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Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Gwo-Jen Hwang Graduate Institute of Digital Learning and Education National Taiwan University.

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Presentation on theme: "Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Gwo-Jen Hwang Graduate Institute of Digital Learning and Education National Taiwan University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Gwo-Jen Hwang Graduate Institute of Digital Learning and Education National Taiwan University of Science and Technology

2 IDLS (Intelligent Distance Learning Systems) lab Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Funded by NSC of Taiwan with NT$15,000,000 per year Natural science courses Social science courses Computer science courses English courses Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

3 The backgrounds of the members in this lab include Computer Science and Educational Technology.

4 Academic Publications of IDLS Lab 150 journal papers Computers & Education (SSCI) Educational Technology & Society (SSCI) Innovations in Teaching and Education International (SSCI) British Journal of Educational Technology (SSCI) Electronic Library (SSCI) Interactive Learning Environment (SSCI) Ecommerce Research and Application (SSCI) IEEE Transactions on Education (SCI) IEEE Transactions on SMC, Part C (SCI) IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing (SCI) Expert Systems with Applications (SCI) Other SCI/EI/TSSCI journals 250 papers presented in conferences 3 book chapters Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

5 Six SSCI (Social Sciences Citation Index) journals of e-learning Computers & Education (C&E) Educational Technology & Society (ETS) British Journal of Educational Technology (BJET) Innovations in Education and Teaching International (IETI) Educational Technology Research & Development (ET R&D) Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (JCAL) Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

6 Number of m-learning/u-learning papers published from 2001 to 2010 Hwang, G. J., & Tsai, C. C. (2011). Research trends in mobile and ubiquitous learning: A review of publications in selected journals from 2001 to British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(4), E65-70.

7 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Sample groups selected for mobile and ubiquitous learning studies from 2001 to 2010 Hwang, G. J., & Tsai, C. C. (2011). Research trends in mobile and ubiquitous learning: A review of publications in selected journals from 2001 to British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(4), E65-70.

8 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Research learning domains selected from 2001 to 2010

9 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning M-learning/u-learning with sensing technologies Some researchers have tried to conduct m-learning or u-learning activities with sensing technologies. This has lead to context-aware ubiquitous learning (Hwang, Tsai, & Yang, 2008) The learning system is able to detect and record the real-world learning status of the students. More learning supports can be provided by the learning system for guiding the students to learn in the real world. Gwo-Jen Hwang*, Chin-Chung Tsai and Stephen J.H. Yang (2008), Criteria, Strategies and Research Issues of Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning, Educational Technology & Society, 11(2), (SSCI)

10 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Ubiquitous Learning (anywhere and anytime learning) Mobile Learning (Learning with mobile devices and wireless communications) Context-Aware U-Learning (Learning with mobile, wireless communications and sensing technologies) Broad sense definition More specific definition Gwo-Jen Hwang*, Chin-Chung Tsai and Stephen J.H. Yang (2008), Criteria, Strategies and Research Issues of Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning, Educational Technology & Society, 11(2), (SSCI) the use of mobile, wireless communications and sensing technologies for supporting students to learn in the real world SKIP

11 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Illustrative example of a context-aware u-learning environment Once the student walks close to a learning target, the RFID reader can receive the information from the corresponding tag. Target Object 1 Target Object 2 Target Object 3 Target Object 4 Target Object 5 Each student uses a PDA equipped with an RFID reader and wireless communication facility. Each learning target has an RFID tag on it. The learning system is executed on the server

12 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning TAG Reader The student holds a PDA equipped with an RFID reader Each ecology area of butterflies has an RFID tag Learning missions or supplementary materials

13 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Benefits of using sensing technologies The learning system is able to guide the learners in the real world via detecting their locations The learning system can more actively provide learning supports to the learners if necessary E.g., Give hints to the students who are doing a dangerous chemical experiment before something goes wrong

14 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning More parameters in a context-aware u- learning portfolio Personal context in the real world: learners location, time of arrival, body temperature, heartbeat, blood pressure, etc. Environmental context : the learning targets ID and location, the environmental temperature, humidity, air ingredients, and other parameters of the environment around the sensor The data collected by the students in fields, e.g. PH value of water. Personal data in the database : learners profile and learning portfolio, such as the predefined schedule, starting time of a learning activity, the longest and shortest acceptable time period, place, learning sequences. Environmental data in the database : equipment in the lab, the rules of using the equipment, the time table of using the lab

15 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Research Issues concerning mobile and ubiquitous learning Proposing new strategies or tools for supporting m-learning or u-learning activities Developing adaptive or collaborative m-learning or u-learning environments Investigating students real-world learning status from different aspects, such as learning achievement and problem-solving skills cognitive process cognitive load learning style or cognitive style self-efficacy

16 Earlier applications -Serving as a Guide for Science Observations The u-learning system serves as a guide for observing a set of learning targets in the real world.

