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Readiness in Formation Control of Multi-Robot System Zhihao Xu (Univ. of Würzburg) Hiroaki Kawashima (Kyoto Univ.) Klaus Schilling (Univ. of Würzburg)

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Motivation Which initial headings give the best response to the arbitrary movement of the target object? Scenario: Vehicles maintain an equally distributed formation on a circle with a moving object always at its centroid. Target object (assume that movement is unpredictable) Desired distances What motion of the vehicles is the best to track the target object in formation? How much the formation is ready for any perturbation? Spiral motion?

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Outline Formation control – Distance-based formation control – Unicycle model for individual agents Readiness – Definition from a general viewpoint – Readiness optimization Case study – Formation control with unicycle models – Optimal readiness Conclusion

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Outline Formation control – Distance-based formation control – Unicycle model for individual agents Readiness – Definition from a general viewpoint – Readiness optimization Case study – Formation control with unicycle models – Optimal readiness Conclusion

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Distance-Based Formation Control Interaction rule for follower agent i : 5 Underlying graph : desired distance between i and j

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Leader-Follower Formation Control Assume one agent (leader) can be arbitrarily controlled Remaining agents (followers) obey the original interaction rule 6 Single integrator

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Unicycle Model Model Off-center point control We want to realize

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Dynamics of Unicycle Formation Control Dynamics (stacked vector form) 8

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Outline Formation control – Distance-based formation control – Unicycle model for individual agents Readiness – Definition from a general viewpoint – Readiness optimization Case study – Formation control with unicycle models – Optimal readiness Conclusion

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Properties for Leader-Follower Formation Control Point-to-point (formation control) property – Controllability [Rahmani,Mesbahi&Egerstedt SIAM09] Instantaneous/short-term response of formation – Manipulability [Kawashima&Egerstedt CDC11] – Responsiveness [Kawashima,Egerstedt,Zhu&Hu CDC12] How to characterize the headings of nonholonomic (e.g. unicycles) agents in terms of shot-term response? Dependent on the single-integrator model of mobile agents. Characterized by network topologies Characterized by network topologies and agent positions Readiness of multi-robot formation

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Response to the leaders perturbation Dynamics (stacked vector form) 11 Initial condition Initial headings of the followers

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Readiness from general viewpoint Readiness is an index to describe how well the initial condition is prepared for a variety of possible disturbances (inputs) Given the dynamics of the agents: (Ex.) Unicycle formation case,

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Readiness Optimization Optimal initial condition Optimality Conditions (derived by the calculus of variations) with the costate Costate equation Optimization via gradient descent:

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Outline Formation control – Distance-based formation control – Unicycle model for individual agents Readiness – Definition from a general viewpoint – Readiness optimization Case study – Formation control with unicycle models – Optimal readiness Conclusion

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Perturbation (input) on leader, Optimization of followers headings Case Study: Unicycle formation Terminal cost

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Comparison of cost J with other headings Optimal Random

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Uniform Headings Low Readiness Optimal Initial Headings High Readiness

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Conclusion Readiness notion to characterize the initial condition of nonholonomic multi-agent systems Optimality condition (first-order necessary condition) Future Work Utilize the readiness to optimize both headings and positions Investigate optimization algorithm which can find global minima Acknowledgement: Dr. Egerstedt (Georgia Inst. of Tech.) for his valuable suggestions on the work.

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