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Developing Mobile Learning for IPOD Touches Florence Martin Ray Pastore Jean Snider University of North Carolina Wilmington 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing Mobile Learning for IPOD Touches Florence Martin Ray Pastore Jean Snider University of North Carolina Wilmington 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing Mobile Learning for IPOD Touches Florence Martin Ray Pastore Jean Snider University of North Carolina Wilmington 1

2 Introduction This presentation addresses mobile learning by discussing the design and development of mobile websites Describes a case of mobile web development in a Masters level Instructional Technology course at University of North Carolina Wilmington 2

3 What is Mobile Learning? M-learning is the intersection of mobile computing and e-learning and includes anytime, anywhere resources; strong search capabilities; rich interaction; powerful support for effective learning; and performance-based assessment (Quinn, 2000) 3

4 Defining Mobile Learning Stevens and Kitchenham (2011) define mobile learning as the use of a wireless handheld device; a cell phone, personal digital assistant (PDA), mini-computer, or iPod to engage in some form of meaningful learning (p.3). 4

5 Defining Mobile Learning ELearning Guild 360 Mobile Learning Research Report, 2007) Any activity that allows individuals to be more productive when consuming, interacting with, or creating information, mediated through a compact digital portable device that the individual carries on a regular basis, has reliable connectivity, and ts in a pocket or purse. 5

6 Emerging Mobile Learning Categories Traxler (2009) identifies six emerging mobile learning categories Technology driven m-learning Miniature but portable e-learning connected classroom learning Informal/personalized/situated mobile learning Mobile training/ performance support remote/rural/development mobile learning 6

7 Design Recommendations Ally (2009) recommendations: Mobile devices include multimedia capabilities, and course designers should take advantage of this and design courses to make the learning experience stimulating help in student-student and student-instructor interaction and can be used as a communication tool are used for informal learning the learning material should be in manageable chunks 7

8 Design Recommendations Griffin (2011) lists ten steps that makes great mobile content two minutes of content animation conversational style deliver some smarts target the 5% remedial behavior participate characterize content resist the temptation to put it all into push mode encourage users to self-diagnose make the experience elegant and emotional 8

9 More Design Recommendations Bradley et al (2009) took into consideration design principles such as interface design, navigational techniques and interactive functionality suggested by Flash Lite templates Baird and Whitear (2006) recommend splitting the content into bite size chunks so that they dont overcrowd the screen Pierre and Diamantini (2009) used the Mobile Learning Objects approach where modules were ten minutes long, and included text and audio format 9

10 What are Mobile Application? A software that runs on a handheld device that can connect to WIFI or wireless carrier networks, and has an operating system that supports standalone software (Gahran, 2011) Can be downloaded directly onto a mobile device using the application store on the mobile device or can be downloaded from a computer (i.e. Apple iTunes) and connected to a mobile device 10

11 What are Mobile Websites? Mobile websites also known as Mobile web applications are custom built sites designed and developed to be accessed via the mobile device. 11

12 Limitations of Mobile Web Accessing the web from mobile devices a large number of limitations Small screen size lack of multiple windows navigation lack of javascript (browser dependent) and cookies types of pages accessible speed broken and compressed pages size of messages cost involved 12

13 Mobile Apps vs Mobile Websites Apps Need to be installed Can be on OS Device dependent May cost money Can use phone features (gps etc.) Do NOT require internet Websites Can be used on any phone with internet Not on OS free (for the most part) Need to open browser Difficulty accessing phone features (GPS etc). 13

14 Developing on a Mobile Device Google's Android Java Programming Apple's iOS: iPod/iPhone/iPad C, C++ Other Options? Android Google App Inventor Flash HTML Apple HTML All phones (apple, android, blackberry, windows) HTML – HTML5 14

15 Transition: Web to Mobile Web Many columns/tables->1 Column Defined Width->% Width High speed->3G/4G Data Usage problems Large Screens->small screens Keyboard->touch screen/small keyboard Html->wml | html/flash- >html/html5/c++/Java/flash Very compatible ->Device type (unless HTML) Plug ins->limited 15

16 Being used in education for to view or send content or email participate in discussion forums submit and view assignments send/receive feedback enrolling in courses (higher ed) communication texting emergency warning systems CMS 16

17 Being used in corporations/gov for Everything on the previous slide plus…. Gaming Simulations Full courses Flash based content HTML5 based content *This is where education is headed and Education innovators are already doing this 17

18 Research Problem Mobile learning is in it's infancy Research on mobile use and design is just starting to emerge Much of this research focuses on mobile use rather than mobile devices for learning The purpose of this study was to examine students perceptions of developing and using instruction for the mobile web 18

19 Methods Study took place at the University of North Carolina Wilmington Instructional Technology graduate students Design Interviews (6 Students interviewed - semi structured interviews) Observations (Graduate Class observed) Role of observer: Instructor Survey (Survey on mobile use, learning, and satisfaction) 19

20 Case Computer Based Instruction course at UNCW Develop mobile based instruction via Dreamweaver Students were web development novice Students were presented lesson on web and mobile development using Dreamweaver (3 Class periods) They were asked to read several articles on mobile learning Assignment 10 minute instructional tutorials to be developed for smartphones Published to UNCW webspace T ested sites on iPod touches 20

21 Case Obtained through school grant Students went through parts of the ISD process to develop the instruction: – Analysis->Design->Development Students had 3, 3 hour courses of in class time to develop and test with instructor present (labs) 21

