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Dr. Kevin M. Thomas Bellarmine University Louisville, KY Cell Phones in the K-12 Classroom 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Kevin M. Thomas Bellarmine University Louisville, KY Cell Phones in the K-12 Classroom 1."— Presentation transcript:


2 Dr. Kevin M. Thomas Bellarmine University Louisville, KY Cell Phones in the K-12 Classroom 1

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7 84% of teens between the ages of have a cell phone 85% of them use their cells for text messaging (YouthBeat, 2009) 70% of teens use texting for schoolwork (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, & Purcell, 2010) 6

8 69% percent of American high schools ban cell phone use or possession on school grounds (CommonSense, 2010). 7

9 Teachers view of cell phones as a disruption in the classroom (Lenhart, 2010). 8

10 58% have sent a text message during class, 64% have texted in class (43% text in class at least once a day or more) 25% have made or received a call during class (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, & Purcell, 2010) 9


12 RINGING PHONE Negatively impacts student performance when being tested on the material being covered (Shelton, Elliott, Lynn and Exner, 2011). Ringing condition performance was significantly worse on the disrupted test items (End, Worthman, Mathews, Wetterau, 2010). 11

13 Image by Jordan R. MacDonald 12

14 BACKGROUND 2008 Three sophomore high school classes given the option receiving course texts from their instructors. Students received reminders and additional assignments after school hours. – (Thomas & Orthober, 2010) 13

15 BACKGROUND 39 (61%) acknowledged that they sent texts to their friends about school. How did they use them? To ask or answer questions about assignments To ask for help or offer help to others concerning class work To find what they have missed when they had been absent from class. – (Thomas & Orthober, 2010) 14

16 BACKGROUND 92% found the texts to be valuable Questions Additional Practice Reminders Absent Of course! There is no reason not to. – (Thomas & Orthober, 2010) 15

17 BACKGROUND Teachers Comments Helped students remember assignments = better prepared for class Helped improve the classroom community and to build student rapport Time commitment was minimal compared to the benefits – (Thomas & Orthober, 2010) 16

18 Purpose Today It is my opinion that we are at a cross roads in regards to allowing the use of cell phones in the classroom. 17

19 NEGATIVES o Texting o Sexting o Cheating o Cyberbullying 18

20 TEXTING: POINT Teachers believe texting negatively impacts students ability to spell and correctly use punctuation and capitalization. 19

21 TEXTING: COUNTER- POINT Orthographically speaking, there is also nothing novel about texting. Linguist David Crystal from Txtng: The Gr8 Db8 (2008) 20

22 TEXTING: COUNTER- POINT Students code switch Textese is not harmful to students ability to write. Texting did NOT negatively affect students writing skills. Students who texted more often wrote more and had better writing and spelling skills than their peers who texted less – (Plester et al., 2008) 21

23 TEXTING: POINT Texting distracts students from learning. 22

24 TEXTING: COUTNER- POINT 16 or more texts in a 30-minute periodstudent performance was only slightly worse than those receiving no texts or a few texts. Moderate Text group, which sent and received 8 texts in 30 minutes, did not do any worse than those who got essentially no texts. (p. 173) Must be noted that a 10.6% difference between the group receiving the most text messages and the group receiving the least text messages is equivalent to one letter grade. – (Rosen, Lim, Carrier, and Cheever, 2011) 23

25 CHEATING: POINT 1/3 high school students admitted cheating with cell phones 65% reports classmates use their phones to cheat – LOL :-D 26% store information on their phones to retrieve during a test 25% text a friend about test answers 17% take pictures of tests to send their friends 20% search the internet for answers during a test (CommonSense Media, 2010; Lenhart, Ling, Campbell and Purcell, 2010) 24

26 CHEATING: COUNTER- POINT The practice of cheating is not a result of the invention of the cell phone; rather it can be traced in history through thousands of years (Bushway & Nash, 1977). 25

27 CHEATING: COUNTER- POINT 1980: 75% of students reported cheating in school (Baird, 1980). 2005: 74% of students reported cheating in school (Pickett & Thomas, 2006) 26

28 CHEATING: COUNTER- POINT Research indicates that students cheat due to an erosion of ethics, self-centeredness, not being held responsible for their actions, and pressure from high-stakes testing and parents to perform regardless of the meansnone of which have to do with technology or mobile phones. Strom & Strom, 2007, p

