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Eugen Bleuer first coined the word autism Leo Kanner defined autism in 1943 Dr. Hans Asperger studied children in 1944 who had characteristics similar.

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Presentation on theme: "Eugen Bleuer first coined the word autism Leo Kanner defined autism in 1943 Dr. Hans Asperger studied children in 1944 who had characteristics similar."— Presentation transcript:


2 Eugen Bleuer first coined the word autism Leo Kanner defined autism in 1943 Dr. Hans Asperger studied children in 1944 who had characteristics similar to autism and later defined it as Aspergers Syndrome. Bruno Bettelheim defined the term frigid mothers which was later discounted as a cause for autism.

3 Biological 1. Genetics 2. Neurological Abnormalities Environmental 1. Effects of Family Experiences 2. Mobility of Family

4 Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) 1. Autism 2. Aspergers Syndrome 3. PDD-NOS Statistics 1. Prevalence rates 2. U.S. Department of Education 3. South Carolina

5 Inability to connect with other children and/or adults Lack of eye contact Inappropriate outbursts Unwillingness to initiate play Unable to regulate behaviors

6 Deficits in communication skills Echolalia Prosody Pragmatic language deficiencies

7 Self-stimulatory behaviors Obsessive interests on a single topic Behaviors develop around the ages of 2 to 3 years of age. Some children will have more subtle behaviors.

8 Lack of response to pain Hypersensitive to sounds Hypersensitive to touch Difficulty with bright lights and sunlight Food textures


10 What is a differential diagnosis? DSM-IV Three main categories: 1. Childhood Autism 2. Aspergers Syndrome 3. PDD-NOS

11 The DSM-IV divides the criteria for childhood autism into 4 parts: 1. Qualitative impairment in social interaction 2. Qualitative impairment in communication 3. Restricted, repetitive & stereotypic behaviors, interests and activities 4. Onset prior to 3 years old 5. Rule out other PDD syndromes

12 Impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors Failure to develop peer relationships Lack of spontaneous interest with other individuals Lack of social reciprocity

13 Delay or lack of development of spoken language Inability to initiate a conversation Stereotypic and/or repetitive use of language Lack of spontaneous play appropriate to the developmental level

14 Preoccupation with stereotypic patterns of interest Inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines Repetitive motor mannerisms Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects

15 Delays or abnormal functioning in: 1. Social interaction 2. Language and communication 3. Symbolic or imaginative play Onset prior to the age of 3 Rule out for Retts Syndrome and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

16 The DSM-IV divides the criteria for Aspergers Syndrome into 6 parts: 1. Qualitative impairment in social interaction 2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior 3. Impairment in other areas of functioning 4. No significant clinical language delay 5. No significant clinical cognitive development 6. Rule out other PDD disorders

17 Marked impairment in the use of nonverbal behaviors Failure to develop peer relationships Lack of spontaneous enjoyment and interest with other individuals Lack of social reciprocity

18 Encompassing preoccupation with other interests Inflexible adherence to nonfunctional routines Stereotypic motor mannerisms Preoccupation with parts of objects

19 Impairment in other areas of functioning No clinically significant delay in language No clinically significant delay in cognitive skills Must rule out other PDD disabilities

20 Used only when severe impairment in areas of social interaction, communication and stereotypic behavior but criteria for autism and Aspergers syndrome can not be met Rule out other PDD disabilities and schizophrenia May have a later age of onset

21 Definition: Autism means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a childs education performance……

22 Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experience. The term does not apply if a childs educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance, as defined in the section on emotional disability.

23 Must be made by a multidisciplinary evaluation team that includes a certified school psychologist and a speech language therapist 1. Disturbances in development rates 2. Disturbances in response to sensory stimuli 3. Impaired use of language 4. Inability to relate to people, objects or events 5. Significant rating on standardized autism scale Must adversely affect educational performance

24 Hearing & vision screening Speech and language assessment Developmental history Three 20-minute direct observations in two environments on two different days Score on standardized autism rating scale Any other important information related to the childs suspected disability Documentation that the childs autism adversely affects his/her educational performance.

25 Basic Assumptions: 1. Properly training evaluators 2. Evaluate for not just eligibility, but for appropriate information to develop a quality educational plan 3. Remember that the testing is just a snapshot of what the child is performing at that moment in time.

