Presentation on theme: "LECTURE ON MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS BY Mukul Mittal Lecturer E.C.E G.P.C.G, Patiala(9463376309)"— Presentation transcript:
LECTURE ON MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS BY Mukul Mittal Lecturer E.C.E G.P.C.G, Patiala( )
Terminologies Base Station: A fixed station in a mobile radio system used for radio communication with mobile stations. M.S.C :Switching centre which co-ordinates the routing of calls and connects the cellular base stations and the mobiles to the P.S.T.N MIN: Mobile identification number E.S.N: Electronic Serial Number S.C.M: Station class marks SIM: Subscriber Identity Module
ADVANCED MOBILE PHONE SYSTEM (AMPS) AMPS is known as the first generation (1G) analog commercial cellular systems. It is one of the earliest cellular systems or mobile phone system standard. It introduced in early 1980s. It is based on Analog modulation. This allowed a larger number of phones to be supported over a geographical area. It is the earliest radio standard in North America
Frequency allocated by FCC on MHz for downlink & MHz for uplink traffic. The base station also assigns the subscriber unit a supervisory audio tone(SAT tone)and a voice mobile attenuation code(VMAC) as it moves the call to the voice channel. Blank and burst mode is provided to initiate hand offs. In AMPS handoff decisions are made by the MSC.
GSM(Global System For Mobile) It Is a second generation technology. GSM was originally developed to serve as the pan-european cellular service. By the end of 1993, several non-european countries in Asia, Australia had adopted GSM By 2001 there are 350 million GSM subscribers around the world
Architecture Of GSM
Base Trans receiver Station Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Wireless transmission Wireless diversity Wireless channel encryption Conversion between wired and wireless signals Frequency Hopping Base Band Unit: voice and data speed adapting and channel coding RF Unit: modulating/demodulating, transmitter and receiver Common Control Unit: BTS operation and maintenance
Base Station Controller Controls: – Wireless link distribution between MS and BTS – Communication connection and disconnection – MS location, handover and paging – Voice encoding, trans encoding (TC) rate, adaptation, – The operation and maintenance functions of BSS. Mobile Service Switching Center ( MSC ) holds all the switching functions and manages the necessary radio resources, like updating the location registration carrying out the inter-BSC and inter-MSC tender Inter-working with other networks (IWF).
Home Location Register( HLR ) Manages the mobile subscribers database subscriber information, part of the mobile location information, 3 identities essential i.e the International Mobile subscriber Identity, the Mobile station ISDN Number,the VLR address. AUC/EIR Providing the authentication key used for authorizing the subscriber access to the associated GSM. Equipment Identity Register(s) (EIR) Handling Mobile Station Equipment Identity
Visitor Location Register dynamically stores subscriber information needed to handle incoming/outgoing calls Mobile Station Roaming Number When a roaming mobile enters an MSC area. This MS warns the associated VLR of this situation; the mobile enter a registration procedure through which it is assigned a mobile subscriber roaming number (MSRN) Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity, if applicable The location area in which the mobile has been registered Data related to supplementary service parameters
OMC(Operation Maintenance Centre) Maintains all telecommunication hardware and network operations with a particular market Manages all charging and billing procedures Manages all mobile equipments in the system The interface between BSC and MSC is called A interface and interface between BTS and BSC is called Abis interface
A interface uses an SS7 Protocol called the signaling correction control part(SCCP) Which supports communication between MSC and BSS. Each subscriber in the GSM network is provided with a IMSI(INTERNATIONAL MOBILE SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY).this number acts as a identity for home user
CDMA When the multiple users occupying the same band by having different codes is called as CDMA In CDMA pseudorandom codes are used to detect specified desired code words which are correlated in time otherwise other code words appears as noise due to de correlation. The receiver decodes the code word of the transmitter
There is near and far problem in CDMA which is removed by RSSI( Radio signal strength indicator) Features of CDMA With the use of more numbers of Users efficiency decreases because more noise is increases Multiple fading is removed by using the rake receiver
The channels data rate is very high in CDMA system Provide soft Hand off Self Jamming is a Problem in CDMA Privacy Grace Degradation
In CDMA the data is braked into K Chips according to affixed pattern Let the code of user A is and user B Is and user C is
the code received at the output if user a is considered as: (1*1) +(-1*-1)+(-1*-1)+(1*1)+(-1*-1)+(1*1) =6 The other code words are not selected an there sum is not 6 or less than 6, may be zero. The given codeword with data is decoded.
G.P.R.S(General Packet Radio Service ) GPRS facilitates instant connections and high immediacy whereby information can be sent or received immediately. There are 3 classes of GPRS: Class A : Can be connected to GPRS service and GSM service (voice, SMS), using both at the same time. Class B : an be connected to GPRS service and GSM service (voice, SMS), but using only one or the other at a given time. Class C : Are connected to either GPRS service or GSM service (voice, SMS). Must be switched manually between one or the other service.
BLUE TOOTH TECHNOLOGY Short range wireless technology. optical range of 10 meter (optional 100 meter mode) 1mW transmission power. Bluetooth is a packet based protocol with master slave structure. Operate in free ISM(industrial, scientific and medical) band GHz to GHz Provide multiple levels of security Frequency hopping spread spectrum Data encoding Data Encryption
A piconet is a collection of device connected between two device connected via Bluetooth technology. A piconet is a collection of device connected between two device connected via Bluetooth technology. classMax Permitted power (mw) Max Permitted Power(dbm) Range (Approx) Class 1100 mv20 dbm 100m Class mv4dbm10m Class 31 mv0 dbm1 m
WIFI( Wireless Fidelity) A portable wireless service based on local area network architecture, which means the reach of any specific access point is limited at best to about 100 meters(300feet). It is based upon the access points(AP). The access point is to broadcast a wireless signal that computers can detect and tune into. It works by use of radio technologies called IEEE802.11a/b/g/n to provide secure and reliable connectivity.
GPS(Global Positioning System) It is a satellite based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit. GPS signal contains three bits of information i.e pseudorandom code, ephemeris data, almanac data GPS Consists of: Space segment Control segment User segment
Control Segment Space Segment User Segment Three Segments of the GPS Monitor Stations Ground Antennas Master Station
RFID(Radio Frequency Identification ) RFID is a microchip combined with a antenna in a compact package. The tags antenna picks up the signal from an RFID reader or scanner and then returns the signal, with the some additional data.
DTH(Direct-To-Home television) DTH is defined as the reception of satellite programmes with a personal dish in an individual home. DTH does away with the need for the local cable operator and puts the broadcaster directly in touch with the consumer. Only cable operators can receive satellite programmes and they then distribute them to individual homes
CONCLUSION There are new and emerging technologies like GSM and CDMA for mobile communication. For data Communication on mobiles we have GPRS technology. For wireless data communication we have WIFI and WIMAX. For small Distance communication we have BLUETOOTH technology. For all time control on devices we have GPS technology. To control on intruder we have RFID technology.