17 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Background and Motivation Observation and classification abilities important learning objectives for science education. In the Natural Science courses of elementary schools in Taiwan the students need to learn to observe and classify some learning targets (e.g., plants on school campus, butterflies in the garden) In the followings, several learning activities are designed for the Butterfly and Ecology unit of a natural science course

18 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Conventional Butterfly and Ecology learning activity A teacher usually needs to train 10 or more students at the same time.

19 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning In such a one-to-many instruction mode: It is difficult to provide personalized instructions or feedback to the students or to record their learning status.

20 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Scenario 1: Butterfly museum Students are guided by the u-learning system to learn to identify different types of butterflies based on the appearances of the butterflies. more than 10 thousands Butterfly samples

21 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Location of the target butterfly What is the name of the butterfly in front of you? The most significant feature of the target butterfly Observe and compare the target butterfly with other butterflies based on the feature.

22 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Scenario 2: Butterfly ecology garden The Butterfly Ecology Garden consists of 18 ecology areas for raising host plants of butterflies. Hui-Chun Chu, Gwo-Jen Hwang*, Shu-Xian Huang and Ting-Ting Wu (2008), A Knowledge Engineering Approach to Developing E-Libraries for Mobile Learning, The Electronic Library. 26(3), (SSCI)

23 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning The students are guided by the learning system to observe the host plants and the butterfly ecology in each target area.

24 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Some preliminary findings in the earlier studies Advantages of the u-learning approach Providing a personalized guide for individual students Providing supplementary materials and hints in the right place and at the right time Motivating the students to learn To engage students in higher order thinking, more effective learning supports or knowledge construction tools are needed

25 Recent applications - Leading in Mindtools for u-learning activities

26 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Definitions of Mindtools Jonassen (1999, p9) described Mindtools as a way of using a computer application program to engage learners in constructive, higher-order, critical thinking about the subjects they are studying.

27 Mindtools used in our studies Grid-based Mindtool Helping the students identify and differentiate a set of learning targets based on the features of the targets Concept maps Helping the students organize their knowledge via linking the new knowledge and their prior knowledge Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

28 Trait (1) ----Constructs (features of the plants)--- opposite(5) Repertory grid (Kelly, 1955) A repertory grid is represented as a matrix or table Its columns are labeled with elements. Its rows are labeled with constructs. A 5-scale rating mechanism is usually used. Elements (e.g., plants) Trait (1) Golden Chinese banyan Arigated- leaf croton Cuphea Indian almond Opposite (5) Leaf-shape is long and thin 2224 Leaf-shape is flat and round The leaf has a tapering point 3114 The leaf has a hollow point Perfectly smooth leaf edge 1141 The leaf edge has deep indents Elements: targets to be indentified or classified constructs: traits for identifying the targets.

29 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Two stages for providing learning supports based on the repertory grid 1st stage- creating the objective repertory grid by teachers 2nd stage- using the objective repertory grid to help students develop their repertory grids

30 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning The Objective RG The RG constructed by the student The student is asked to observe the leaf shape of Lalang grass by asking a question. The learning mission: observing the leaf shape of Lalang grass and answer the following question.

31 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning The Objective RG The RG constructed by the student The student has correctly answered the leaf shape of Lalang grass to be long and thin, and is asked to describe more detailed features of the leaf shape. Acicular Linear Lance-shaped

32 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning The RG constructed by the student The Objective RG The answer Flat and Round to the leaf shape of Lalang gtass is incorrect. The student is asked to observe the leaf shape of Indian Almond and compare it with the leaf shape of Lalang grass. Flat and round Long and thin

33 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Experiment Design Subject unit : Knowing the plants on school campus of the Natural Science course Comparing the learning performance of the students who learned with/without the Mindtool

34 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Comparing u-Mindtool learning with u-Learning Participants: 61 fifth graders Control group: 29 students, learned with a tour-based u-learning system that provided location guidance and supplementary materials Experimental group: 32 students, learned with the Repertory Grid-oriented u-learning approach

35 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Learning Achievements Table 1. t-test of the pre-test results NMeanS.D.t V1control group V2experimental group Table 2. Descriptive data, and ANCOVA of the post-test results No significant difference between the two groups

36 A follow-up learning activity The students needed to develop their own repertory grids by determining the traits for identifying the target butterflies. Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

37 The can also share their findings to peers and modify their repertory grids via a knowledge-sharing interface. Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

38 Concept map-oriented Mindtool for u-learning Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning 1. Develop concept maps in the classroom based on what they have learned from the textbooks. 2. Go to the butterfly garden to observe the ecology of the butterflies. Check if their concept map is correct and complete via browsing the developed concept maps on the PDA. Take notes on the PDA. 3. Go back to the classroom to modify their concept maps

39 CmapTools developed by the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) of the Florida University System (Novak & Cañas, 2006). Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Working space for developing concept maps Set up concept map parameters Insert the picture of the concept

40 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Idea leuconoe clara Concept to be modified New concept Interface for entering Chinese character s The students can browse their concept maps via the mobile devices. Take notes or record what they have found during the learning activities.