26 It is possible that the parents will have received some medical evaluations that might include: 1. Audiologist will test hearing 2. EEG to rule out brain abnormalities 3. Metabolic screening 4. MRI/CAT Scan 5. Genetic testing

27 Most likely the school psychologist will complete the following testing: 1. Intelligence tests 2. Achievement tests 3. Autism rating scales 4. Adaptive behavior scales

28 Students with autism are often eligible for related services. Qualified personnel with the school district can provide testing in the following areas: 1. Speech-language 2. Occupational therapy 3. Physical therapy

29 Direct observation is gathered by observing the child in many educational and if possible, family situations. Parents and care-givers must be actively involved in this part of the evaluation. Functional Assessments for behavior issues through direct observation and data collection.

30 Is this the first diagnosis of ASD? Do the parents have an IEE that needs to be considered? Do the parents have a copy of the school districts evaluation? Has the appropriate personnel discussed the evaluation before the meeting with the parents? Have all appropriate team members been invited and agreed to attend? Do the parents have a copy of the Parents Handbook?

31 Can be held with eligibility meeting Parents have the right to invite team members Provide a draft IEP several days before the meeting Start with the goals and objectives Consider all related services Discuss and explain as needed the full continuum of services available under IDEA, beginning with placement in the general education setting Use the minutes to document discussions on goals, objectives, therapies and placements.


33 All parents dream of having a child who is successful in school. You will be working with parents who may be exhausted from the demands helping their child with autism and managing a family. Do not overlook the stressors that these families deal with on a regular basis. COLLABORATION IS THE KEY!

34 Schools must ensure that the student makes adequate progress toward IEP goals. Methodology that is used in the classroom must demonstrate that the student is benefiting from an education. No one methodology can cure autism. Look beyond the methodology and determine if the outcome for the student is effective!

35 Consider the family unit. Involve the necessary family members in the education of the student. Do not use educational jargon. Do not assume that the parents will ask questions. Take the time to ask if clarification is needed. Do not make judgments. Support statements with objective data.

36 Never start conversations with negative statements about the student. Always rephrase problems to present requests in a positive manner. Work to find a common solution that both the school and the parents will be able to find success. Always end the conversation with a positive statement or an encouraging statement about the student.

37 All team members, including parents, need to be heard. Take the time to listen, even if you have heard it over and over. Do not take phone calls, work on , look at your watch during meetings. Set the time frame for the meeting if necessary. The common thread is an appropriate education for the child!


39 Many students will be on some type of medication for: - Obsessive-compulsive disorder - Attentional issues - Behavioral concerns No medication will cure ASD. Need to know the dosage and side effects to monitor effectiveness. A student can not be kept out of school until the parent puts the student on medication.

40 Antidepressants Benzodiazepines Stimulants Antipsychotic medications Any behavioral changes should be noted so that the parent can provide accurate information to the physician.

41 Define behavioral issues in terms of frequency, duration and intensity. Must consider all options to help the student regulate behavior. Teachers working with students who have ASD must be appropriately trained to handle the behaviors. Students with ASD may not be able to appropriately interpret feedback they receive!

42 Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Shaping Prompting Generalization Must be consistent in behavioral procedures!

43 Teach choices – focus on positive replacement behaviors. Teach communication skills thru speech, gestures, pictorial programs, communication devices. Reward positive behavior. Be concise and clear when talking to the child.

44 A Functional Behavior Assessment is the process of gathering and analyzing information about the student's behavior and the circumstances in order to determine the purpose or intent of the actions. The purpose of a FBA is: Appropriate placement & services Information for positive behavior supports Identify positive interventions Develop appropriate substitute behaviors

45 Behaviors will occur in response to specific stimuli; Behaviors are ruled by consequences; Behaviors are a form of communication; Behaviors will have a purpose which is usually to get something such as attention or to avoid/escape something such as doing class work.

46 Must be a clear, concise, observable and measurable definition; Description of the events that predict when the behaviors will occur; Description of the consequences that maintain the behavior; List of hypotheses that describe the function maintaining the behavior.

47 Also known as a Positive Behavior Support Plan Developed by the IEP team which includes the parent and if appropriate, the student Key elements include: - Basic information about student - Description of problem behavior - Summary of the FBA - Description of the interventions to be implemented - Written description of how data will be collected - Crisis plan, if needed - Timeline and plan for evaluation of the interventions - Signatures of all team members


49 Ability of the child to modulate or regulate sensation as it comes in. Students may overreact to some types of sensory stimuli, but under react to others. Many students crave sensations and will seek it out from other students or adults. Some students will have meltdowns. No child is alike and some children will react differently to sensory stimuli on different days. (Greenspan)

50 Can the student self-regulate behavior? Is there a sensory preference? When does the student best learn? Does the student express appropriate affect to sensory input? How does the student manage transitions? What interests the student? Do sensory issues interfere with self-care skills How does the student handle social situations?

