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Sponsored by the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness (OUSD P&R) Instructional Design Considerations for Mobile Learning.

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Presentation on theme: "Sponsored by the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness (OUSD P&R) Instructional Design Considerations for Mobile Learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sponsored by the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness (OUSD P&R) Instructional Design Considerations for Mobile Learning SU219 ASTD International Conference & Exposition Washington, DC May 4, 2014 Peter Berking Senior Instructional Designer, ADL Mobile Learning Team Serco Inc., in support of the ADL Initiative Mr. Berking is a contractor for Serco, Inc. providing support to the Advanced distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative. The views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the ADL.

2 2 Provide access to the highest quality education and training, tailored to individual needs, delivered cost effectively, anywhere and anytime. - ADL Vision

3 The MoTIF Project mo·tif [moh-teef] noun 1. a recurring subject, theme, idea, etc. 2. a distinctive and recurring form, shape, figure, etc., in a design 3. a dominant idea or feature Mobile Training Implementation Framework (MoTIF)

4 What is the Problem? Many education and training professionals are creating new mobile content and converting existing eLearning courses without consideration of: alternative learning methods such as: performance support spaced repetition contextual learning leveraging the capabilities of the mobile platform such as: Camera Sensors GPS using a mobile-optimized instructional design model

5 The MoTIF Project Project follows the Integrative Learning Design Framework (ILDF) Design-based Research (DBR) Model Phase I: Survey Survey Report Interviews and Focus Groups Needs Analysis Report Phase II: Design Framework Interventions Phase III: Local Impact (Application & Iterate) Phase IV: Broad Evaluation (Diffusion of Innovation) Enactment EvaluationExploration

6 Project Activities To Date - 1 References/Job Aids The Mobile Learning Decision Path (MLDP) http://www.adlnet.gov/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/MLDP-Report.pdf http://www.adlnet.gov/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/MLDP-Report.pdf Conference Papers and Presentations Mobile Learning: Not Just Another Delivery Method (I/ITSEC 2012 paper) http://1.usa.gov/1o8Zucb http://1.usa.gov/1o8Zucb ADLs MoTIF Project (SALT 2013 & mLearnCon 2013 slides) http://slidesha.re/1kcZZoc http://slidesha.re/1kcZZoc ADLs Mobile Learning Resources & the MoTIF Project (Interagency Mobile Learning Webinar Series 2013 video) http://bit.ly/1fucpAm http://bit.ly/1fucpAm

7 Project Activities To Date - 2 Surveys Mobile Learning Survey Report http://www.adlnet.gov/adl-publishes-mobile-learning-survey-report/ http://www.adlnet.gov/adl-publishes-mobile-learning-survey-report/ Interviews and Focus Group (results not published yet – will be included in a Needs Analysis Report) Mobile Learning Examples Catalog (under construction) Instructional Design for Mobile Flowchart (not published yet)

8 Interviews and Focus Group 8 interviews + 1 focus group Mix of thought leaders and implementers International participants Provided further support for a catalog of examples and mobile- optimized learning design model Emergent themes 8

9 Interview Themes - 1 Agility in mobile learning design process is key. Not easy, takes a lot of planning Need structure for collaboration, communication, documentation, etc. Need a true mobile-optimized instructional design model. Theoretical and cookbook style models – ideally, integrated Drives consideration of a wider palette of learning experiences and learning theories ILDF/DBR can be highly effective for design production. Value in piloting, analyzing, and reintegrating feedback Extra tasks on top of normal instructional design activities. 9

10 Interview Themes - 2 Mobile learning is catalyst for underutilized learning approaches. Especially constructivist, self-directed, collaborative approaches Mobile is only one example of a learning technology that has done this. Design models should facilitate integrating learning with life activities/schedule. Learning theory and learning technology are not separate. Create authentic activities where learners actually want to collaborate. 10

11 Interview Themes - 3 Mobile should drive consideration of performance support and HPT solutions. Designers need to understand mobile device affordances. Avoid isolated snippets of content. Skeumorphism in the learning space is big problem. Classroom principles applied to eLearning eLearning principles applied to mobile Eventually new technology transforms and reinvents learning models. 11

12 Interview Themes - 4 Keep mobile content and experience of it separate. Similar to web design Structured Content Development Model Challenge is giving users the tools to change. Parse learning out to users according to environment, points of need, natural workflows. Dont concentrate info into dedicated learning experiences. Leverage distributed cognition, Internet of things, and worklife ecosystem Performance support approach 12

13 Interview Themes - 5 Mobile informal learning scenarios allow you to record raw observations AND crunch/analyze data on the spot. Can make further conjectures, observations, and analysis while in context Challenges for informal mobile learning Avoiding spoiling the naturalistic aspects of peer-to-peer conversation Creating structure to generate need for collaboration Teaching process - how to have learning conversations 13

