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1 Mobile Platform: Technical Perspective Justin (Joon Sung) Hong Software Center, Samsung Electronics.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Mobile Platform: Technical Perspective Justin (Joon Sung) Hong Software Center, Samsung Electronics."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Mobile Platform: Technical Perspective Justin (Joon Sung) Hong Software Center, Samsung Electronics

2 2 Contents Agenda Introduction Technical Trend Case Studies Standardization Conclusion Appendix. Subjective Recommendation Audience Researchers/Developers of embedded mobile software solutions Students majoring in electrical/computer/software engineering

3 3 Introduction

4 4 Computers Products in Samsung Electronics Quiz Which programming languages are used for devices? How many lines of codes are inside a device? How many mobile phones are sold for a year? How many mobile subscribers in the world?

5 5 A Secret Life of a Cellphone Samsung SGH-D600

6 6 MCP Reference Hardware Architecture RF MCP Audio Application Processor Application Processor Modem Memory Card Memory Card LCD NAND Keypad NOR SDRAM Camera NOR SDRAM FIFO or DPRAM MUX Single or Dual CPU

7 7 Reference Software Architecture Processor OS, Security OS, Security Audio-Visual & Multimedia Audio-Visual & Multimedia Application Framework (Optional) Data Protocol & Local Connectivity Data Protocol & Local Connectivity Graphics, Window Graphics, Window HW Platform Native Application 3 rd Party and VM Application 3 rd Party and VM Application Platform Interface Application Service Extension (Optional) Application Shell Peripherals Net Access Net Access Multimedia Connectivity MMI Telephony SW Platform

8 8 What is Mobile Platform? A mobile platform describes some sort of framework, either in hardware or software, which allows mobile applications to run. Typical platforms include a mobile device's architecture, operating system or middleware, and their runtime libraries. Related terms {Mobile|Wireless} {software|system|application|internet|} platform Examples Mobile software platform Wireless internet platform Mobile system platform Mobile application platform

9 9 Why Mobile Platform? Device manufacturers Common interfaces Better development environment Productive application framework Digital convergence Reliability (minimise crashes and bugs) Chipset vendors System engineering Fast time-to-market Mobile operators Reduced content and services management Support of push-pull information delivery [ARPU] Multimedia, interactivity and location based features [ARPU] Multitasking [ARPU] Security Application providers Open APIs Enhanced libraries and tools for easier and faster development Support of a variety of programming languages

10 10 Mobile Platform War Platform by platform/application software companies Symbian OS Microsoft Windows for Mobile MontaVista Mobilinux PalmOS Openwave PhoneSuite Teleca Obigo RIM BlackBerry Nokia Symbian OS + Series 40/60/80/UIQ/90 Platform by manufacturers Nokia Symbian OS + Series 40/60/80/UIQ/90 Motorola Synergy-2000, Linux Samsung Mocha, Ocean

11 11 Mobile Platform War (Cont.) Platform by chipset vendors Ericsson Mobile Platform QUALCOMM BREW TTPCom Ajar TI OMAP Platform by operators Java2 Mobile Edition WIPI QUALCOMM BREW SavaJe GVM, MAP, etc.

12 12 Technology Requirements & BOM Low-end Mid-rangeHigh-end/rich Feature Low-end Smartphone Connected PDA/ High-end Smartphone Technology Range % 32% 18% 2.4%2.6% % 28% 12% 1.5%1.5% Source: Future Mobile Handsets 2004 Mobile Phone Sales 2004

13 13 Market Share Estimates for Smart Phones Source: Public industry reports

14 14 Technical Trend

15 15 1.Processor CPU Core: ARM9 with MMU ARM11~12 Multi-core Configuration: Single chip (CPU core, baseband processing, DSP) or dual chip (modem and application processor) Single CPU or MCP with dual-core DSP Core: TI TMS, Ceva, StarCore, Samsung CalmRISC, ARM DSP, QUALCOMM QDSP, etc. DSP array Software: Remote execution/wait, emerging DSP platform More DSP platforms, DSP virtualization

16 16 2.System Software OS Kernel: RTOS for modem (e.g. Nucleus, REX, AMX, OSE), RTOS or GPOS for application processor (e.g. Linux, Windows Mobile), multi-tasking, single address space, no memory protection Multi-threading, virtual memory, memory protection for applications Hybrid/Nano kernel for running multiple OS (e.g. Jaluna Vmware) Energy-awareness Storage File system: Proprietary NAND/NOR file system Performance/security enhancement eXecution-In-Place (XIP), shared library Database: Indexed file system or proprietary table data management Public database with connectivity (e.g. JDBC), SQL-like query

