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Cell Phones in the K-12 Classroom

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1 Cell Phones in the K-12 Classroom
Dr. Kevin M. Thomas Bellarmine University Louisville, KY

2 As former classroom teachers, we knew one thing our students would bring to class every day. Was it their books? No. A pen and paper? No. Homework assignments? No. The one item our students always had with them was their cell phone. In fact, 84% of teens between the ages of have a cell phone, and 85% of them use their cells for text messaging (YouthBeat, 2009). On average, teens send 2,272 texts per month (Hafner, 2009) and 70% of teens use texting for schoolwork (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, & Purcell, 2010).

3 As former classroom teachers, we knew one thing our students would bring to class every day. Was it their books? No. A pen and paper? No. Homework assignments? No. The one item our students always had with them was their cell phone. In fact, 84% of teens between the ages of have a cell phone, and 85% of them use their cells for text messaging (YouthBeat, 2009). On average, teens send 2,272 texts per month (Hafner, 2009) and 70% of teens use texting for schoolwork (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, & Purcell, 2010).

4

5 As former classroom teachers, we knew one thing our students would bring to class every day. Was it their books? No. A pen and paper? No. Homework assignments? No. The one item our students always had with them was their cell phone. In fact, 84% of teens between the ages of have a cell phone, and 85% of them use their cells for text messaging (YouthBeat, 2009). On average, teens send 2,272 texts per month (Hafner, 2009) and 70% of teens use texting for schoolwork (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, & Purcell, 2010).

6 84% of teens between the ages of 15-18 have a cell phone
85% of them use their cells for text messaging (YouthBeat, 2009) 70% of teens use texting for schoolwork (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, & Purcell, 2010)

7 69% percent of American high schools ban cell phone use or possession on school grounds (CommonSense, 2010). Based on the classroom observations of the authors, commentary in the media and a review of literature, cell phone use by teenagers in school has created a number of concerns for educators: the use of textease (an abbreviated form of English usually used during texting) (Brouin & Davis, 2009; Lee, 2002; Lenhart, Arafef, Smith, &, Macgill, 2008), cheating (CommonSense, 2010; Strom & Strom, 2007), cyberbullying (Beran & Li, 2005; Feinberg & Robey, 2008; Long, 2008; Obringer & Coffey, 2007) and sexting (a portmanteau of the term sex and texting is the act of sending sexually explicit texts or pictures primarily via cell phones (Boucek, 2009; Carroll, 2004; Soronen, Vitale, & Haase, 2010). As a result of these concerns about the potential misuses of cell phones, 69% percent of American high schools now have bans on their use or possession on school grounds (CommonSense, 2010). Although these fears are not completely without merit, they are largely based on anecdotal evidence and ignore the fact that while cell phones may make it easier for students to engage in certain inappropriate behaviors, they are not the cause of these behaviors. Furthermore, these fears have blinded school stakeholders to the instructional benefits of utilizing cell phones in the classroom.

8 Teachers view of cell phones as a disruption in the classroom (Lenhart, 2010).
Based on the classroom observations of the authors, commentary in the media and a review of literature, cell phone use by teenagers in school has created a number of concerns for educators: the use of textease (an abbreviated form of English usually used during texting) (Brouin & Davis, 2009; Lee, 2002; Lenhart, Arafef, Smith, &, Macgill, 2008), cheating (CommonSense, 2010; Strom & Strom, 2007), cyberbullying (Beran & Li, 2005; Feinberg & Robey, 2008; Long, 2008; Obringer & Coffey, 2007) and sexting (a portmanteau of the term sex and texting is the act of sending sexually explicit texts or pictures primarily via cell phones (Boucek, 2009; Carroll, 2004; Soronen, Vitale, & Haase, 2010). As a result of these concerns about the potential misuses of cell phones, 69% percent of American high schools now have bans on their use or possession on school grounds (CommonSense, 2010). Although these fears are not completely without merit, they are largely based on anecdotal evidence and ignore the fact that while cell phones may make it easier for students to engage in certain inappropriate behaviors, they are not the cause of these behaviors. Furthermore, these fears have blinded school stakeholders to the instructional benefits of utilizing cell phones in the classroom.

9 58% have sent a text message during class,
25% have made or received a call during class (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, & Purcell, 2010) 64% have texted in class (43% text in class at least once a day or more) Lenhart (2010), teachers have traditionally viewed cell phones to be a disruption in the classroom. 58% have sent a text message during class, 64% have texted in class (43% text in class at least once a day or more) and 25% have made or received a call during class (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, & Purcell, 2010)

10 RINGING PHONE Probably the most common complaint against cell phones in the classroom are the disruption they cause (Campbell, 2006; Galley, 2000; Gilroy, 2004). Possibly the most common classroom disruption is that caused by a ringing phone. In a study with 158 college students, Shelton, Elliott, Lynn and Exner (2011) conducted four experiments with 158 college students to determine the detrimental effects of ringing cell phones on college students. They found that a ringing phone that interrupts instruction can negatively impact student performance when being tested on the material being covered. In a similar study by End, Worthman, Mathews, Wetterau (2010), 71 students were interrupted by a cell phone ringing during an instructional video. Findings indicated that compared to the control group, participants in the ringing condition performance was significantly worse on the disrupted test items, and students were less likely to include the information that was disrupted in their notes.

11 RINGING PHONE Negatively impacts student performance when being tested on the material being covered (Shelton, Elliott, Lynn and Exner, 2011). Ringing condition performance was significantly worse on the disrupted test items (End, Worthman, Mathews, Wetterau, 2010). Probably the most common complaint against cell phones in the classroom are the disruption they cause (Campbell, 2006; Galley, 2000; Gilroy, 2004). Possibly the most common classroom disruption is that caused by a ringing phone. In a study with 158 college students, Shelton, Elliott, Lynn and Exner (2011) conducted four experiments with 158 college students to determine the detrimental effects of ringing cell phones on college students. They found that a ringing phone that interrupts instruction can negatively impact student performance when being tested on the material being covered. In a similar study by End, Worthman, Mathews, Wetterau (2010), 71 students were interrupted by a cell phone ringing during an instructional video. Findings indicated that compared to the control group, participants in the ringing condition performance was significantly worse on the disrupted test items, and students were less likely to include the information that was disrupted in their notes.

12 Image by Jordan R. MacDonald

13 BACKGROUND 2008 Three sophomore high school classes given the option receiving course texts from their instructors. Students received reminders and additional assignments after school hours. (Thomas & Orthober, 2010) 2 sophomore AP English classes (23 students in one class and 22 in the other) 1 first year Latin class (21 students) The ages of the sixty-six students in the three classes ranged from years old. There were 27 males and 39 females. Participation was voluntary, and 46 of the sixty-six students (70%) elected to receive text-messages from their instructor. 1 first year Latin class (21 students) were Those students who consented to participate and received permission to do so from parents/guardians were instructed to send their instructor an with their area code, mobile phone numbers and the names of their mobile phone service providers. The setting for the study was a large, urban school in the southern United States. The school year consisted of two semesters with students taking four 90 minute classes each semester. In fact, 12% more of the teenagers in the study had mobile phones and 6% more had the texting feature than national statistics (Lenart, 2009). Additionally, although not required, 70% of the students agreed to use their personal phones to receive course related texts from their teachers. This finding is supported by research that showed that most high-school students felt positively about the ability of mobile phones to support interaction (Motiwalla, 2007) and about using mobile phones for class communication activities (Lubega et al, 2004).

