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A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 The VULCAN INITIATIVE: A Web-based Platform for the Next Generation of Performance-Based Fire Protection.

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Presentation on theme: "A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 The VULCAN INITIATIVE: A Web-based Platform for the Next Generation of Performance-Based Fire Protection."— Presentation transcript:

1 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 The VULCAN INITIATIVE: A Web-based Platform for the Next Generation of Performance-Based Fire Protection Engineering (W56) Alberto ALVAREZ, Ph. D. Matthew A. FERRIERA Prof. Brian J. MEACHAM – WPI (Advisor) The VULCAN INITIATIVE This work is supported by NIST Grant 60NANB10D228

2 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Presentation layout 1 st part: background and context Why? Need to change What? next generation of PBD 2 nd part: the Vulcan Initiative How? Who? The importance of participants

3 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Challenges related to the use of current PBFPD processes (1) Generic guidelines Challenges related to the application of generic guidelines how to integrate the specifics of a project into consideration in the definition of the problem to solve in the analysis in the integration of the fire protection measures into the global project ("idealized" design features and "real life" installed and running features) How to get the results of the application of the process accepted by the stakeholders? How to get the results of the application of the process continuously understood by the stakeholders (and building users)?

4 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Challenges related to the technical aspect of the current PBFPD processes Estimation of the consequences of fire design scenarios Determination of influential factors affecting the evaluation of trial designs Selection and adaptation of literature values, when available, to use in models Comparison of levels of performance between an engineering solution and the one based on prescriptive requirements How to apply the technical steps of the process to a specific project? Challenges related to the use of current PBFPD processes (2) Technical aspect

5 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Challenges related to the political aspect of the current PBFPD processes Definition, use and quantification of the performance/acceptance criteria Selection of fire design scenarios Dealing with a priori lists of performance criteria and design fire scenarios How to separate the technical actions from the political decisions? Challenges related to the use of current PBFPD processes (3) Political aspect Technical level of challengesPolitical level of challenges Engineering process itselfDecision making process Manuscript to be published in the Journal of Fire Protection Engineering 20 Years of Performance-Based Fire Protection Design: Challenges Faced and a Look Ahead

6 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Need for a paradigm shift Paradigm associated with the current PBFPD processes Fire Protection measures would perform as designed to mitigate the effects of design fire scenarios in comparison with performance criteria Paradigm associated with the new PBFPD process The building-occupant system has to integrate Fire Protection measures which would mitigate the effects (amplitude and duration) of fire events on its overall performance Challenges

7 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Fire as one of many disruptive events of the building-occupant system Time Performance of the Philips Plant: daily number of chips produced The 10 minute fire is extinguished by sprinklers and staff intervention Chips on the furnace where the fire started are lost According to the current application of the PBFPD processes, the designed system was operative and successful… Nevertheless….

8 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Fire as one of many disruptive events of the building-occupant system The 10 minute fire is extinguished by sprinklers and staff intervention Chips on the furnace where the fire started are lost Chips on all the plant are lost and the whole plant production is stopped Smoke spread and tramping of staff and fire fighters from the fire scene (in the mix of dirt and water) contaminate chips at every stage of the production Full impact of the fire event Time Performance of the Philips Plant: daily number of chips produced

9 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Fire as one of many disruptive events of the building-occupant system The 10 minute fire is extinguished by sprinklers and staff intervention Chips on the furnace where the fire started are lost Several weeks to restore the clean rooms Full impact of the fire event Time Performance of the Philips Plant: daily number of chips produced Chips on all the plant are lost and the whole plant production is stopped Smoke spread and tramping of staff and fire fighters from the fire scene (in the mix of dirt and water) contaminate chips at every stage of the production

10 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Fire as one of many disruptive events of the building-occupant system The 10 minute fire is extinguished by sprinklers and staff intervention Chips on the furnace where the fire started are lost Several weeks to restore the clean rooms Full impact of the fire event Restarting production Time Performance of the Philips Plant: daily number of chips produced Chips on all the plant are lost and the whole plant production is stopped Smoke spread and tramping of staff and fire fighters from the fire scene (in the mix of dirt and water) contaminate chips at every stage of the production