17 17 2.System Software (Cont.) Security Anti-threats: Not yet covered but on going… Code protection, secure boot, RTC, memory Trusted computing Acceleration: SW ECC and HW RSA acceleration + Package engine (e.g. IPSec) Reliability Bug patch: Manual w/ USB, OTA firmware upgrade OTA firmware/component upgrade Zero administration

18 18 TI Applications Processing Solutions

19 19 OMAP1710 Architecture 90 nanometer CMOS technology ARM926EJ CPU core (~220MHz) Secure boot-loader Hardware acceleration for security standards and random number generator Memory controller for I/F to 128MB SDRAM, 256MB Flash, Mobile DDR CompactFlash, SD/MMC/SDIO ports TMS320C55X DSP (~220MHz) One/two instr. executed per cycle Video HW accelerator for DCT, iDCT, pixel interpolation, and motion estimation for video compression Connectivity USB OTG, UARTS, I2C, Fast IrDA (FIR), SPI LCD Controller, camera ports

20 20 Models of Trusted Computing kernel userland kernelVMM kernel userland kernel userland kernel userland kernel userland trusted kernel trusted userland Normal OSVirtual Machine (VMWare, Java VM) Virtual Machine Monitor CPU with trusted mode (MS NGSCB, ARM TrustZone) virtualization Better!

21 21 Trusted Computing Architecture

22 22 Microsoft Next-Generation Secure Computing Base TPM 1.2 User Kernel Hardware Secure Input ChipsetCPU Secure Video Main OS USB Driver Nexus-Mode (RHS) Nexus NexusMgr.sys HAL NAL User Apps. Agent NCA Runtime Library Trusted UI Engine (TUE) TSPTSPTSP AgentAgent Standard-Mode (LHS)

23 23 ARM TrustZone TrustZone adds a parallel world to allow trusted programs and data to be safely separated from the operating system and applications Not TPM-based TCG, but resolves the security requirements Similar to Intels.

24 24 3.Graphics 3D graphics Engine: Proprietary or standard-based solutions (e.g. Hi MascotCapsule, Superscape Swerve, Fathammer) OpenGL-ES, Mobile 3D Graphics (JSR-184) Acceleration: SW or 1~2M triangles/sec acceleration, OpenGL-ES/EGL 1.0 (e.g. ARM MBX, nVIDIA GeForce) 50M < triangles/sec acceleration, OpenGL-ES 2.0 Vector graphics Engine: Standard-based solutions (e.g. Sharp SVG-T, BitBoys) SVG Basic Acceleration: 100~200M pixels/sec acceleration OpenVG Font Font: bitmap and vector trials Downloadable/upgradeable fonts Vector, 3D font

25 25 ARM MBX 3D Graphics Accelerator Easily integrated with ARM926EJ-S, ARM1136J-S using AMBA Features Deferred texturing Tile-based rendering Scene manager PVR-TC : texture compression YUV to RGB conversion Flat & Gouraud shading Full-screen anti-aliasing Optimized UMA (Unified Memory Architecture) ITC (Internal True Color operations) Performed on chip at 32-bpp for superior color precision Two kinds of cores MBX HR-S Fill rate : M pixels/s Rendering rate : 2.5M tri/s Screen resolution : up to VGA MBX R-S Fill rate : M pixels/sec Rendering rate : 1M tri/s Screen resolution : up to QVGA

26 26 4.Multimedia A/V CODEC Video: H.263/MPEG4, RTP/RTCP streaming (e.g. RealNetworks, PacketVideo) H.264/WMV10, OpenMAX Sound/Speech/Audio: Yamaha 40~64 poly, NB-AMR, MP3 MP3/AAC+, OpenMAX, WB-AMR Image: BMP, WBMP, GIF, JPEG, PNG + JPEG2000, Motion JPEG Broadcasting Trials on Satellite-DMB, Terrestrial-DMB, DVB-Handheld/IPDC, QUALCOMM MediaFLO Related to policy / regulation Interactive

27 27 5.Network WAN GSM: 3GPP release 4, WCDMA/EDGE commercialization 3GPP release 6, HSDPA CDMA: IS-856, 1xEVDO 1xEVDV (cdma2000 Rev.D) WAN+WiFi (seamless handover)

28 28 5.Network (Cont.) MAN/LAN/PAN a/b/g commercialization n, Mobile WiMax (802.11e) vs. WiBro IrDA, Bluetooth 1.0 More Bluetooth profiles, Bluetooth 2.0, UWB Mobility High Low 4 G b CDMA2000 EV-DO/DV WCDMA/HSDPA 2.4GHz WLAN a/g CDMA/GSM/TDMA UWB n MANET High speed WLAN WiBro Mobile WiMax (802.16e) 5GHz WLAN Bluetooth <100 Mbps~ 14.4 kbps<50 Mbps 384 kbps 144 kbps AMPS ETACS JTACS NMT PAN Data Rate G ( Analog ) 2G ( Digital ) 3G ( IMT2000 ) 3G+

