fuel Date Introduced/Announced Production Date Currently in Production DaimlerChrysler Ram Pickup Contractor Special Truck Mild Hybrid Diesel Nov (Limited) Ford Escape SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan General Motors Silverado/Sierra Truck Mild Hybrid Gasoline Jan (Limited) Honda Accord Sedan IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Jan Honda Insight Coupe IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Dec Honda Civic Sedan IMA1 Hybrid Gasoline Jan Lexus RX400h SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan Toyota Prius Sedan Parallel Hybrid Gasoline Jun Toyota Highlander SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan Suzuki Twin Mini Hybrid Gasoline Nov (Japan) Toyota Estima Minivan Parallel Hybrid Gasoline Jun-01 In Japan Only Toyota Crown Sedan Mild Hybrid Gasoline Aug-01 In Japan Only Toyota Alphard Minivan Hybrid Gasoline Jul-03 In Japan Only Planned for Production Ford Fusion Sedan Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr General Motors Silverado/Sierra & Tahoe/Yukon Truck & SUV Strong Hybrid Gasoline Nov General Motors Equinox SUV Hybrid Gasoline Jan General Motors Malibu Sedan BAS2 Hybrid Gasoline Jan General Motors Graphyte SUV Full Hybrid Gasoline Jan Hyundai Click Sedan Hybrid Gasoline Nov /06 (Korea) Mercury Mariner SUV Full Hybrid Gasoline Apr (limited) 2006 (full) Nissan Altima Sedan Hybrid Gasoline Jun Saturn Vue SUV BAS2 Hybrid Gasoline Jan Toyota Camry Sedan Unknown Gasoline Unknown Unknown Toyota Sienna Minivan Hybrid Gasoline Recent Concepts - Production Plans Unknown Honda ASM Minivan IMA1 hybrid Gasoline Oct-03 Unknown Ford Focus C-MAX Sedan Hydrogen ICE Hydrogen Jul-04 Unknown Daewoo S3X SUV Unknown Unknown Oct-04 Unknown Opal Astra Sedan Unknown Diesel Jan-04 Unknown Mercury Meta One Unknown Hybrid Diesel Jan-04 Unknown Mercury Milan Unknown Unknown Unknown Jan-04 Unknown 1 Integrated motor assist. 2 Belt alternator starter. (Source: Collected by Robb Barnitt and Leslie Eudy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, from various sources) Table from

18 Future of Hybrid Hybrid buses Tax Break Increase ~1,000 in use Seattle
California Tax Break Increase

19 Toyota Hybrid Sports Car
Future of Hybrid Cars Toyota Volta 3.3 liter V6 gas engine 408 horsepower 30 miles per gallon Toyota Hybrid Sports Car

20 Summary Definitions Electric vs. Internal Combustion
Timeline for Hybrid technology development The Batteries Study: Insight vs. Prius The Future


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