11 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Fire as one of many disruptive events of the building-occupant system The 10 minute fire is extinguished by sprinklers and staff intervention Chips on the furnace where the fire started are lost Several weeks to restore the clean rooms Full impact of the fire event Preparation for recovery Recovery Long term impact Fire disruptive event Restarting production Pre- event "chronic" state Post- event "chronic" state Time Performance of the Philips Plant Chips on all the plant are lost and the whole plant production is stopped Smoke spread and tramping of staff and fire fighters from the fire scene (in the mix of dirt and water) contaminate chips at every stage of the production Design fire scenario

12 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Chronic objectives vs. Acute objectives People focused on what they are doing, no attention to the surroundings Loss of time perception chronic = everyday use of the building acute = disruptive event occurring in the building or affecting the normal use of the building How to make people aware of the fire? How to decide which fire protection measures (technical and managerial) to install in the building?

13 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Competing chronic objectives Original design vs. real usage The vision of the architect The reality of the system The conceptual and design phase The actual building usage

14 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Blocked exit in Australia Combustible load in exit stairwell in a student housing in UK Competing acute and chronic objectives Conceptual design vs. real usage

15 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Characteristics of the new paradigm Paradigm associated with the new PBFPD process –The building-occupant system has to integrate Fire Protection measures which would mitigate the effects of fire events on its overall performance –Building-occupant system: system defined by a structure (i.e. building) inside which targets (i.e. occupants interacting with building contents) are primarily engaged in a specific activity. –This activity is quantified (e.g. activity number carried out by day or week) and then the performance of the system is estimated by the level of this activity.

16 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Definition of a building-occupant system Institutional Child care facilities (2 ½ years of age or less) Detoxification facilities Hospitals and mental hospitals (medical, psychiatric, obstetrical or surgical treatment of in-patients) Nursing homes In the current paradigm, all these institutional buildings are treated the same In the new paradigm, all these systems are treated according to their targets

17 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Characteristics of the new paradigm Paradigm associated with the new PBFPD process –During normal every day conditions or "chronic states of the system", targets (i.e. occupants using important building components) are located in "functional zones" where they carry out their activities associated with "chronic objectives", established in accordance with the system scope. "Utility zones" include system support components such as electricity, HVAC and plumbing.

18 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Definition of a building-occupant system Hospitals and mental hospitals (medical, psychiatric, obstetrical or surgical treatment of in-patients) Hospitals and mental hospitals (medical, psychiatric, obstetrical or surgical treatment of in-patients) Hospital Reception Emergency rooms Examination rooms Intensive Care Unit… Cafeteria Storage units Electrical rooms… Atrium High-rise Main systems / functional zones Support systems Specificities Hospital

19 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Targets in functional zones of a hospital Hospital Reception Emergency rooms Examination rooms Intensive Care Unit Patient Rooms Staff + in-patients (mostly mobile) + visitors Staff + in-patients (not mobile) In-patients (not mobile / mobile) In-patients (not mobile) Staff + in-patients (not mobile / mobile) Operating rooms Staff + in-patients (not mobile) Occupants

20 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Targets in functional zones of a hospital Hospital Reception Emergency rooms Examination rooms Intensive Care Unit Patient Rooms Computers (data entry) or paper files All room (maintain usability) Life supporting equipment Equipment for examination (e.g. scanner) Operating rooms All room (maintain usability) Functional building components Electrical room Loss of electricity Occupant affected Indirect effect Direct effect

21 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Functional zones and support systems Patient room Operating room Intensive Care Unit Storage room Nurse station

22 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Performance zoning and FP zoning Patient room Operating room Intensive Care Unit Storage room Nurse station Smoke compartment (illustrative example)

23 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Characteristics of the new paradigm Paradigm associated with the new PBFPD process –In order to mitigate the event effects on the system performance, acute objectives have to be set up so to take into consideration direct effects and indirect effects with which the disruptive events can possibly damage the targets. Within this building-occupant paradigm, FPEs –Perform a target focused risk analysis –Verify the FP measures are integrated into the system –Indicate the cost/benefits of the FP measures to the stakeholders

24 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Overview of the new system specific risk informed performance-based process Technical steps of the new PBD process Disruptive event risk characterization Target vulnerability criteria estimation Disruptive event scenario analysis (quantification of the likelihood) Disruptive event scenario analysis (quantification of the impacts) Evaluation of the integration in the system of the protection measures against the disruptive event Cost-benefit analysis Political Stakeholders project definition Stakeholders decision Political Manuscript to be submitted to Building, Research and Information