29 SEXTING: POINT 4% of teens have reported sending a sexual image of themselves in a text 15% report having received a sexual image via text message. – (Lenhart et al., 2010). 28

30 SEXTING: POINT Students have also used mobile phones to secretly take inappropriate photographs of peers and texts these images to someone else. – St. Gerard, % of both teen girls and teen boys acknowledge that it is common for sexually suggestive text messages to be shared with people other than the intended recipient. – National Campaign,

31 SEXTING: COUNTER- POINT There is no empirical evidence to support the claim that cell phones increase incidents of students talking or writing about sex. Nor is there anything inherent in the technology that supports aberrant behavior Is a result of a lack of guidance and mentoring on the part of adults regarding the proper use of technologies like cell phones 30

32 SEXTING: COUNTER- POINT Jim Hirsch, an associate superintendent in Texas, school stake-holders must: …shift their thinking from the concept that schools must protect students by restricting access to commonly used devices to the idea that schools have to educate students to use these devices and tools responsibly while in and out of school (2005, p. 1). 31

33 SEXTING: COUNTER- POINT State and National Technology Standards for Teachers that require teachers and students to demonstrate the safe, ethical and legal use of technology (ISTE, 2008). 32

34 SEXTING: COUNTER- POINT Arthur Graves, Chairman of the Secondary Principals Council, points out, the rise of text messages and s have made teacher---student boundaries a little easier to cross, but it is the, content of the message that counts, not the mode of the message (Woulfe, 2007, p. 2). Technologies like texting have the potential to be invasive, but so does or the landline phones of the past fifty years. Teachers who follow the proper guidelines can use any technology in a professional manner (Woulfe, 2007). 33

35 CYBERBULLYING: POINT 26% of teens have been harassed through their mobile phone either by calls or text messages – (Lenhart et al., 2010) Often times, the sharing of sexually explicit photos by the recipient and others leads to cyberbullying of the sender. – (Cyberbully Research Center, 2011; Seigle, 2010) 34

36 CYBERBULLYING: COUNTER-POINT As with cheating, bullying predates mobile phones. Banning cell phones is not going to make students stop bullying. Rather, teachers, students, and parents have to be educated about bullying in order to teach online safety skills and equip young people with strategies to reject digital abuse in their lives (Holladay, 2010). 35

37 Cell phones have evolved from mobile phones to small, ubiquitous, inexpensive, portable microcomputers. 36

38 BENEFITS: TEACHERS PERCEPTIONS Surveyed 79 (78%) participated in the study by completing the cell phone survey Grade Level 30 (38%) elementary 19 (24.1%) middle 30 (38%) school 37

39 Do teachers support the use of cell phones in the classroom? 69.6% = Yes 70% (n=56) are already using cell phones for school/class related work. BENEFITS: TEACHERS PERCEPTIONS 38

40 How are you using technology for school related activities? #1 Communication with colleagues, students, parents = 35.4% #2 Collaborate with other teachers = 30.4% #3 To remind myself, colleagues or students of deadlines, tasks = 27.8% BENEFITS: TEACHERS PERCEPTIONS 39

41 BENEFITS Instructionally, smart phones support: Content creation (Hartnell-Young & Vetere 2008), Student-centered learning, collaboration (Corbeil & Valdes- Corbeil, 2007), Authentic learning (Brown & Duguid, 1996), Differentiation of instruction (Kukulska-Hulme, 2007), Assessment and reflection (Markett, Sanchez, Weber, & Tangney,

42 BENEFITS: A LEARNING Portability of cell phones allows anywhere/anytime access interaction communication Between students, teacher and parents 41

43 Student perspective, cell phones allow them to multitask (Lu, 2008; Yerushalmy & Ben-Zaken, 2004) by accessing course material, conducting research via the Internet, and communicating with peers and teachers in what could otherwise be periods of dead time (Kolb, 2011; Motiwalla, 2007; Yengina, Karahoca, Karahoca, & Uzunboyla, 2011). BENEFITS: A LEARNING 42

44 BENEFITS: TEXTING Students can receive additional instruction and/or practice problems for any content area. For example, Nick Schultz, a high school Latin teacher sent students text messages in Latin. Students responses were expected to be in Latin (Thomas & Orthober, 2011). 43