14 BACKGROUND 39 (61%) acknowledged that they sent texts to their friends about school . How did they use them? To ask or answer questions about assignments To ask for help or offer help to others concerning class work To find what they have missed when they had been absent from class. (Thomas & Orthober, 2010) 2 sophomore AP English classes (23 students in one class and 22 in the other) 1 first year Latin class (21 students) The ages of the sixty-six students in the three classes ranged from years old. There were 27 males and 39 females. Participation was voluntary, and 46 of the sixty-six students (70%) elected to receive text-messages from their instructor. 1 first year Latin class (21 students) were Those students who consented to participate and received permission to do so from parents/guardians were instructed to send their instructor an with their area code, mobile phone numbers and the names of their mobile phone service providers. The setting for the study was a large, urban school in the southern United States. The school year consisted of two semesters with students taking four 90 minute classes each semester. In fact, 12% more of the teenagers in the study had mobile phones and 6% more had the texting feature than national statistics (Lenart, 2009). Additionally, although not required, 70% of the students agreed to use their personal phones to receive course related texts from their teachers. This finding is supported by research that showed that most high-school students felt positively about the ability of mobile phones to support interaction (Motiwalla, 2007) and about using mobile phones for class communication activities (Lubega et al, 2004).

15 BACKGROUND 92% found the texts to be valuable Questions
Additional Practice Reminders Absent “Of course! There is no reason not to.” (Thomas & Orthober, 2010) When asked if other teachers should use texting one student responded,

16 BACKGROUND Teachers Comments
Helped students remember assignments = better prepared for class Helped improve the classroom community and to build student rapport Time commitment was minimal compared to the benefits (Thomas & Orthober, 2010) 39 (61%) acknowledged that they sent texts to their friends about school . How did they use them? To ask or answer questions about assignments To ask for help or offer help to others concerning class work To find what they have missed when they had been absent from class.

17 Purpose Today It is my opinion that we are at a cross roads in regards to allowing the use of cell phones in the classroom. Cell phones have evolved from “mobile” phones to small, inexpensive, portable microcomputers.

18 NEGATIVES Texting Sexting Cheating Cyberbullying
Initially, these disruptions were associated with the belief that cell phones were used for gang and drug related activities; however, as cell phones have evolved from simply “mobile phones” to small, portable microcomputers so have the disruptions cell phones cause in the classroom. Although ringing phones are still a distraction, new concerns include texting as well as using cell phones for cheating, sexting and cyberbullying.

19 TEXTING: POINT Teachers believe texting negatively impacts students’ ability to spell and correctly use punctuation and capitalization. Initially, these disruptions were associated with the belief that cell phones were used for gang and drug related activities; however, as cell phones have evolved from simply “mobile phones” to small, portable microcomputers so have the disruptions cell phones cause in the classroom. Although ringing phones are still a distraction, new concerns include texting as well as using cell phones for cheating, sexting and cyberbullying.

20 TEXTING: COUNTER-POINT
Orthographically speaking, there is also nothing novel about texting. Linguist David Crystal from Txtng: The Gr8 Db8 (2008) Textese makes use of a number of text orthography features: logograms, pictograms, rebuses, and initialism, (omitted letters and nonstandard spellings). However, none of these are new to our use of the written word. Crystal relates several examples of orthography used before texting was available “XO” at the end of a letter is a logogram for hug and kiss and the term MIA (missing in action) is initialism (Crystal, 2008).

21 TEXTING: COUNTER-POINT
Students code switch Textese is not harmful to students’ ability to write. Texting did NOT negatively affect students’ writing skills. Students who texted more often wrote more and had better writing and spelling skills than their peers who texted less (Plester et al., 2008) Students, like adults, are able to “code switch” between modes of communication (Plester, Wood, & Bell, 2008). Code switching involves the ability to make transitions between different means of communication based on situational needs. Students consciously use one “register” of language when interacting with their peers but another when interacting with their grandparents. Students code switch daily when they switch from slang used in the hallway to language more appropriate or acceptable in the classroom. Speech and language therapist Veenal Raval (Ward, 2004) notes: The fear that has been put across in the media is that children don’t understand the need to code switch-that is, switch between Standard English grammar for an exam or essay and what is acceptable when you are communicating on a social level. In fact, they are capable of that switch, just as bi- or tri-lingual children might speak English at school and mother or father tongue at home (p. 3). Textese is not harmful to students’ ability to write. In fact, what research has been done in this area appears to support the exact opposite. Researchers at Coventry University in London studied emerging writers, ages 10 to 12, to ascertain the effects of texting on their writing development. They found that the use of texting did NOT negatively affect students’ writing skills. In fact, data supported exactly the opposite conclusion: students who texted more often wrote more and had better writing and spelling skills than their peers who texted less (Plester et al., 2008). Plester makes a point worth remembering when she states, “The more exposure you have to the written word the more literate you become, and we tend to get better at things that we do for fun” (BBC News, 2009).

22 TEXTING: POINT Texting distracts students from learning.
Another concern educators have about students’ texting is that it is a distraction. Rosen, Lim, Carrier, and Cheever (2011) conducted a study of 185 college students to examine the impact of classroom texting on learning and retention of classroom material. They sent students in class zero, four, or eight texts during a 30-minute videotaped lecture. The text messages were sent to “coincide with the presentation of information that would appear on a posttest immediately following the lecture” (p. 171). In the study, students were required to promptly respond to the text. Results indicated that the texts were not as distracting as originally thought. Even when participants were inundated with text messages—receiving and sending 16 or more texts in a 30-minute period—their performance was only slightly (albeit significantly) worse than those receiving no texts or a few texts. The fact that the Moderate Texting Interruption group did no worse than the No/Low Texting Interruption group lends further support to the minimal interference of classroom texting. However, it must be noted that a 10.6% difference between the group receiving the most text messages and the group receiving the least text messages is equivalent to one letter grade. Surprisingly, the Moderate Text group, which sent and received 8 texts in 30 minutes, did not do any worse than those who got essentially no texts. (p. 173)