51 Recommended for students who have sensory modulation difficulties. Can involve sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste, balance and weight. Occupational therapist can often provide guidance to help the student handle their sensory processing issues.

52 Will include both environmental and curriculum adaptations Should not be done in isolation, but rather incorporated throughout the school day by all individuals that interact with the student Should be part of the students IEP or 504 plan Adjust as behaviors change over time

53 Have student sit on wiggle ball or jump on a trampoline. Allow frequent breaks throughout the day. Provide easy access to stress balls and fidget toys that are squishy, soft, textured. Allow chewing on crunchy, chewy items Designate an area in the room to stomp feet or pace. Never take physical education or recess away from a student Allow use of a bean bag chair and/or listen to music, read. Minimize verbal directions. Use ear plugs or head phones. Use social stories. Limit the visual material hanging from ceiling or walls. Limit amount of visual information on worksheet. Use a lamp instead of overhead fluorescent lighting.


55 A narrative summary describing the students current achievement in their area of need. Determined by an evaluation, baseline data, observations, parental concerns. Serves as bridge between the evaluation process and the writing of goals and objectives. Must address strengths and needs and how the disability affects the students involvement in the general education curriculum. Will address transition if the student is 13 or older.

56 Identify students needs Provide a baseline to establish goals Should be stated in measurable and concise terms List & describe most recent evaluations Describe current performance and how student performs in general curriculum Use all relevant information from not only tests, but observations, parental and student input, class performance and other types of district assessments.

57 Must be a statement on how the disability impacts the students involvement in the general curriculum. Examples: - "needs organizational skills for completing work on time" - "need for reading skills impedes completion of work at grade level" - "behavior prevents independent work on general education assignments"

58 Teacher records show that Jonah turns in a weekly average of 60% of his math assignments, and 50% of his English assignments (100% expected). Fewer than 75% of assignments turned in are complete. Jonah appears capable of completing the work as given. This performance jeopardizes completion of his coursework for graduation.

59 In unstructured settings and transitional times of the day, Yasmins activity level increases and she more likely violates school rules, or becomes agitated and angry. Yasmin does not de-escalate behavior and is not willing to discuss situations afterward. Disciplinary records indicate 8 disciplinary removals in the past 10 school days and 27 in 3 previous months, causing her to fall behind in her schoolwork. Yasmins reading fluency is interrupted by substitutions. Yasmin does not efficiently use context or phonics clues which affect her progress in reading as indicated by her performance on third grade classroom oral reading benchmark tests."

60 Dennis is having difficulties in math. He is unable to meet the general education standards in the area of understanding and applying a variety of problem- solving strategies. He can compute additional problems when using touch math. He has difficulty processing story problems when they are read to him in a one-to-one situation. He does not understand the relationship of the language in the problems and the computation. Dennis needs to learn to set up and solve story problems. He was not able to complete any of the addition or subtraction story problems on the second grade math assessment.

61 Description of what a student with autism can reasonably expect to accomplish within a school year with the provision of special education services. Will provide the general direction for instruction for the student. Direct relationship between the present levels of performance and the goals/objectives section.

62 Must be meaningful. Necessary for students success in current & future environments Must be measurable. Serves as the foundation to develop the benchmarks. Must be monitored. Need the data to look at the effectiveness of the students educational program.

63 Milestones that specify what a student needs to accomplish to reach the annual goal. May reflect the districts standards. Must be measurable and observable. Will represent the content or performance the student must accomplish. Should be reasonable and within the students ability to master.

64 Stranger Test - The goal or benchmark should be written so someone who did not write it can pick up the IEP and use it to develop appropriate instructional plans. So What Test –Consider the importance of the goal or benchmark. Ask and answer the question, "Is the skill indicated in this goal, or benchmark really an important skill for the student to learn?" The IEP team should ask another question, "Is this skill/ behavior one that the student's age-appropriate peers engage in?"

65 Number of goals will depend on students individualized needs. Dont write so many goals/objectives that a teacher is unable to appropriately teach during the year. Prioritize goals. Include general education teachers, parents and the student, when appropriate.