22 Examples Design Considerations Small screen size Navigation (touch a link vs. click a link) Sizing using Table Format Scrolling Instructional Design Considerations Concise content Linear organization Practice 22

23 Example Screens 23

24 Data Analysis Interviews were transcribed and coded for emerging themes using the constant comparative method (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). The following themes emerged from the interviews around an overarching theme of design: o Design: size; simplicity; transition 24

25 Data Analysis Survey data will be analyzed in SPSS (survey results preliminary as only 8 students have taken it. We anticipate 30+ responses at the end of this semester.) o Survey designed as 7 point Likert-scale survey asking participants how important design and usability features were when developing/using mobile websites 25

26 Survey: Items on Design Text requires zooming for reading Text is legible without zooming Site fits my screen size without adjustment open new browser windows during site use/pop up windows Elements of the site require you to download/install plugins Scrolling up and down to view content Scrolling to the left or right to view content Single column layout Multiple column layout link location on top of screen link location on bottom of screen link location on left or right of screen Text entry drop down menus 26

27 Survey: Items on Usability Quick access to the information Good site organization The sequence of obtaining information was clear Site is user friendly The site offers clear and understandable goals The site uses media appropriately to communicate the content The site offers content that is relevant to the audience The site provides current and timely information The site provides the precise information you need The site provides accurate information The site allows you to control the pace at which you interact with the information 27

28 Semi-Structured Interview Questions Describe your experience developing for the mobile web? What design issues did you encounter when developing for the mobile web? What are the major differences developing a website for the computer and developing for the mobile web? Whats the importance of user interface (UI) in mobile web development? What recommendations do you have for developers looking to develop for the mobile web? What recommendations do you have for instructional designers seeking to implement mobile learning in training and development? What did you enjoy about this experience? What did you dislike about this experience? Is there anything else you would like to add? 28

29 Design: Size (Sample Quotes).. you know, the size of a phone, of an Android or iPhone or something, then you dont have as much room. You have to really make good choices about what it is you are going to put in can get cluttered really quick. And because everything is so much smaller, obviously it looks different on the computer than it does on the phones." "The first thing you have to realize is that almost all of the users are gonna have touch screens, which is a lot different than using a mouse. So, I think you have to make it…you have to design the difference in the user interface for a mobile app is that you have to take into account that the, uh, buttons have to be legible at size and the user has to be able to use his finger, his or her finger to actually navigate through the site." "S omething I kind of feel when Im on my smartphone is I feel like im looking at things through a telescope because youve got this big page but yet youve got this little small viewing area so your trying to move that viewing area around so you can find out where you going. But that on pages not set up for mobile devices. So its like looking through a telescope." 29

30 Design: Simplicity (Sample Quotes) "Just having the one column made it a lot easier" "I would tell people to keep, keep it simple, to really keep it simple, because when you are looking at something on a computer screen, you just have a lot more space" "You have to take out all the fluff and, uh, try to fit as much content on the actual screen without the user having to scroll as much. And, the use of a header, a content and a footer, an actual framework, um, was really important so that you could have consistency through each page." 30

31 Design: Transition (Sample Quotes) "I think the differences from going from that where you use a keyboard and a mouse to the touch is that you realize how big your fingers are and just a link is not going to be very effective anymore. You need big buttons. You need to direct the learner on where they need to touch to go to the next screen. There is really no pop ups, no imbedded flash type things, its like going from one screen to the next. It seems very linear. "I dont know that youre going to be able to do a lot other than just quick reference job aids. Im not sure youd want to have a whole instructional system through the, for the iPhone, though maybe,, a SmartPhone. You could do it for maybe tablets, but again youve got some Flash limitations. So I would think that job aids and things that you can learn quickly are the realm of smart phone development." 31

32 Conclusion At this point in this study, We are finding significant differences for Computer based training design and Mobile based design 32

33 Future Research Should examine best design practices of mobile learning Specifically should focus on multimedia principles of learning Observed during study that many needed to changed or did not apply to the mobile environment Additionally there need to be studies examining the impact of cognitive load in the use of these devices 33

34 References Ally, M. (2009). Mobile Learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training, AU Press Baird, P. & Whitear, C. (2006). Mobile charting with Flash Lite 2: Designing for the mobile device interface. Adobe mobile and device developer center. Bradley, C., Haynes, R., Cook, J., Boyle, T. & Smith, C. (2009). Design and development of multimedia learning objects for mobile phones. In A. Mohamed (Ed.), Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training (pp. 157- 181). dmonton, Canada: Athabasca University Press. Gahran, A. (2011). Whats a mobile app? Retrieved online from Griffin, G. (2011). Ten tips for designing mobile learning content. Learning solutions magazine. Retrieved online from learning-content learning-content 34

35 References Pierre, M., & Diamantini, D. (2009). From E-learning to Mobile Learning: New Opportunities. In M. Ally (Ed.), Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training (pp. 247– 264). Quin, C. (2000). mLearning: Mobile, Wireless, In-Your-Pocket Learning. Quinn, C. (2011). Designing mLearning: tapping into the mobile revolution for organizational performance, Pfeiffer Publishing, USA Stevens, D. and Kitchenham, A. (2011). An analysis of mobile learning in education, business and medicine. In Kitchenham (Ed.) Models for Interdisciplinary Mobile Learning: Delivering Information to Students, IGI publication. Pp. 1 – 25 Traxler (2009) Current state of mobile learning. In M. Ally (Ed.), Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training (pp. 247–264). 35

36 Questions? Presentation can be found at: ect-mobile-learning-presentation/ 36

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