23 TEXTING: COUTNER-POINT
16 or more texts in a 30-minute period—student performance was only slightly worse than those receiving no texts or a few texts. Moderate Text group, which sent and received 8 texts in 30 minutes, did not do any worse than those who got essentially no texts. (p. 173) Must be noted that a 10.6% difference between the group receiving the most text messages and the group receiving the least text messages is equivalent to one letter grade. (Rosen, Lim, Carrier, and Cheever, 2011) Another concern educators have about students’ texting is that it is a distraction. Rosen, Lim, Carrier, and Cheever (2011) conducted a study of 185 college students to examine the impact of classroom texting on learning and retention of classroom material. They sent students in class zero, four, or eight texts during a 30-minute videotaped lecture. The text messages were sent to “coincide with the presentation of information that would appear on a posttest immediately following the lecture” (p. 171). In the study, students were required to promptly respond to the text. Results indicated that the texts were not as distracting as originally thought. Even when participants were inundated with text messages—receiving and sending 16 or more texts in a 30-minute period—their performance was only slightly (albeit significantly) worse than those receiving no texts or a few texts. The fact that the Moderate Texting Interruption group did no worse than the No/Low Texting Interruption group lends further support to the minimal interference of classroom texting. However, it must be noted that a 10.6% difference between the group receiving the most text messages and the group receiving the least text messages is equivalent to one letter grade. Surprisingly, the Moderate Text group, which sent and received 8 texts in 30 minutes, did not do any worse than those who got essentially no texts. (p. 173)

24 CHEATING: POINT LOL :-D
1/3 high school students admitted cheating with cell phones 65% reports classmates use their phones to cheat LOL :-D 26% store information on their phones to retrieve during a test 25% text a friend about test answers 17% take pictures of tests to send their friends 20% search the internet for answers during a test (CommonSense Media, 2010; Lenhart, Ling, Campbell and Purcell, 2010) One area of concern about texting supported by research is its use by students for cheating. Research indicates that teens are using their cell phones to cheat in class (CommonSense Media, 2010; Lenhart, Ling, Campbell and Purcell, 2010). A recent study conducted by CommonSense Media (2010) found that one-third of high school students admitted using their cell phones to cheat and 65% of them say others in their school use their phones to cheat with them. Additionally, 26% store information on their phones to retrieve during a test, 25% text a friend about test answers, 17% take pictures of tests to send their friends and 20% search the internet for answers during a test. Not all of the pictures students are taking are of test questions. Students are also using their cell phones to take inappropriate pictures of a sexual nature.

25 CHEATING: COUNTER-POINT
The practice of cheating is not a result of the invention of the cell phone; rather it can be traced in history through thousands of years (Bushway & Nash, 1977). Research indicates that students cheat due to “an erosion of ethics, self-centeredness, not being held responsible for their actions, and pressure from high-stakes testing and parents to perform regardless of the means—none of which have to do with technology or mobile phones” (Strom & Strom, 2007, p. 42). School administrations and teachers would benefit from the recommendations of Bushway and Nash by focusing less on pointing the finger at the causes of cheating. Instead, they should educate students about the immorality of cheating, its effects on the cheaters, and the implications for other students in the class so as to discourage and prevent students from cheating. With that said, cheating has been a part of school for a very long time. Removing the opportunity to use cell phones will hardly fix this issue. A better resolution would be for students to check in their phones at the beginning of a testing period and retrieve them when they leave the room.

26 CHEATING: COUNTER-POINT
1980: 75% of students reported cheating in school (Baird, 1980). 2005: 74% of students reported cheating in school (Pickett & Thomas, 2006) Research indicates that students cheat due to “an erosion of ethics, self-centeredness, not being held responsible for their actions, and pressure from high-stakes testing and parents to perform regardless of the means—none of which have to do with technology or mobile phones” (Strom & Strom, 2007, p. 42). School administrations and teachers would benefit from the recommendations of Bushway and Nash by focusing less on pointing the finger at the causes of cheating. Instead, they should educate students about the immorality of cheating, its effects on the cheaters, and the implications for other students in the class so as to discourage and prevent students from cheating. With that said, cheating has been a part of school for a very long time. Removing the opportunity to use cell phones will hardly fix this issue. A better resolution would be for students to check in their phones at the beginning of a testing period and retrieve them when they leave the room.

27 CHEATING: COUNTER-POINT
Research indicates that students cheat due to “an erosion of ethics, self-centeredness, not being held responsible for their actions, and pressure from high-stakes testing and parents to perform regardless of the means—none of which have to do with technology or mobile phones”. Strom & Strom, 2007, p. 42 Research indicates that students cheat due to “an erosion of ethics, self-centeredness, not being held responsible for their actions, and pressure from high-stakes testing and parents to perform regardless of the means—none of which have to do with technology or mobile phones” (Strom & Strom, 2007, p. 42).

28 SEXTING: POINT 4% of teens have reported sending a sexual image of themselves in a text 15% report having received a sexual image via text message. (Lenhart et al., 2010). Not all of the pictures students are taking are of test questions. Students are also using their cell phones to take inappropriate pictures of a sexual nature. Sexting is the “practice by which teens forward sexually explicit images of themselves or their peers via text messaging” (Soronen, 2010, p. 1). According to Lenhart et al. (2010), 4% of teens have reported sending a sexual image of themselves in a text and 15% report having received a sexual image via text message. Although there is no difference between gender in regard to sending text messages, texting does increase with age: 4% of 12 year-olds send sexts compared to 20% of 16 year-olds and 30% of 17 year-olds (Lenhart et al., 2010). Students have also used mobile phones to secretly take inappropriate photographs of peers and texts these images to someone else (St. Gerard, 2006). Also alarming is the fact that 44% of both teen girls and teen boys acknowledge that it is common for sexually suggestive text messages to be shared with people other than the intended recipient (National Campaign, 2009). The sharing of sexual photos sent via cell phone can often lead to harassment and cyberbullying (Seigle, 2010).

29 SEXTING: POINT Students have also used mobile phones to secretly take inappropriate photographs of peers and texts these images to someone else. St. Gerard, 2006 44% of both teen girls and teen boys acknowledge that it is common for sexually suggestive text messages to be shared with people other than the intended recipient. National Campaign, 2009

30 SEXTING: COUNTER-POINT
There is no empirical evidence to support the claim that cell phones increase incidents of students talking or writing about sex. Nor is there anything inherent in the technology that supports aberrant behavior Is a result of a lack of guidance and mentoring on the part of adults regarding the proper use of technologies like cell phones

31 SEXTING: COUNTER-POINT
Jim Hirsch, an associate superintendent in Texas, school stake-holders must: “…shift their thinking from the concept that schools must ‘protect’ students by restricting access to commonly used devices to the idea that schools have to ‘educate’ students to use these devices and tools responsibly while in and out of school” (2005, p. 1). Jim Hirsch, an associate superintendent in Texas, believes that school staff, school board members, and parents must, “…shift their thinking from the concept that schools must ‘protect’ students by restricting access to commonly used devices to the idea that schools have to ‘educate’ students to use these devices and tools responsibly while in and out of school” (2005, p. 1).

32 SEXTING: COUNTER-POINT
State and National Technology Standards for Teachers that require teachers and students to demonstrate the safe, ethical and legal use of technology (ISTE, 2008).