25 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Separating the political aspect from the technical aspect of the PBD process Technical steps of the new PBFPD process Risk characterization Target vulnerability criteria estimation Scenario analysis (quantification of the likelihood) Scenario analysis (quantification of the impacts) Evaluation of the integration of the fire protection measures in the system Cost-benefit analysis stakeholders define the project and present all the characteristics of the building-occupant system to examine the same stakeholders decide on the trial designs proposed by the FPE. This again is a "political" issue. The technical fire protection engineering is done at that point Political Stakeholders project definition Stakeholders decision Political Manuscript to be published in the Journal of Fire Protection Engineering A Framework For Risk-Informed PB Fire Protection Design For The Built Environment

26 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Technical steps of the new PBFPD process Risk characterization Target Vulnerability criteria estimation Scenario analysis (quantification of the likelihood) Scenario analysis (quantification of the impacts) Evaluation of the integration of the fire protection measures in the system Cost-benefit analysis Damage metric Frequency of the disruptive event Translation of the stakeholders concerns in FPE terms: List of system targets How the targets are affected by the fire Quantification of the fire risk and proposition of fire protection measures ʃ $ Documents for the stakeholders to make their decisions

27 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Risk characterization Damage criteria estimation Scenario analysis (quantification of the likelihood) Scenario analysis (quantification of the impacts) Evaluation of the integration of the fire protection measures in the system Cost-benefit analysis Path to obtain the guidelines to every process step Guideline or standard related to the Process Step Research related to the Process Step Climbing the Research to Application / Regulatory ladder Climbing the Research to Application / Regulatory ladder For specific systems

28 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 The Vulcan Initiative: Principal Menu To help people navigate this web-platform, the Vulcan Initiative is organized around a menu located at the top of each page. The Vulcan Initiative was created around a new Risk Informed PBFPD process with 5 technical steps at the center of the menu. Nevertheless, participants from all the spectrum of the Fire Protection Engineering community do not necessarily need to get involved in using this process in order to get benefits from the Vulcan Initiative. Indeed, FPEs dealing with research or PBD process or engineering issues, may be interested in one aspect of the Vulcan Initiative such as the definition of scenarios or the calculation of fire consequences.

29 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 The Vulcan Initiative: (1) Projects A participant to the Vulcan Initiative can propose a Project. In order to do so, a participant uploads the characteristics of a project, that is to say of a system including building components and occupant distributions. The ultimate goal of the Vulcan Initiative is to have participants upload a project and successively go through the 5 technical steps of the risk-informed PBD process. Independently of following this new process, participants could be interested in applying a single step for their own analysis.

30 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 The Vulcan Initiative: (1) Projects Applying the 5 steps of the new risk-informed PBFPD process Applying a particular step of the new risk-informed PBFPD process

31 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 The Vulcan Initiative: (1) Projects Applying the 5 steps of the new risk-informed PBFPD process Applying a particular step of the new risk-informed PBFPD process

32 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 The Vulcan Initiative: (1) Projects Applying the 5 steps of the new risk-informed PBFPD process Applying a particular step of the new risk-informed PBFPD process

33 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Applying the 5 steps of the new risk-informed PBFPD process Applying a particular step of the new risk-informed PBFPD process The Vulcan Initiative: (1) Projects

34 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Applying the 5 steps of the new risk-informed PBFPD process Applying a particular step of the new risk-informed PBFPD process The Vulcan Initiative: (1) Projects

35 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Applying the 5 steps of the new risk-informed PBFPD process Applying a particular step of the new risk-informed PBFPD process The Vulcan Initiative: (1) Projects

36 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Examples of current PROJECTS The Vulcan Initiative: (1) Projects

37 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 One participant to the Vulcan Initiative could be interested in only one step of the new Risk Informed Performance-Based Fire Protection Design Process For that purpose, The Vulcan Initiative contains test bed environment (or TBE) STUDIES The Vulcan Initiative: (2) TBE Studies

38 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 For that purpose, The Vulcan Initiative contains test bed environment (or TBE) STUDIES One participant to the Vulcan Initiative could be interested in only one step of the new Risk Informed Performance-Based Fire Protection Design Process The Vulcan Initiative: (2) TBE Studies