41 Context-Aware U- Learning for complex experiment procedures

42 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Background and Motivation Development of a context-aware u-learning system for training the Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction procedure in a Chemistry course. It is the most effective method for analyzing 3D structure of compound materials. The learners are graduated or PhD students. It is time-consuming to train a new researcher (usually 6 months to 1 year) The operations could be dangerous, and hence the learner requires full-time guidance during the training process

43 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Microscope products – examining, selecting, crystal mounting leaner Indexing, data collecting Centering and aligning the sample Single Crystal X-ray Diffractometer Instructing Data transmitting PC Data processing & Structure determination PC (1) (2) (3) Location: 2 nd floor, R 204 Location: 2 nd floor, R 203 Location: 1 st floor, R 126 Expert System Ubiquitous learning environment Give advice or hints based on the context Context of learner RFID Temperature meter

44 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Stage 1: Select a crystal of good quality and suitable size through an optical microscope and mount the crystal on the top of the glass fiber. The expert system guides the learner to complete the procedure and check if the selected crystal is usable.

45 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Stage 2: Analyze the crystal by operating the X-ray diffractometer to find the cell constants within acceptable deviation. This stage is very complex since there are several rules to be followed and various parameters to be considered.

46 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Stage 3: Determine the 3D structure of the crystal- line solid using a special program The outputs of the program include the shape, the exact distance between atoms, and other parameters for describing the structure.

47 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Benefits of the context-aware u- learning approach based on the responses from 5 researchers who had 6 months experiences and the system logs of 5 new learners

48 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Estimation about cost benefit for using the approach Save 80,000 USD per year for training 10 researchers SKIP

49 Other applications of U-Learning

50 U-learning for Local culture courses Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

51 Learning task 1- observe learning targets Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Pillar with dragon statue Only the goods for the emperor can have dragons with five claws on them.

52 Learning task 2- read the ancient records on the learning targets Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

53 Learning task 3- Search for supplementary materials on the Internet Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Ancient decorations in the temple

54 Learning task 4- touch and feel the material of the learning targets Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Stone Drum

55 U-learning for nursing courses Develop several u-learning systems for clinical nursing courses. Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

56 Number of participants per year Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

57 The on-going project

58 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Learning activities conducted in Chi-Gu ecology park in southern Taiwan In this area, there are Mangroves, Black-Face Spoonbills and Fiddler Crabs.

59 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning The students are equipped with a smartphone (or PDA), a telescope and a set of probe devices to collect data in the ecology park.

60 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Conclusions The popularity of mobile, wireless communication and sensing technologies has brought us some new aspects for perceiving education. Some issues can be investigated Design new learning activities Analyze the real-world learning behaviors Develop new learning strategies or tools The cooperation of researchers with different backgrounds is needed

61 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning References Tsai, P. S., Tsai, C. C., & Hwang, G. J. (in press). Developing a survey for assessing preferences in constructivist context-aware ubiquitous learning environments. Journal of Computer-Assisted Learning. doi: /j x (SSCI) Hwang, G. J., Wu P. H., Zhuang, Y. Y., & Huang, Y. M. (in press). Effects of inquiry-based mobile learning model on cognitive load and learning achievement of students. Interactive Learning Environments. (SSCI) Hung, P. S., Hwang, G. J., Su, I. S., & Lin, I. H. (in press). A concept-map integrated dynamic assessment system for improving ecology observation competences in mobile learning activities. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology. (SSCI) Wu, P. H., Hwang, G. J., Su, L. H., & Huang, Y. M. (in press). A context-aware mobile learning system for supporting cognitive apprenticeships in nursing skills training. Educational Technology & Society. (SSCI) Wu, P. H., Hwang, G. J., Tsai, C. C., Chen, Y. C., & Huang, Y. M. (in press). A pilot study on conducting mobile learning activities for clinical nursing courses based on the repertory grid approach. Nurse Education Today. doi: /j.nedt (SSCI) Shih, J. L., Hwang, G. J., Chu, Y. C., & Chuang, C. W. (2011). An investigation-based learning model for using digital libraries to support mobile learning activities. The Electronic Library, 29(4), (SSCI) Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., & Tsai, C. C. (in press). Difference in learning achievement and human cognitive load by using formative assessment-based mobile learning. Online Information Review. (SSCI) Hwang, G. J., & Tsai, C. C. (2011). Research trends in mobile and ubiquitous learning: A review of publications in selected journals from 2001 to British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(4), E (SSCI)