33 SEXTING: COUNTER-POINT
Arthur Graves, Chairman of the Secondary Principals’ Council, points out, “the rise of text messages and s have made teacher---student boundaries ‘a little easier to cross,’” but it is the, “content of the message that counts, not the mode of the message” (Woulfe, 2007, p. 2). Technologies like texting have the potential to be invasive, but so does or the landline phones of the past fifty years. Teachers who follow the proper guidelines can use any technology in a professional manner (Woulfe, 2007). As Arthur Graves, Chairman of the Secondary Principals’ Council, points out, “the rise of text messages and s have made teacher---student boundaries ‘a little easier to cross,’” but it is the, “content of the message that counts, not the mode of the message” (Woulfe, 2007, p. 2). Technologies like texting have the potential to be invasive, but so does or the landline phones of the past fifty years. Teachers who follow the proper guidelines can use any technology in a professional manner (Woulfe, 2007).

34 CYBERBULLYING: POINT 26% of teens have been harassed through their mobile phone either by calls or text messages (Lenhart et al., 2010) Often times, the sharing of sexually explicit photos by the recipient and others leads to cyberbullying of the sender. (Cyberbully Research Center, 2011; Seigle, 2010) Cyberbullying can be defined as the "willful and repeated harm inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices" (Cyberbully Research Center, 2011). A recent study by the Pew Internet and American Life Project found that 26% of teens have been harassed through their mobile phone either by calls or text messages (Lenhart et al., 2010). Often times, the sharing of sexually explicit photos by the recipient and others leads to cyberbullying of the sender (Cyberbully Research Center, 2011; Seigle, 2010).

35 CYBERBULLYING: COUNTER-POINT
As with cheating, bullying predates mobile phones. Banning cell phones is not going to make students stop bullying. Rather, teachers, students, and parents have to be educated about bullying in order to teach online safety skills and equip young people with strategies to reject digital abuse in their lives (Holladay, 2010). However, as with cheating, bullying predates mobile phones. Cyberbullying is the latest technological incarnation of this harmful behavior. Cyberbullying, like traditional bullying, is about power and often times gaining social status (Holladay, 2010). Banning cell phones is not going to make students stop bullying. Rather, teachers, students, and parents have to be educated about bullying in order to debunk misperceptions about digital behavior, build empathy and understanding, teach online safety skills, and equip young people with strategies to reject digital abuse in their lives (Holladay, 2010).

36 Cell phones have evolved from “mobile” phones to small, inexpensive,
ubiquitous, inexpensive, portable microcomputers. Cell phones have evolved from “mobile” phones to small, inexpensive, portable microcomputers.

37 BENEFITS: TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS
Surveyed 79 (78%) participated in the study by completing the cell phone survey Grade Level 30 (38%) elementary 19 (24.1%) middle 30 (38%) school Today’s smartphones can support teachers and instruction in a growing number of ways. For example, they can be used for content creation (Hartnell-Young & Vetere 2008), student-centered learning, collaboration (Corbeil & Valdes-Corbeil, 2007), authentic learning (Brown & Duguid, 1996), and differentiation of instruction (Kukulska-Hulme, 2007) as well as assessment and reflection (Markett, Sanchez, Weber, & Tangney, 2006). Additionally, the portability of cell phones allows anywhere/anytime access to course material for both teachers and students. Teachers and students can use cell phones to communicate and interact. Research indicates that this interaction can assist in creating a more active and continuous learning environment which facilitates the building of a learning community and increases student motivation (Markett et al., 2006). From a student perspective, cell phones allow them to multitask (Lu, 2008; Yerushalmy & Ben-Zaken, 2004) by accessing course material, conducting research via the Internet, and communicating with peers and teachers in what could otherwise be periods of dead time (Kolb, 2011; Motiwalla, 2007; Yengina, Karahoca, Karahoca, & Uzunboyla, 2011).

38 BENEFITS: TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS
Do teachers support the use of cell phones in the classroom? 69.6% = Yes 70% (n=56) are already using cell phones for school/class related work.

39 BENEFITS: TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS
How are you using technology for school related activities? #1 Communication with colleagues, students, parents = 35.4% #2 Collaborate with other teachers = 30.4% #3 To remind myself, colleagues or students of deadlines, tasks = 27.8%

40 BENEFITS Instructionally, smart phones support:
Content creation (Hartnell-Young & Vetere 2008), Student-centered learning, collaboration (Corbeil & Valdes-Corbeil, 2007), Authentic learning (Brown & Duguid, 1996), Differentiation of instruction (Kukulska-Hulme, 2007), Assessment and reflection (Markett, Sanchez, Weber, & Tangney, 2006 Today’s smartphones can support teachers and instruction in a growing number of ways. For example, they can be used for content creation (Hartnell-Young & Vetere 2008), student-centered learning, collaboration (Corbeil & Valdes-Corbeil, 2007), authentic learning (Brown & Duguid, 1996), and differentiation of instruction (Kukulska-Hulme, 2007) as well as assessment and reflection (Markett, Sanchez, Weber, & Tangney, 2006). Additionally, the portability of cell phones allows anywhere/anytime access to course material for both teachers and students. Teachers and students can use cell phones to communicate and interact. Research indicates that this interaction can assist in creating a more active and continuous learning environment which facilitates the building of a learning community and increases student motivation (Markett et al., 2006). From a student perspective, cell phones allow them to multitask (Lu, 2008; Yerushalmy & Ben-Zaken, 2004) by accessing course material, conducting research via the Internet, and communicating with peers and teachers in what could otherwise be periods of dead time (Kolb, 2011; Motiwalla, 2007; Yengina, Karahoca, Karahoca, & Uzunboyla, 2011).

41 BENEFITS: A₃ LEARNING Portability of cell phones allows anywhere/anytime access interaction communication Between students, teacher and parents (student to student, student to teacher, student to content)

42 BENEFITS: A₃ LEARNING Student perspective, cell phones allow them to
multitask (Lu, 2008; Yerushalmy & Ben-Zaken, 2004) by accessing course material, conducting research via the Internet, and communicating with peers and teachers in what could otherwise be periods of dead time (Kolb, 2011; Motiwalla, 2007; Yengina, Karahoca, Karahoca, & Uzunboyla, 2011).

43 BENEFITS: TEXTING  Students can receive additional instruction and/or practice problems for any content area. For example, Nick Schultz, a high school Latin teacher sent students text messages in Latin. Student’s responses were expected to be in Latin (Thomas & Orthober, 2011).  For example, Nick Schultz, a high school Latin teacher sent students text messages in Latin. Student’s responses were expected to be in Latin (Thomas & Orthober, 2011). There is a growing body of research to support the effectiveness of using text messaging to teach language learning. Teachers and administrators can also use texts to send students reminders about homework, upcoming tests, or school related information (Bull & McCormick, 2011; Stone, 2004; Thomas & Orthober, 2011).