66 PLEP: Joey displays difficulties writing his thoughts on paper. He has very creative ideas but does not understand sentence construction or how to develop paragraphs. He needs to use punctuation and capitalization consistently. Joey received 12 out of 50 points on the district's assessment for expressive writing. He needs to learn to write the four different sentence types (simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex) correctly and integrate them into a paragraph. Annual Goal:In 36 weeks Joey will write at least a six sentence paragraph using at least three different sentence types scoring 45/50 on the writing rubric. Benchmarks: 1. Write simple sentences 2. Write compound sentences 3. Write complex sentences 4. Write compound-complex sentences

67 PLEP: Michelle is working on enhancing reading fluency. Michelle has difficulty identifying words in isolation. When reading a test, she uses context clues and picture clues to identify words unfamiliar to her. When reading words in isolation, she attempts to dissect the word phonetically, but has difficulty drawing closure to the word and pronouncing the word as a whole. Michelle studied the DISSECT strategy in seventh grade. It appears she still uses this strategy with some limited success. When asked to read passages from her US History textbook, Michelle read at an average rate of 82 words per minute with 96% accuracy in word identification. This compares to a norm of words per minute with 98-99% accuracy for high school juniors. During this reading probe, Michelle stated that she can read faster when she reads aloud. It seems that her literal comprehension also improves when she is able to read aloud. She used a ruler as a guide to enable her to read line by line.

68 Annual Goal: Given sample passages of at least 200 words or more from high school level textbooks, Michelle will read grade levels materials at an average rate of 100 wpm with 98% accuracy or better in word identification. Objectives: 1. Michelle will read 200 word passage 90 wpm/98% accuracy 2. Michelle will read 200 word passage 95 wpm/98% accuracy

69 What is the LRE for students with autism? LRE is the educational environment providing the greatest access to general ed programs and to students without disabilities. The correct placement will allow a student with autism to benefit from an appropriate education. All placement options must be considered, starting with the general education setting. Examples include the regular classroom as well as the lunchroom, assemblies, recess, afterschool programs.

70 Need to consider the role of supplementary aids and services. Provide a continuum of alternative placements to meet the needs of students with autism. Must include a statement of the extent the student will not participate with nondisabled peers in the general education setting.

71 Defined as the process of systematically applying interventions based upon the principles of learning theory to improve socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree, and to demonstrate that the interventions employed are responsible for the improvement in behavior It is the application of the science of behavior to meet a certain end. Examples include improving the quality of a behavior by teaching the student to initiate play with others or to stop a ritualistic behavior that interferes with learning. (Baer, Wolf & Risley, 1968; Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991).

72 Program must be applied. Program must be behavioral. Program must be analytic. Program must be technological. Program must be conceptually systematic. Program must be effective. Program should display generality. Baer, Wolf, and Risely (1968)

73 1. Selection of the interfering behavior or skill deficit 2. Identification of goals/objectives 3. Establishment of method to measure target behaviors 4. Evaluation of current levels of performance 5. Design and implementation of interventions 6. Continuous measurement of target behaviors 7. Ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness of the intervention (Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991)

74 Used to increase behaviors, such as social interactions; Used to teach new skills, such as communication or social skills; Used to maintain behaviors, such as self- control; Used to generalize or transfer behaviors to other settings; Used to restrict interfering behaviors; and Used to reduce ritualistic behaviors.

75 ABA focuses on reliable measurement. Behaviors must be defined objectively. Vague terms should not be used, such as acting out, tantrums, aggressiveness. Antecedents and consequences are manipulated to teach appropriate skills and eliminate inappropriate behaviors. ABA is critical to helping the student with autism to be successful in the regular education setting. (Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991)

76 Supplementary Aids and Services - Must be discussed during the development of the students IEP. Must determine what aids, services, and other supports can be provided in general education classes or other educational settings to allow students with autism to be educated with nondisabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate. Accommodations and Modifications: Accommodations are supports/services provided to help a student with autism succeed in the general curriculum. Modifications are changes made to the content and performance expectations for students with autism.

77 Physical Arrangement Instructional Presentation Behavior Organization Assignments Test-Taking

78 How will the goal or objective be measured? Progress monitoring will determine how the data collected with be used in decision- making situations. Progress monitoring will help to determine if the student with ASD is achieving his/her goals. Benchmarks can be used for progress monitoring.

79 Who will be responsible for data collection; The setting where data will be collected; The method of data collection; The measurement conditions; The monitoring schedule for data collection; A decision-making strategy to determine under what conditions a student's performance is sufficiently delayed to warrant an instructional change; The number of times per year the parents will receive communication about the student's progress toward the goal (as often as nondisabled peers); and The method for informing the parents of the progress.