29 29 5.Network (Cont.) Upper layers Wireless-profiled TCP/IPv4, mobile IPv4 IPv6/v4 Ad-hoc networking Emerging SIP/SDP IP Multimedia Subsystem, VoIP, IMPS

30 30 QUALCOMM MSM Roadmap

31 31 MSM6250 Architecture

32 32 MSM6250 Features Processor ARM926EJ-S up to 150MHz with MMU Java HW acceleration MMC/SD interface NetAccess Dual-mode WCDMA plus GSM/GPRS ZIF RF supports WCDMA, quad- band GSM (GSM 850, 900, 1800, 1900) gpsOne solution RUIM/SIM Controller Connectivity Support Bluetooth baseband Multimedia 2D/3D graphics acceleration 2 Megapixel camera interface QDSP4000 up to 75MHz (Data transmit rate 153Kbps) Supports the advanced feature set of the Launchpad suite, including streaming video, audio, still image and video encoding and decoding

33 33 6.Application Browsing Presentation (e.g. Access, Openwave, etc.): XHTML MP, WML1.3 XHTML, CSS Protocol: WSP/HTTP dual stack HTTP Messaging Multimedia messaging: OMA MMS 1.1 OMA MMS 2.0, Instant messaging: OMA IMPS 1.1 (WirelessVillage) IOP w/ wired IM clients Push-To-Talk

34 34 6.Application (Cont.) Security Digital rights management: OMA DRM 1.0 (FL/CD/SD) OMA DRM 2.0, Microsoft Janus, Apple Java Virtual machine: SW – Sun CLDC HI, HotSpot, HW - ARM EJ, Nazomi Similar tech. but more hardwired Class libraries: MIDP/CLDC, Wireless Messaging, Mobile Multimedia API + CDC, Mobile 3D/Vector Graphics, New Architecture Remote service Web service OMA Mobile WS

35 35 Java2 Micro Edition KVM / CVM Applet

36 36 ARM Jazelle Java Acceleration Jazelle bytecode partition 139 bytecodes executed directly in hardware (constant loads, variable lo ads/stores, array load/stores, etc.) 88 bytecodes executed in software (floating point, integer division, switc h, invoke, etc.) ARM9EJ-S pipeline (6 stage - Java state) Instruction Fetch Register Write Sum/Accumulate & Saturation Memory Access Compute Partial Products Shift + ALU Thumb Decode ARM Decode Register Decode Register Decode Register Read Register Read Jazelle logic turns on FETCHDECODEEXECUTEMEMORYWRITEBACK Java Decode Stack Management Java Decode Register Read ALU Control Signals Bytecode Instruction Stream

37 37 7.User Interaction Man-Machine Interface IME: Too many solutions (e.g. T9, ez, CJI, etc.) Similar but better idea (ex. Fast tap, Q12, Virtual keypad, etc.) Voice recognition: Used for voice dialing/phonebook lookup but not complete (e.g. VoiceSignal, Conversay) Voice command/browsing Personalization Context awareness: Trial Preference, location-based consulting, etc. UI customization: Color, theme, menu tree Whole look&feel with Macromedia Flash, XML, or COM technologies

38 38 8.Device Camera 1M~2M pixels, flash, optical zoom 5M < pixels, auto focus, etc. LCD TFT/TFD, 65K colors, 176x220 or QVGA size OLED/3D, <= 16M color, <= SVGA size Storage 32~64MB NAND internal flash memory 8GB < NAND flash memory card, 40GB < HDD

39 39 Case Studies

40 40 Symbian OS (+Series 60) Symbian OS Owned by Nokia, Ericsson, SonyEricsson, Panasonic, Siemens, and Samsung. Series 60 Developed and licensed by Nokia

41 41 v9.1 Features Real-time A real-time, multithreaded kernel Hardware support Latest CPU architectures, peripherals and internal and external memory types Security Application capabilities through certification, private protected data stores. full encryption and certificate management, secure protocols (HTTPS, SSL and TLS) and WIM framework Graphics Direct access to screen and keyboard, graphics accelerator API, increased UI flexibility Multimedia Recording, playback and streaming, image conversion Mobile telephony WCDMA (3GPP R4 and R5 IMS), GSM CSD and EDGE CSD, GPRS and EDGE GPRS, IS-95 and 1xRTT, SIM, RUIM, UICC Toolkit, CDMA specific features Communications protocols TCP/IP (dual mode IPv4/v6) and WAP 2.0 (Connectionless WSP and WAP Push), IrDA, Bluetooth and USB International support Unicode Standard version 3.0