44 BENEFITS: TEXTING Cell Phone Study: Learning Letters with Elmo
Evaluate of educational effectiveness of cell phone Parents reported an increase in children's knowledge of the alphabet, and in their own initiation of literacy-related activities with their children. Most impact among participating households at or below the poverty level.  For example, Nick Schultz, a high school Latin teacher sent students text messages in Latin. Student’s responses were expected to be in Latin (Thomas & Orthober, 2011). There is a growing body of research to support the effectiveness of using text messaging to teach language learning. Teachers and administrators can also use texts to send students reminders about homework, upcoming tests, or school related information (Bull & McCormick, 2011; Stone, 2004; Thomas & Orthober, 2011).

45 BENEFITS: TEXTING Texting can also be used by teachers and schools to communicate with parents. Research has demonstrated that providing students and parents with regular information about classwork leads to a higher assignment completion rate and improved student achievement (Sui-Chu & Willms, 1996). Texting can also be used by teachers and schools to communicate with parents. Research has demonstrated that providing students and parents with regular information about classwork leads to a higher assignment completion rate (Sui-Chu & Willms, 1996). Research emphasizes the benefits of communication between school and home as well as its direct relationship to student achievement in the classroom (Henderson & Mapp, 2002). Therefore, teachers and school administrators can use text messaging to communicate with parents regarding a variety of school related messages like class assignments, attendance and updated school information.

46 BENEFITS: TEXTING Texting can be used for assessment (Whattananarong, 2006) Cell phone performed comparably with students who did so by conventional methods (Whattananarong, 2006) Free online assessment site Poll Everywhere

47 BENEFITS: TEXTING Adventures with Cell Phones (Kolb, 2011)
For Example, Kolb describes 7th graders using Poll Everywhere in a Social Studies classroom. Lisa Kolb (2011) describes 7th graders using Poll Everywhere in a Social Studies classroom. As students enter the classroom, the teacher has posted a brainstorming question asking students what they believe to be the most important cause of the Civil War on the whiteboard. Students are to text their answer to the questions as soon as they enter the class. Students are able to watch the changing results displayed in a bar graph on the whiteboard. The teacher then asks students to send another text message explaining their reasons for their choice. Again, students are able to view all of the students’ responses, which provides for them an opportunity to reflect on their own reasoning. The anonymous nature of the texts allows students to feel comfortable giving honest opinions (Kolb, 2011; Banks, 2006; Durbin & Durbin, 2006).

48 BENEFITS: TEXTING As students enter the classroom, the teacher has posted a brainstorming question asking students what they believe to be the most important cause of the Civil War on the whiteboard. Lisa Kolb (2011) describes 7th graders using Poll Everywhere in a Social Studies classroom. As students enter the classroom, the teacher has posted a brainstorming question asking students what they believe to be the most important cause of the Civil War on the whiteboard. Students are to text their answer to the questions as soon as they enter the class. Students are able to watch the changing results displayed in a bar graph on the whiteboard. The teacher then asks students to send another text message explaining their reasons for their choice. Again, students are able to view all of the students’ responses, which provides for them an opportunity to reflect on their own reasoning. The anonymous nature of the texts allows students to feel comfortable giving honest opinions (Kolb, 2011; Banks, 2006; Durbin & Durbin, 2006).

49 BENEFITS: TEXTING Students are able to watch the changing results displayed in a bar graph on the whiteboard. Lisa Kolb (2011) describes 7th graders using Poll Everywhere in a Social Studies classroom. As students enter the classroom, the teacher has posted a brainstorming question asking students what they believe to be the most important cause of the Civil War on the whiteboard. Students are to text their answer to the questions as soon as they enter the class. Students are able to watch the changing results displayed in a bar graph on the whiteboard. The teacher then asks students to send another text message explaining their reasons for their choice. Again, students are able to view all of the students’ responses, which provides for them an opportunity to reflect on their own reasoning. The anonymous nature of the texts allows students to feel comfortable giving honest opinions (Kolb, 2011; Banks, 2006; Durbin & Durbin, 2006).

50 BENEFITS: TEXTING The teacher then asks students to send another text message explaining their reasons for their choice. The anonymous nature of the texts allows students to feel comfortable giving honest opinions and allows all students to have a voice (Kolb, 2011; Banks, 2006; Durbin & Durbin, 2006).

51 BENEFITS: TEXTING Poll Everywhere can be used in faculty and parent assemblies to receive feedback.

52 BENEFITS: TEXTING Companies like The Princeton Review and Kaplan already offer texting based test-preparation questions for the Scholastic Achievement Test and other standardized test that can be sent to users (Hartnell-Young & Vetere, 2008).

53 BENEFITS: DIGITAL CAMERA
83% of teens report having taken a picture with their cell phone (Lenhart, 2010). Another cell phone feature with classroom applications is the digital camera; 83% of teens report having taken a picture with their cell phone (Lenhart, 2010). Digital cameras can be used in the classroom for: 1) the collection of data, scientific visualization, communication in science, 2) facilitation of reading, writing, and visual communication in language arts, 3) mathematical analyses, transformations, and providing a context for problem solving in mathematics, 4) and as a tool for inquiry in social studies (Bull & Thompson, 2004).

54 BENEFITS: DIGITAL CAMERA
Used in the classroom for: Data collection, Scientific visualization, Communication in science, Facilitation of reading, Writing and visual communication in language arts, Mathematical analyses and transformations, Tool for inquiry in social studies (Bull & Thompson, 2004)

55 BENEFITS: DIGITAL CAMERA
Digital storytelling facilitates students’ Research skills Expository writing skills Organization skills Problem solving skills Assessment skills Critical Thinking (Ohler, 2008) Develop 21st century literacies (Brown, et al., 2006). The digital cameras on cell phones can be used to facilitate reading, writing, and visual communication through digital storytelling. Digital storytelling is a “form of short narrative, usually a personal narrative told in the first person, presented as a short movie for display on a television or computer monitor or projected onto a screen” (Davis, 2004, p. 1) For example, Greenhut and Jones (2010) used student’s mobile phones to create an engaging, authentic learning opportunity while visiting the National Archives with 90 students in their 7th grade U.S. History classes. The activity was part of a unit on the Constitution. Working collaboratively in teams, students were charged with analyzing and identifying documents in the archive that demonstrated the Constitution “in action”. Students were to use the digital camera on their cell phones to photograph documents they identified. Next, they would use cell phones to call a webservice, PhoneCasting (other similar webservices include Gcast, VoiceThread, Yodio), that converted their phone messages about the photographs into podcasts. Back in class, students edited the images and podcasts into a digital story using moviemaking/storytelling software like Microsoft MovieMaker, iMovie or Photostory 3. Throughout the process, their teachers noted that the students demonstrated higher-order thinking skills such as synthesis and evaluation while working diligently and independently to create their digital stories that demonstrated the students’ personal experience with the archive as well as their deepened understanding of the Constitution.