14 Interview Themes - 6 Change from content designers to content curators Designing access points, not actual content. Teaching how to look for or find good content, not providing it outright Links Quality criteria Design approaches should consider: User preferences intelligently derived by device Impact of mobile on the nature of learning and knowing Volume of content already available Capacity of learners to create content 14

15 Formal vs Informal Learning Paradigms Formal Informal Autonomous Non-formal Informal Directed Incidental learning (as opposed to deliberative learning) is unplanned learning – learning that happens spontaneously and serendipitously in the course of everyday activities. Often the learner is not conscious that learning has occurred. All four of the above paradigms are forms of deliberative learning. Incidental learning is out of scope for most training scenarios, because it cannot be predicted or managed.

16 Examples Catalog Project – Goals and Focus Goals Present examples so ISDs can learn about, compare, evaluate, and apply design ideas Extract and showcase relevant success factors and design patterns Link learning microstrategies to enabling learning technologies Use target type of learning as starting point for decision process, rather than a particular hot technology Focused on Total learning solutions, not just software Learning approaches, not just technical design

17 Examples Catalog Project - Benefits Promotes consideration of learning strategies enabled by mobile capabilities Promotes understanding of range of technical and instructional capabilities of the mobile platform for learning Enables understanding instructional implications of choosing specific mobile learning strategy Disseminates info about learning apps that may be available Encourages repurposing of apps for new and different use cases

18 Examples Catalog Project – Target Users Instructional designers Content developers Mobile learning development project managers Acquisition personnel Training program administrators Trainees

19 Examples Catalog Project – Features and Metadata Major Features Basic info about learning solution Browse All Examples Quick Search Advanced Search Contribute Examples Screen captures or demo application (not actual software) Metadata Attributes (e.g., type of learning, mobile technology, etc.) Hierarchy presented in wizard-type decision tree within Advanced Search Starts with learning objective Leads to examples of learning approaches (microstrategies)

20 Examples Catalog Project – Advanced Search Hierarchy - 1 Learning objective characteristics Performance Support Planner Sidekick Quick Check Instruction Verbal Skills Understanding Remembering Intellectual Skills o Creating o Evaluating o Analyzing o Applying Psychomotor Skills Attitudes Key Performance Support type per Rossett and Schafer (2007) Domain of Learning per Dick, Carey, and Carey (2011) Revised Bloom Taxonomy per Anderson et al. (2000)

21 Examples Catalog Project – Advanced Search Hierarchy - 2 Learning strategy characteristics Behaviorist Building fluency Chaining Drill and practice Fading Instructional cues Negative reinforcement Positive reinforcement Punishment Reinforcement removal Shaping Cognitivist Etc. Constructivist Etc Key Learning tactic per Dabbagh (2007)

22 The ADL Mobile Learning Instructional Design Flowchart -2 22

23 Working New Idea for Mobile Learning Design Model Use ILDF/DBR as a way to improve the design model itself. Not just learning theories Dynamically while project is in progress Feedback loops Not just for improving the product, but improving the process, for: remaining activities in current project future projects Instructional design model is fluid entity Being reinvented continuously as the project progresses Not a solid predetermined process at the outset Though obviously needs a starting point 23

24 The ADL Mobile Learning Instructional Design Flowchart -1 Incorporates ISD, HPT, Performance Support Design processes Prototype. Still needs: Community review (let us know what you think!) Testing through applying it in a real design project Formatting and delivery treatment (currently a native Visio file) Rendered at intermediate level of detail Incorporates elements from ISD – Dick, Carey, and Carey (2014) HPT – Mager and Pipe (1984) Performance support design – Rossett and Schafer (2007), Gottfredson and Mosher (2011) 24

25 The ADL Mobile Learning Instructional Design Flowchart -2 25

26 The MoTIF Project ISD & Learning Design for Mobile Alternative Approaches Device Affordances Workflow Process http://motif.adlnet.gov http://motifproject.org adlmobile@adlnet.gov

27 27 http://mlhandbook.adlnet.gov 27

28 Resources - 1 28 http://www.adlnet.gov/new-job-aid-available-for-instructional- designers-the-mobile-learning-decision-path-mldp 28 Mobile Learning Decision Path (MLDP)

29 Resources - 2 29 Newsletter & Archive – http://ml.adlnet.gov

30 Resources - 3 The MoTIF Project community web site http://motifproject.org/

31 Your Mobile Design Challenges?

32 Lets Connect! 32 @ADLmobile Peter Berking Senior Instructional Designer ADL Mobile Learning Team Serco, Inc. peter.berking.ctr@adlnet.gov


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