42 42 v9.1 Features (Cont.) Device Management/OTA provisioning OMA DM compliant, OMA Client provisioning v1.1 Data synchronization PC-based/OTA synchronization, a PC Connectivity framework PIMS Contacts, scheduling, and messaging, OBEX for exchanging appointments (vCalendar) and business cards (vCard) Messaging Enhanced messaging (EMS) and SMS, internet mail using POP3, IMAP4, SMTP and MHTML, attachments Java MIDP 2.0, CLDC 1.1, JTWI (JSR185), Mobile Media API (JSR135), Java API for Bluetooth (JSR082), Wireless Messaging (JSR120), Mobile 3D Graphics API (JSR184) and Personal Information Management and FileGCF APIs (JSR075)

43 43 Device Family Reference Design Crystal Feature-rich, Communicator-type devices Full (typically qwerty) keyboard Landscape-oriented (horizontal) display Nokia 9290 Communicator Peal Standard smart phones Small display & limited keyboards Nokia 7650 Quartz Pen-based phone similar to the Palm PDA Portrait-oriented (Vertical) display SonyEricsson P802

44 44 Standardization

45 45 Standardization Bodies OMA (Open Mobile Alliance) All mobile application middleware and services including browsing, synchronization, device management, messaging, location, security, etc. Multimedia ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union) MPEG4, H.324M, JPEG2000, etc. Khronos Media authoring and playback including OpenGL-ES, OpenVG, OpenMAX, etc.

46 46 Standardization Bodies (Cont.) Operating System CELF (CE Linux Forum) Embedded Linux Internet W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) XML, DOM, PNG, SMIL, SVG IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) SIP, TCP/IP, MIPv6, DNS, IPSec, RTP/RTSP ECMA (European Computing Machinery Association) C#, ECMAScript, etc.

47 47 Standardization Bodies (Cont.) System MIPI (Mobile Industry Processor Interface) Mobile application processor TCG (Trusted Computing Group) Secure computing Telephony 3GPP GSM/GPRS/WCDMA 3GPP2 IS95, IS2000 CDG (CDMA Development Group)

48 48 Standardization Bodies (Cont.) Wireless internet JCP (Java Community Process) J2ME, MMAPI, WMA, etc. KWISF (Korea Wireless Internet Standardization Forum) WIPI, LBS, MMS, etc. Operator OMTP (Open Mobile Terminal Platform) GSMA (GSM Association)

49 49 Conclusion

50 50 Conclusion The mobile world is moving very fast. Digital convergence comes true and mobile phones are at the center of the trend. Digital still camera, MP3 player, PDA, GPS receiver, game console, digital video recorder, and TV have been converged. What will be the next? The mobile platform is the key technology. Currently, ARM, QUALCOMM, Symbian, Nokia, TI, Openwave, Real, etc. are winners. Who will be the next?

51 51 Appendix. Subjective Recommendation To be a good software architect and/or software project manager in embedded worlds

52 52 Common Fallacies of Software Lovers Software development is art. Computer/Software engineering is NOT computer science. Scientists develop for learning, but engineers learn for development. Design and coding are most valuable skills. Maintenance is the longest (> 40%~80%) phase of software lifecycle, i.e. Maintenance > Testing > Design > Coding/Requirements. Read good codes before writing your own. Development process is the only need to know. Learn various software engineering disciplines. The knowledge of hardware and system software is none of my business. The development without the knowledge is to create an empire built on sand.

53 53 Software Engineering Body of Knowledge Requirements Design Construction Testing Maintenance Configuration Management Configuration Management Engineering Management Engineering Management Engineering Process Engineering Process Tools and Methods Tools and Methods Quality Related Disciplines Related Disciplines Requirements Fundamentals Requirements Process Requirements Elicitation Requirements Specification Requirements Validation Requirements Analysis Practical Considerations Design Fundamentals Key Issues in Design Structure and Architecture Design Quality Analysis and Evaluation Design Notations Design Strategies and Methods Construction Fundamentals Managing Construction Practical Considerations Testing Fundamentals Test Levels Test Techniques Test Related Measures Test Process Maintenance Fundamentals Key Issues in Maintenance Maintenance Process Techniques for Maintenance Management of the SCM Process Configuration Identification Configuration Control Configuration Status Accounting Configuration Auditing Release Management and Delivery Quality Fundamentals Quality Management Processes Practical Considerations Computer Engineering Computer Science Mathematics Software Ergonomics Systems Engineering Initiation and Scope Definition Project Planning Project Enactment Review and Evaluation Closure Engineering Measurement Process Implementation and Change Process Definition Process Assessment Process and Product Measurement

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