56 BENEFITS: DIGITAL CAMERA
The Constitution by Cell Phone (Greenhut & Jones, 2010) For example, 90 7th grade students in U.S. History classes used their mobile phones while visiting the National Archives Greenhut and Jones (2010) used student’s mobile phones to create an engaging, authentic learning opportunity while visiting the National Archives with 90 students in their 7th grade U.S. History classes. The activity was part of a unit on the Constitution. Working collaboratively in teams, students were charged with analyzing and identifying documents in the archive that demonstrated the Constitution “in action”. Students were to use the digital camera on their cell phones to photograph documents they identified. Next, they would use cell phones to call a webservice, PhoneCasting (other similar webservices include Gcast, VoiceThread, Yodio), that converted their phone messages about the photographs into podcasts. Back in class, students edited the images and podcasts into a digital story using moviemaking/storytelling software like Microsoft MovieMaker, iMovie or Photostory 3. Throughout the process, their teachers noted that the students demonstrated higher-order thinking skills such as synthesis and evaluation while working diligently and independently to create their digital stories that demonstrated the students’ personal experience with the archive as well as their deepened understanding of the Constitution.

57 BENEFITS: DIGITAL CAMERA
Used cell phones to photograph documents they identified. Used cell phones to call free webservice, PhoneCasting (other similar webservices include Gcast, VoiceThread, Yodio), that converted their phone messages about the photographs into podcasts. Throughout the process, their teachers noted that the students demonstrated higher-order thinking skills such as synthesis and evaluation while working diligently and independently to create their digital stories that demonstrated the students’ personal experience with the archive as well as their deepened understanding of the Constitution.

58 BENEFITS: DIGITAL CAMERA
Back in class, edited the images and podcasts into a digital story using moviemaking/storytelling using FREE software like Photostory 3. Teachers noted that the students demonstrated higher-order thinking skills as well as their deepened understanding of the Constitution. Throughout the process, their teachers noted that the students demonstrated higher-order thinking skills such as synthesis and evaluation while working diligently and independently to create their digital stories that demonstrated the students’ personal experience with the archive as well as their deepened understanding of the Constitution.

59 BENEFITS: APPS QR codes with instructional information attached.
Finally, teachers can create QR codes with instructional information attached. The websites Kaywa and BeQRious allow teachers to create QR codes with content (e.g., , text message, YouTube video) attached to them. The QR codes can be printed off and copied onto a handout or posted in the classroom. Students can then scan the QR code using a QR code reader app on their cell phones. Once the students scan the QR code, the teacher-attached content is immediately sent to their phone. Like other cell phone applications, the use of the QR code would ensure anytime, anywhere access to course work. No more student excuses of losing an assignment or of leaving assignments at home or school.

60 BENEFITS: APPS PBS has a number of content related cell phones apps.
For nutrition (Corporal Cup’s Food Camp), Phonics (Electric Company Word Ball), Creativity (Super Why! Paint, Photo Factory), Reading (Super Why!), Emotions (Make a Journal), Vocabulary (Martha Speaks Dog Party) and Science (Dinosaur Express) (http://pbskids.org/mobile/). On their mobile learning site, PBS has a number of content related applications for cell phones. For nutrition (Corporal Cup’s Food Camp), phonics (Electric Company Word Ball), creativity (Super Why! Paint, Photo Factory), reading (Super Why!), emotions (Make a Journal), vocabulary (Martha Speaks Dog Party) and science (Dinosaur Express) (http://pbskids.org/mobile/). Another reliable source of proven educational applications is the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). ISTE lists apps for geography (Beautiful Planet HD), mathematics (Bloomberg), art (Brushes), astronomy (GoSkyWatch Planetarium), and early reading (Dr. Seuss ABC).

61 BENEFITS: APPS International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) has apps for Geography (Beautiful Planet HD), Mathematics (Bloomberg), Art (Brushes), Astronomy (GoSkyWatch Planetarium), and Early reading (Dr. Seuss ABC). On their mobile learning site, PBS has a number of content related applications for cell phones. For nutrition (Corporal Cup’s Food Camp), phonics (Electric Company Word Ball), creativity (Super Why! Paint, Photo Factory), reading (Super Why!), emotions (Make a Journal), vocabulary (Martha Speaks Dog Party) and science (Dinosaur Express) (http://pbskids.org/mobile/). Another reliable source of proven educational applications is the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). ISTE lists apps for geography (Beautiful Planet HD), mathematics (Bloomberg), art (Brushes), astronomy (GoSkyWatch Planetarium), and early reading (Dr. Seuss ABC).

62 BENEFITS: PODCASTS Students AND teachers can also create podcast using cell phones. Student-produced podcasts can Increase motivation, Higher-order thinking Improve student’s writing and listening skills (Dlott, 2007; Halderson, 2006). Don’t believe in the instructional value of podcast? Visit iTunes U. Teachers and students can also create podcast using cell phones; podcasts are audio or video files, usually in an mp3 format, that can be downloaded for listening on either a computer or more often on an mp3 player. Student-produced podcasts can increase motivation, higher-order thinking and improve student’s writing and listening skills (Dlott, 2007; Halderson, 2006). Podcast also increase students’ sense of ownership and meaningfulness in their learning (Anderson, 2005). Teachers can create instructional podcast to augment instruction and provide students with anytime/anywhere access to class content (Bongey, Cizadlo, & Kalnback, 2006; Gay et al., 2006; Rose & Rosin). Finally, podcasts also differentiate instruction by appealing to audio or visual learners (Gatewood 2008; Smaldino, Russell, Heinich, & Molenda, 2005) as well as students with language or cognitive special needs (Molina, 2006).

63 BENEFITS: PODCASTS Students can use these tools to record their teachers’ lectures or for classroom projects. Students could record themselves practicing the proper pronunciations of words for a foreign language course. Students can use these tools to record their teachers’ lectures or for classroom projects. For example, students could record themselves practicing the proper pronunciations of words for a foreign language course. Likewise, students could find community members who lived during the civil rights era and interview them for a social studies project. As demonstrated in the example above, these recordings can be turned into podcasts immediately using online programs like Gcast or PhoneCasting or later using free Open Source software such as Audacity. Finished recordings can be used to create digital stories, create/enhance multimedia productions, or posted on class or personal wikis, weblogs or webpages.

64 BENEFITS: PODCASTS Students could find community members who lived during the civil rights era and interview them for a social studies project. These can be turned into podcasts immediately using online programs like Gcast or PhoneCasting or later using free Open Source software such as Audacity. Students can use these tools to record their teachers’ lectures or for classroom projects. For example, students could record themselves practicing the proper pronunciations of words for a foreign language course. Likewise, students could find community members who lived during the civil rights era and interview them for a social studies project. As demonstrated in the example above, these recordings can be turned into podcasts immediately using online programs like Gcast or PhoneCasting or later using free Open Source software such as Audacity. Finished recordings can be used to create digital stories, create/enhance multimedia productions, or posted on class or personal wikis, weblogs or webpages.