45 BENEFITS: TEXTING Cell Phone Study: Learning Letters with Elmo Evaluate of educational effectiveness of cell phone Parents reported an increase in children's knowledge of the alphabet, and in their own initiation of literacy-related activities with their children. Most impact among participating households at or below the poverty level. 44

46 BENEFITS: TEXTING Texting can also be used by teachers and schools to communicate with parents. Research has demonstrated that providing students and parents with regular information about classwork leads to a higher assignment completion rate and improved student achievement (Sui-Chu & Willms, 1996). 45

47 BENEFITS: TEXTING Texting can be used for assessment (Whattananarong, 2006) Cell phone performed comparably with students who did so by conventional methods (Whattananarong, 2006) Free online assessment site Poll EverywherePoll Everywhere 46

48 BENEFITS: TEXTING Adventures with Cell PhonesAdventures with Cell Phones (Kolb, 2011) For Example, Kolb describes 7 th graders using Poll Everywhere in a Social Studies classroom. 47

49 BENEFITS: TEXTING As students enter the classroom, the teacher has posted a brainstorming question asking students what they believe to be the most important cause of the Civil War on the whiteboard. 48

50 BENEFITS: TEXTING Students are able to watch the changing results displayed in a bar graph on the whiteboard. 49

51 BENEFITS: TEXTING The teacher then asks students to send another text message explaining their reasons for their choice. The anonymous nature of the texts allows students to feel comfortable giving honest opinions and allows all students to have a voice (Kolb, 2011; Banks, 2006; Durbin & Durbin, 2006). 50

52 BENEFITS: TEXTING Poll Everywhere can be used in faculty and parent assemblies to receive feedback. 51

53 BENEFITS: TEXTING Companies like The Princeton Review and Kaplan already offer texting based test-preparation questions for the Scholastic Achievement Test and other standardized test that can be sent to users (Hartnell-Young & Vetere, 2008). 52

54 BENEFITS: DIGITAL CAMERA 83% of teens report having taken a picture with their cell phone (Lenhart, 2010). 53

55 BENEFITS: DIGITAL CAMERA Used in the classroom for: Data collection, Scientific visualization, Communication in science, Facilitation of reading, Writing and visual communication in language arts, Mathematical analyses and transformations, Tool for inquiry in social studies (Bull & Thompson, 2004) 54

56 BENEFITS: DIGITAL CAMERA Digital storytelling facilitates students Research skills Expository writing skills Organization skills Problem solving skills Assessment skills Critical Thinking (Ohler, 2008) Develop 21 st century literacies (Brown, et al., 2006). 55

57 BENEFITS: DIGITAL CAMERA The Constitution by Cell Phone The Constitution by Cell Phone (Greenhut & Jones, 2010) For example, 90 7th grade students in U.S. History classes used their mobile phones while visiting the National Archives 56

58 BENEFITS: DIGITAL CAMERA Used cell phones to photograph documents they identified. Used cell phones to call free webservice, PhoneCasting (other similar webservices include Gcast, VoiceThread, Yodio), that converted their phone messages about the photographs into podcasts. 57

59 BENEFITS: DIGITAL CAMERA Back in class, edited the images and podcasts into a digital story using moviemaking/storytelling using FREE software like Photostory 3. Teachers noted that the students demonstrated higher-order thinking skills as well as their deepened understanding of the Constitution. 58

60 BENEFITS: APPS QR codes with instructional information attached. 59

61 BENEFITS: APPS PBS has a number of content related cell phones apps. For nutrition (Corporal Cups Food Camp), Phonics (Electric Company Word Ball), Creativity (Super Why! Paint, Photo Factory), Reading (Super Why!), Emotions (Make a Journal), Vocabulary (Martha Speaks Dog Party) and Science (Dinosaur Express) ( 60

62 BENEFITS: APPS International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) has apps for Geography (Beautiful Planet HD), Mathematics (Bloomberg), Art (Brushes), Astronomy (GoSkyWatch Planetarium), and Early reading (Dr. Seuss ABC). 61

63 BENEFITS: PODCASTS Students AND teachers can also create podcast using cell phones. Student-produced podcasts can Increase motivation, Higher-order thinking Improve students writing and listening skills (Dlott, 2007; Halderson, 2006). Dont believe in the instructional value of podcast? Visit iTunes U.Visit iTunes U. 62