80 Goal 1: In 9 weeks, Carl will wait for his turn during a variety of classroom activities for three out of four times successfully for three consecutive weeks. Monitoring Strategy: The frequency of measurement is one randomly selected day per week; the behavior measure is Carl's turn taking behavior. The data will be collected by the classroom teacher in the classroom across all classes. The data will be charted with a goal line. The decision- making plan is to examine instructional intervention when Carl is below goal line for two consecutive weeks. Carls parents will be notified each time Carl is below the goal line for the two consecutive weeks and will receive a progress report four times a year with his report card.

81 Goal 1: In 3 weeks, when given a choice of topics daily, Joan will write two paragraphs in a daily journal in the general education ELA classroom, scoring 5/6 points for a period of five consecutive days using the Six-Trait Writing rubric. Monitoring Strategy: The frequency of measurement will be five times per week and the measure is written expression as determined by points from the classroom rubric for Six-Trait Writing as applied to the daily journal. The regular classroom teacher will score Joan's writing by using the rubric. The data will be charted. A goal line will be drawn and decisions will be based on a goal line comparison. Joan's parents will receive a progress report four times a year with her report card.

82 First defined by Carol Gray in 1991 Defined as a situation, skill or concept in terms of relevant social cues, perspectives, and common responses in a specifically defined style and format. The goal of a Social Story is to share accurate social information in a patient and reassuring manner that is easily understood by its audience. Half of all Social Stories developed should affirm something that an individual does well. Although the goal of a Social Story should never be to change the individuals behavior, that individuals improved understanding of events and expectations may lead to more effective responses. (

83 A means for teaching social skills to children with ASD. Provides a student with appropriate information about a situation that he/she may find difficult or that may lead to behavior concerns because the student finds the event confusing. The situation is described in detail and focus is given to the important social cues, the actual event and the potential reaction the student might expect to occur and why. Goal is to increase the students understanding of the situation, which in turn will hopefully make him/her more comfortable. The story will suggest some appropriate responses for the situation in question. (

84 Will help the student predict actions of others. Presents information in structured manner. Utilizes words, pictures and symbols. Allows the child to practice needed skills with the teacher before a situation arises. Written from the viewpoint of the child. Focus on what is causing the behavior. The expected response should be clearly defined.

85 Write in first person and present-tense. Use descriptive sentences that address the wh questions. Use perspective sentences that address the emotions and thoughts of other students and adults. Tailor the desired responses specifically to the student through the use of directive sentences. Provide control sentences written by the student to help him remember the situation and how to deal with it. Most effective with higher functioning students with ASD.

86 This Social Story would be appropriate for a young child during times where the class moves to the carpet to hear the teacher read a story to the whole class. Sitting on the Carpet Sometimes our class sits on the carpet. (descriptive) We sit on the carpet to listen to stories and for group lessons. (descriptive) My friends are trying hard to listen so they can enjoy the story or learn from the lessons. (perspective) It can be hard for them to listen is someone is noisy or not sitting still. (descriptive) I will try to sit still and stay quiet during our time on the carpet. (descriptive) (

87 Illustrations - Illustrate pages of the story with photographs or illustrations. Do not clutter the page. Symbols -- The words can be illustrated with symbols rather than pictures. The use of Boardmaker by the Mayer-Johnson Company and PECS, the Picture Exchange Communication System, are good choices for symbol illustrations. Social Stories on tape – A teacher can be record a story depending on the functioning level of the student. Add a verbal cue to help the student turn the page. This allows for more independence. Video -- A video could be made of the student and peers acting out appropriate scenarios. If necessary, a written story could be provided along with the video. The Gray Center and Special Minds Foundation in South Carolina have teamed together to make a series of Storymovies that are available for educators. (

88 Provides predictability for a student with ASD. Allows for the student to know what happens next. Will help reduce anxiety. Helps the student understand how the school day is set up. Serves as a good behavior tool. Helps to increase choice-making. Gives the student input into the order of school assignments.

89 A three-ring binder that is portable for the student to move from class to class. A large pictorial poster that indicates by pictures the activities a student needs to complete during the morning and/or afternoon. A pocket chart that is located on a wall near the students desk. A chart that is attached to the top of the students desk with pictures that can be adjusted during the day to match the activities the student will participate in A laminated portable page that includes vocabulary, rather then pictures, and a clock with the time of each activity or class. Photographs with a concrete object representing the photograph for a more cognitively involved student.


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