65 BENEFITS: PODCASTS Finished recordings can be used to
create digital stories, create/enhance multimedia productions, or posted on class or personal wikis, weblogs or webpages. Students can use these tools to record their teachers’ lectures or for classroom projects. For example, students could record themselves practicing the proper pronunciations of words for a foreign language course. Likewise, students could find community members who lived during the civil rights era and interview them for a social studies project. As demonstrated in the example above, these recordings can be turned into podcasts immediately using online programs like Gcast or PhoneCasting or later using free Open Source software such as Audacity. Finished recordings can be used to create digital stories, create/enhance multimedia productions, or posted on class or personal wikis, weblogs or webpages.

66 BENEFITS: PODCAST Teachers can create instructional podcast to
augment instruction provide students with anytime/anywhere access to class content (Bongey, Cizadlo, & Kalnback, 2006; Gay et al., 2006; Rose & Rosin) allow students can control pace of delivery. Teachers and students can also create podcast using cell phones; podcasts are audio or video files, usually in an mp3 format, that can be downloaded for listening on either a computer or more often on an mp3 player. Student-produced podcasts can increase motivation, higher-order thinking and improve student’s writing and listening skills (Dlott, 2007; Halderson, 2006). Podcast also increase students’ sense of ownership and meaningfulness in their learning (Anderson, 2005). Teachers can create instructional podcast to augment instruction and provide students with anytime/anywhere access to class content (Bongey, Cizadlo, & Kalnback, 2006; Gay et al., 2006; Rose & Rosin). Finally, podcasts also differentiate instruction by appealing to audio or visual learners (Gatewood 2008; Smaldino, Russell, Heinich, & Molenda, 2005) as well as students with language or cognitive special needs (Molina, 2006). Teachers can use the same tools to create podcasts of lectures, reviews, classroom discussions, and demonstrations. Supplemental materials such as video clips, interviews, and news can also be podcasts. Podcasts can be placed online on the class wiki or weblog for students to easily access. Students can download this content to their cell phones to listen to when and where they want. They can repeatedly access content as well as control the speed and pace of the verbal and visual stimuli being offered thus allowing them to adequately process the content before more information is presented and lost (Wall et al., 2010).

67 BENEFITS: PODCAST Teacher generated podcasts also differentiate instruction by appealing to audio or visual (VOD-cast) learners (Gatewood 2008; Smaldino, Russell, Heinich, & Molenda, 2005) as well as students with language or cognitive special needs (Molina, 2006). Teachers and students can also create podcast using cell phones; podcasts are audio or video files, usually in an mp3 format, that can be downloaded for listening on either a computer or more often on an mp3 player. Student-produced podcasts can increase motivation, higher-order thinking and improve student’s writing and listening skills (Dlott, 2007; Halderson, 2006). Podcast also increase students’ sense of ownership and meaningfulness in their learning (Anderson, 2005). Teachers can create instructional podcast to augment instruction and provide students with anytime/anywhere access to class content (Bongey, Cizadlo, & Kalnback, 2006; Gay et al., 2006; Rose & Rosin). Finally, podcasts also differentiate instruction by appealing to audio or visual learners (Gatewood 2008; Smaldino, Russell, Heinich, & Molenda, 2005) as well as students with language or cognitive special needs (Molina, 2006).

68 BENEFITS: INTERNET Support communication, collaboration,
the collection and analysis of information (Harris, 2002). Research Access Wikis/Weblogs/Websites Google Earth Podcast/Videos Cell phones also have the ability to allow teachers and students to go online. Digital natives are most likely to access the Internet wirelessly with a laptop or mobile phone (Zickuhr, 2010). Instructionally, the internet can support communication, collaboration, the collection and analysis of information and individual and cooperative problem solving (Harris, 2002). The Internet can be used to access any number of tools for classroom use. For example, students can use their cell phones to use Google Earth, a Geographic Information System (GIS) and virtual globe (Baker, 2005; Bodzin, 2008). GIS are computer-based systems that allow users to collect, organize, manipulate, analyze and display data with a geographic or spatial component (Baker & Case, 2000; Lamb & Johnson, 2010). The visual nature of the program has also been show to engage, motivate and communicate to a variety of learners (Patterson, 2007). Students can also use the Internet, camera and a number of free applications (Picassa, Panoramio, Flickr, Google Earth, Flagr) for geotagging—assigning a unique geo-spatial location to a photograph. In other words, students can be on a field trip and use their cell phones to take a picture and then upload the picture using the app for Picassa, Panoramio or Flickr. Pictures can then be placed on a map with their location and a description. Many of the new smartphones have geotagging built in to them and automatically tag pictures on maps including latitude and longitude.

69 BENEFITS: INTERNET Geotagging—assigning a unique geo-spatial location to a photograph. Most new smart phones have geotagging built in to them and automatically tag pictures on maps including latitude and longitude. Cell phones also have the ability to allow teachers and students to go online. Digital natives are most likely to access the Internet wirelessly with a laptop or mobile phone (Zickuhr, 2010). Instructionally, the internet can support communication, collaboration, the collection and analysis of information and individual and cooperative problem solving (Harris, 2002). The Internet can be used to access any number of tools for classroom use. For example, students can use their cell phones to use Google Earth, a Geographic Information System (GIS) and virtual globe (Baker, 2005; Bodzin, 2008). GIS are computer-based systems that allow users to collect, organize, manipulate, analyze and display data with a geographic or spatial component (Baker & Case, 2000; Lamb & Johnson, 2010). The visual nature of the program has also been show to engage, motivate and communicate to a variety of learners (Patterson, 2007). Students can also use the Internet, camera and a number of free applications (Picassa, Panoramio, Flickr, Google Earth, Flagr) for geotagging—assigning a unique geo-spatial location to a photograph. In other words, students can be on a field trip and use their cell phones to take a picture and then upload the picture using the app for Picassa, Panoramio or Flickr. Pictures can then be placed on a map with their location and a description. Many of the new smartphones have geotagging built in to them and automatically tag pictures on maps including latitude and longitude.

70 BENEFITS: INTERNET Geotagging photos to share fieldtrips with the world (Holmes, 2008) For example, teachers can use geotagging to generate a game of “Hide and Seek” for students going on a field trip. Prior to the trip, the teacher would create a trail of photos with information that can be used to sequence a walk or geographical treasure hunt. For example, teachers can use geotagging to generate a game of “Hide and Seek” for students going on a field trip. Prior to the trip, the teacher would create a trail of photos with information that can be used to sequence a walk or geographical treasure hunt. The tagged photographs would assist students’ navigational and informational aids to help guide them on the field trip. At each of the locations tagged by the teacher, the students can be asked to carry out a task, e.g. complete a field sketch, conduct an interview, and take a photograph and geotag it (Holmes, 2008). Teachers and students can also add audio to their geotags. GeoGraffiti allows users to add audio markers to their images and to post both to specific locations on the map. In this way students on a field trip could record what they are learning or their impressions of what they are seeing at specific locations during the trip.