64 BENEFITS: PODCASTS Students can use these tools to record their teachers lectures or for classroom projects. Students could record themselves practicing the proper pronunciations of words for a foreign language course. 63

65 BENEFITS: PODCASTS Students could find community members who lived during the civil rights era and interview them for a social studies project. These can be turned into podcasts immediately using online programs like Gcast or PhoneCasting or later using free Open Source software such as Audacity. 64

66 BENEFITS: PODCASTS Finished recordings can be used to create digital stories, create/enhance multimedia productions, or posted on class or personal wikis, weblogs or webpages. 65

67 Teachers can create instructional podcast to augment instruction provide students with anytime/anywhere access to class content (Bongey, Cizadlo, & Kalnback, 2006; Gay et al., 2006; Rose & Rosin) allow students can control pace of delivery. BENEFITS: PODCAST 66

68 Teacher generated podcasts also differentiate instruction by appealing to audio or visual (VOD-cast) learners (Gatewood 2008; Smaldino, Russell, Heinich, & Molenda, 2005) as well as students with language or cognitive special needs (Molina, 2006). BENEFITS: PODCAST 67

69 BENEFITS: INTERNET Support communication, collaboration, the collection and analysis of information (Harris, 2002). Research Access Wikis/Weblogs/Websites Google Earth Podcast/Videos 68

70 BENEFITS: INTERNET Geotaggingassigning a unique geo- spatial location to a photograph. Most new smart phones have geotagging built in to them and automatically tag pictures on maps including latitude and longitude. 69

71 BENEFITS: INTERNET Geotagging photos to share fieldtrips with the worldGeotagging photos to share fieldtrips with the world (Holmes, 2008) For example, teachers can use geotagging to generate a game of Hide and Seek for students going on a field trip. Prior to the trip, the teacher would create a trail of photos with information that can be used to sequence a walk or geographical treasure hunt. 70

72 BENEFITS: INTERNET At each of the locations tagged by the teacher, the students can be asked to carry out a task, e.g. complete a field sketch, conduct an interview, and take a photograph and geotag it (Holmes, 2008). 71

73 ACCESS 72

74 The most recent research indicates that 85% of adults and 75% of teens own a cell phone (Smith, 2010). 82% of high school aged teens own a cell phone (Lenhart, Purcell, Smith, & Zickuhr, 2010). Teen ownership has increased by 40% since 2004 (Smith, 2010). ACCESS 73

75 ACCESS Lower cost and increased capabilities are allowing cell phones to bridge the digital divide. Teens from low socio-economic homes often use their cell phones to go online. 41% of teens from homes earning less than $30,000 per year say they use their cell phones to access the internet (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell,Purcell, 2010). 74

76 ACCESS 44% of African Americans 35% of Hispanics 21% of Caucasian Teens use their cell phones to go online (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, Purcell, 2010). 75

77 CONCLUSION Class disruptions, texting, cheating, sexting and cyberbullying are concerns. But, we must acknowledge that they are new forms of old behavior. 76

78 CONCLUSION Mobile phones are not the cause of these problems… …nor will banning them be the solution. 77

79 CONCLUSION To solve this problem, experts recommend doing what schools do best educate. 78

80 CONCLUSION Educate students, teachers, administrators, parents and the community about ethical and moral behavior (Manzo, 2009; Strom and Strom, 2007), internet safety the dangers of sexting (Manzo, 2009; Sexting, 2009; Taylor, 2009) and cyberbullying (Chibbaro, 2007; Holladay, 2010; Manzo, 2009; Poland, 2010). 79

81 CONCLUSION Develop clear policies and procedures for use of mobile phones and how to address any incidents of inappropriate use(s) and inform parents and students of these (Poland, 2010; Smith, Mahdavi, Carvalho, Sonja, Russel, & Tippett, 2007; Soronen, Vitale & Haase, 2010). 80

82 CONCLUSION Mobile phone can be used a tool for negative behavior. 81

83 CONCLUSION Mobile phone can be used a distraction in the classroom. 82

84 CONCLUSION However, the argument for allowing cell phones in the classroom can be summarized by two Latin phrases: Cum hoc ergo propter hoc. Correlation does not imply causation. 83

85 CONCLUSION Ex abusu non arguitur ad usum. The abuse of a thing is no argument against its use. 84

86 Kevin M. Thomas, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Bellarmine University Frazier School of Education 2001 Newburg Road Louisville, KY 85

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