39 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 One participant to the Vulcan Initiative could be interested in only one step of the new Risk Informed Performance-Based Fire Protection Design Process For that purpose, The Vulcan Initiative contains test bed environment (or TBE) STUDIES The Vulcan Initiative: (2) TBE Studies

40 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 One participant to the Vulcan Initiative could be interested in only one step of the new Risk Informed Performance-Based Fire Protection Design Process For that purpose, The Vulcan Initiative contains test bed environment (or TBE) STUDIES The Vulcan Initiative: (2) TBE Studies

41 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 One participant to the Vulcan Initiative could be interested in only one step of the new Risk Informed Performance-Based Fire Protection Design Process For that purpose, The Vulcan Initiative contains test bed environment (or TBE) STUDIES The Vulcan Initiative: (2) TBE Studies

42 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 One participant to the Vulcan Initiative could be interested in only one step of the new Risk Informed Performance-Based Fire Protection Design Process For that purpose, The Vulcan Initiative contains test bed environment (or TBE) STUDIES The Vulcan Initiative: (2) TBE Studies

43 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 For each PBFPD technical step, the FPE has to evaluate parameters relevant to the step using: - Tools that are appropriate to the analysis, - Data that is representative of the considered project. The Vulcan Initiative: (2) TBE Studies

44 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Fire consequences + Impact on people, contents, and structures The Vulcan Initiative: (2) TBE Studies

45 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Occupants Building type 1 Building type 2 Buildings High school (Building – Occupant) interactions

46 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Hospital Occupants Building type 1 Building type 2 Buildings (Building – Occupant) interactions

47 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Buildings Fires Building type 1 Building type 2 Fire in a classroom Fire in a nursing ward of a hospital (Building – Fire) interactions

48 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Occupants Fires Building type 1 Building type 2 Students and staff evacuating school Patient being evacuated (Fire – Occupant) interactions

49 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Buildings Fires Occupants Entire domain of possibilities Test bed environments Domains of tool validation for the Tool Developers Domains of interest for the Tool Users Test bed Environments

50 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Tool User TU Tool User TU Tool Developer TD Tool Developer TD Academia Fire Protection Engineer Engineering societies Research Institute Tools are developed and used to solve problems for which the tools are known to be validated Defines the problems Provides models, Validates and verifies the tools Helping the Tool User (TU)-Tool Developer (TD) communication The actors of the Test bed Environment studies Private company

51 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Tool User TU Tool User TU Built Environment BE Built Environment BE Project team Fire Protection Engineer Engineering societies Authority Having Jurisdiction Knows the values and characteristics of their built environment Knows the types of input data in order to run the tools Knows the problems to be solved Tools are used to solve well defined problems Decides the values of the performance criteria Helping the Tool User (TU)-Built Environment (BE) communication The actors of the Test bed Environment studies

52 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Creation of a test bed environment Environment in which TU, TD and BE collaborate on the use of tools to solve particular problems and decrease the uncertainties related to the use of tools. This environment should be structured in order to contain all the input data needed to use the considered tools Built Environment BE Built Environment BE Tool Developer TD Tool User TU Creating a test bed environment The actors of the Test bed Environment studies

53 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 A dynamic ASET/RSET assessment Studies related to tools used to estimate fire scenarios consequences Creation of 3D fuel packages global fire effluent production Near field and far field analyses Examples of the Test bed Environment studies

54 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Snapshots of an experiment involving the combustion of a mattress with central ignition (source: NIST) Snapshots of the corresponding fuel package: NIST mattress with corner ignition (for the same times) Fuel package NIST couch Fuel package NIST dresser Note the collapse of the dresser at the end of the test 90s 120s 210s 300 s

55 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Clothing fire data (1) Use of experimental data (as in SFPE)

56 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Clothing fire data (2) Use of experimental data (as published)

57 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Links to experimental reports Links to other databases Vulcan Initiative own database

58 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 NIST dresser Fire effluent production Original HRR data Photos from test Usable HRR data Vulcan Initiative database associated with fire effects tools

59 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Vulcan Initiative version Web address: Release date: summer 2013 If interested in providing information on a project, sharing experience on a technical step, building databases address:

60 A. Alvarez – M. Ferreira – B. Meacham 11 June 2013 Thank you for your attention And future participation


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