71 BENEFITS: INTERNET At each of the locations tagged by the teacher, the students can be asked to carry out a task, e.g. complete a field sketch, conduct an interview, and take a photograph and geotag it (Holmes, 2008). At each of the locations tagged by the teacher, the students can be asked to carry out a task, e.g. complete a field sketch, conduct an interview, and take a photograph and geotag it (Holmes, 2008). Teachers and students can also add audio to their geotags. GeoGraffiti allows users to add audio markers to their images and to post both to specific locations on the map. In this way students on a field trip could record what they are learning or their impressions of what they are seeing at specific locations during the trip.

72 ACCESS Low cost and high functionality = marked increase in cell phone ownership.

73 ACCESS The most recent research indicates that 85% of adults and
75% of teens own a cell phone (Smith, 2010). 82% of high school aged teens own a cell phone (Lenhart, Purcell, Smith, & Zickuhr, 2010). Teen ownership has increased by 40% since 2004 (Smith, 2010). Low cost and high functionality = marked increase in cell phone ownership.

74 ACCESS Lower cost and increased capabilities are allowing cell phones to bridge the digital divide. Teens from low socio-economic homes often use their cell phones to go online. 41% of teens from homes earning less than $30,000 per year say they use their cell phones to access the internet (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell,Purcell, 2010). The combination of lower cost and increased capabilities are allowing cell phones to bridge the digital divide. Teens from low socio-economic homes often use their cell phones to go online. In fact, 41% of teens from homes earning less than $30,000 per year say they use their cell phones to access the internet (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, Purcell, 2010). Furthermore, more African Americans, 44%, and Hispanics, 35%, teens use their cell phones to go online more than their Caucasian counterparts, 21% (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, Purcell, 2010).

75 ACCESS 44% of African Americans 35% of Hispanics 21% of Caucasian
Teens use their cell phones to go online (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, Purcell, 2010). Furthermore, more African Americans, 44%, and Hispanics, 35%, teens use their cell phones to go online more than their Caucasian counterparts, 21% (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, Purcell, 2010).

76 CONCLUSION Class disruptions, texting, cheating, sexting and cyberbullying are concerns. But, we must acknowledge that they are new forms of old behavior. All of these behaviors—cheating, cyberbullying and sexting—have this in common: they are new forms of old behavior.

77 CONCLUSION Mobile phones are not the cause of these problems… …nor will banning them be the solution. Technology has made it easier for student to engage in these behaviors while increasing the potential harm caused by them. However, mobile phones are not the cause of these problems nor will banning them be the solution.

78 CONCLUSION To solve this problem, experts recommend doing what schools do best— educate. To solve this problem, experts recommend doing what schools do best—educate; schools need to educate students, teachers, administrators, parents and the community about ethical and moral behavior (Manzo, 2009; Strom and Strom, 2007), internet safety and the dangers of sexting (Manzo, 2009; Sexting, 2009; Taylor, 2009) and cyberbullying (Chibbaro, 2007; Holladay, 2010; Manzo, 2009; Poland, 2010). Furthermore, schools need to develop clear policies and procedures for use of mobile phones and how to address any incidents of inappropriate use(s) and inform parents and students of these (Poland, 2010; Smith, Mahdavi, Carvalho, Sonja, Russel, & Tippett, 2007; Soronen, Vitale & Haase, 2010). Mobile phone can be used a tool for negative behavior. However, to quote a Latin phrase, “ex abusu non arguitur ad usum”—the abuse of a thing is no argument against its use, and research has demonstrated the ability of mobile phones to be a positive tool for educational purposes both inside and out of the classroom.

79 CONCLUSION Educate students, teachers, administrators, parents and the community about —ethical and moral behavior (Manzo, 2009; Strom and Strom, 2007), —internet safety —the dangers of sexting (Manzo, 2009; Sexting, 2009; Taylor, 2009) —and cyberbullying (Chibbaro, 2007; Holladay, 2010; Manzo, 2009; Poland, 2010). To solve this problem, experts recommend doing what schools do best—educate; schools need to educate students, teachers, administrators, parents and the community about ethical and moral behavior (Manzo, 2009; Strom and Strom, 2007), internet safety and the dangers of sexting (Manzo, 2009; Sexting, 2009; Taylor, 2009) and cyberbullying (Chibbaro, 2007; Holladay, 2010; Manzo, 2009; Poland, 2010). Furthermore, schools need to develop clear policies and procedures for use of mobile phones and how to address any incidents of inappropriate use(s) and inform parents and students of these (Poland, 2010; Smith, Mahdavi, Carvalho, Sonja, Russel, & Tippett, 2007; Soronen, Vitale & Haase, 2010). Mobile phone can be used a tool for negative behavior. However, to quote a Latin phrase, “ex abusu non arguitur ad usum”—the abuse of a thing is no argument against its use, and research has demonstrated the ability of mobile phones to be a positive tool for educational purposes both inside and out of the classroom.

80 CONCLUSION Develop — clear policies and procedures for use of mobile phones — and how to address any incidents of inappropriate use(s) and inform parents — and students of these (Poland, 2010; Smith, Mahdavi, Carvalho, Sonja, Russel, & Tippett, 2007; Soronen, Vitale & Haase, 2010). Furthermore, schools need to develop clear policies and procedures for use of mobile phones and how to address any incidents of inappropriate use(s) and inform parents and students of these (Poland, 2010; Smith, Mahdavi, Carvalho, Sonja, Russel, & Tippett, 2007; Soronen, Vitale & Haase, 2010).

81 CONCLUSION Mobile phone can be used a tool for negative behavior.
Mobile phone can be used a tool for negative behavior. However, to quote a Latin phrase, “ex abusu non arguitur ad usum”—the abuse of a thing is no argument against its use, and research has demonstrated the ability of mobile phones to be a positive tool for educational purposes both inside and out of the classroom.

82 CONCLUSION Mobile phone can be used a distraction in the classroom.
Mobile phone can be used a tool for negative behavior. However, to quote a Latin phrase, “ex abusu non arguitur ad usum”—the abuse of a thing is no argument against its use, and research has demonstrated the ability of mobile phones to be a positive tool for educational purposes both inside and out of the classroom.

83 CONCLUSION However, the argument for allowing cell phones in the classroom can be summarized by two Latin phrases: “Cum hoc ergo propter hoc.” Correlation does not imply causation. Mobile phone can be used a tool for negative behavior. However, to quote a Latin phrase, “ex abusu non arguitur ad usum”—the abuse of a thing is no argument against its use, and research has demonstrated the ability of mobile phones to be a positive tool for educational purposes both inside and out of the classroom.

84 CONCLUSION “Ex abusu non arguitur ad usum.” The abuse of a thing is no argument against its use. Mobile phone can be used a tool for negative behavior. However, to quote a Latin phrase, “ex abusu non arguitur ad usum”—the abuse of a thing is no argument against its use, and research has demonstrated the ability of mobile phones to be a positive tool for educational purposes both inside and out of the classroom.

85 Bellarmine University Frazier School of Education
Kevin M. Thomas, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Bellarmine University Frazier School of Education 2001 Newburg Road Louisville, KY 40205 drkthomas.wikispaces.com


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