62 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Hwang, G. J., Wu, C. H., Tseng, Judy C. R., & Huang, I. W. (in press). Development of a ubiquitous learning platform based on a real-time help-seeking mechanism. British Journal of Educational Technology. doi: /j x (SSCI) Hwang, G. J., Shi, Y. R., & Chu, H. C. (2011). A concept map approach to developing collaborative Mindtools for context-aware ubiquitous learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(5), 778–789. (SSCI) Hwang, G. J., Wu, P. H., & Ke, H. R. (2011). An interactive concept map approach to supporting mobile learning activities for natural science courses. Computers & Education, 57(4), (SSCI) Hsieh, S. W., Jang, Y. R., Hwang, G. J., & Chen, N. S. (2011). Effects of teaching and learning styles on students reflection levels for ubiquitous learning. Computers & Education, 57(1), (SSCI) Shih, J. L., Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., & Kinshuk. (2011). An investigation of attitudes of students and teachers about participating in a context-aware ubiquitous learning activity. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(3), (SSCI) Hwang, G. J., Chu, H. C., Lin, Y. S., & Tsai, C. C. (2011). A knowledge acquisition approach to developing Mindtools for organizing and sharing differentiating knowledge in a ubiquitous learning environment. Computers & Education, 57(1), (SSCI) Hwang, G. J., & Chang, H. F. (2011). A formative assessment-based mobile learning approach to improving the learning attitudes and achievements of students. Computers & Education, 56(1), (SSCI) Shih, J. L., Chuang, C. W., & Hwang, G. J. (2010). An inquiry-based mobile learning approach to enhancing social science learning effectiveness. Educational Technology & Society, 13 (4), (SSCI)

63 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., & Tseng, Judy C. R. (2010). An innovative approach for developing and employing electronic libraries to support context-aware ubiquitous learning. The Electronic Library, 28(6), (SSCI) Hung, P. H., Lin, Y. F., & Hwang, G. J. (2010). Formative assessment design for PDA integrated ecology observation. Educational Technology & Society, 13(3), (SSCI) Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., Tsai, C. C., & Tseng, Judy C. R. (2010). A two-tier test approach to developing location-aware mobile learning systems for natural science courses. Computers & Education, 55(4), (SSCI) Chiou, C. K., Tseng, Judy C. R., Hwang, G. J., & Heller, S. (2010). An adaptive navigation support system for conducting context-aware ubiquitous learning in museums. Computers & Education, 55(2), (SSCI) Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., & Tsai, C. C. (2010). A knowledge engineering approach to developing Mindtools for context-aware ubiquitous learning. Computers & Education, 54(1), (SSCI) Hwang, G. J., Chu, H. C., Shih, J. L., Huang, S. H., & Tsai, C. C. (2010). A decision-tree- oriented guidance mechanism for conducting nature science observation activities in a context-aware ubiquitous learning environment. Educational Technology & Society, 13(2), (SSCI) Hwang, G. J., Kuo, F. R., Yin, P. Y., & Chuang, K. H. (2010). A heuristic algorithm for planning personalized learning paths for context-aware ubiquitous learning. Computers & Education, 54(2), (SSCI) Liu, G. Z., & Hwang, G. J. (2010). A key step to understanding paradigm shifts in e-learning: Towards context-aware ubiquitous learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(2), E1-E9. (SSCI)

64 Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning Peng, H. Y., Chuang, P. Y., Hwang, G. J., Chu, H. C., Wu, T. T., & Huang, S. X. (2009). Ubiquitous performance-support system as Mindtool: A case study of instructional decision making and learning assistant. Educational Technology & Society, 12(1), (SSCI) Chen, C. H., Hwang, G. J., Yang, T. C., Chen, S. H., & Huang, S. Y. (2009). Analysis of a ubiquitous performance support system for teachers. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 46(4), (SSCI) Hwang, G. J., Yang, T. C., Tsai, C. C., & Yang, Stephen J. H. (2009). A context-aware ubiquitous learning environment for conducting complex science experiments. Computers & Education, 53(2), (SSCI) Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., Huang, S. X., & Wu, T. T. (2008). A knowledge engineering approach to developing e-libraries for mobile learning.The Electronic Library, 26(3), (SSCI) Hwang, G. J., Tsai, C. C., & Yang, Stephen J. H. (2008). Criteria, strategies and research issues of context-aware ubiquitous learning. Educational Technology & Society, 11(2), (SSCI)

65 Thank you


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