Presentation on theme: "Wireless and Mobile Networks. Wireless Rules 802.11 wireless used radio frequencies that are unlicensed. 802.11 is power limited to comply with Federal."— Presentation transcript:
Wireless and Mobile Networks
Wireless Rules wireless used radio frequencies that are unlicensed is power limited to comply with Federal Communication Commission (FCC) rules part may suffer interference from cordless phones and microwave ovens (also unlicensed)
Signal Strength/Multipath/Fading Radio signals at ultra high frequencies are primarily line of sight. Radio signal intensity decreases with the square of the distance (path loss) Radio signal strength decreases inversely proportional to frequency. Radio signals bounce off of most surfaces Multipath is caused when more than 1 path is used from sender to receiver.
Wireless degradation As the signal strength at the receiver decreases, the data rate decreases. As more users attach to the AP the bandwidth is shared dividing the available rate among the users.
Hidden Terminal and Multipath Problem
Workarounds Antennas –Concentrate the radio energy in the area needed. –Yagi antennas –Dish antennas –Install antennas as high as possible Feedlines –Place antenna as close as possible to the access point. Repeater –Remote access point, receives signals and retransmits them.
Effects of Antenna Design Access Point Antenna Gain Antenna Access Point Directional Antenna
Standards aup to 54 Mbps2.4 Ghz gup to 54 Mbps5.1 GHz bup to 5-11 Mbps2.4 Ghz CDMA56Kbps-384KbpsVaries with standard antennas may only go up to 300 feet (no obstacles)
Architecture Base Stations/Access Points –Infrastructure Becomes part of an existing network –Ad Hoc No outside world access or connection
Channelization Radio Frequencies are separated into channels uses 11 channels. Wireless devices scan the assigned channels to find activity. Access Points transmit beacon frames to advertise their availability.
Frequency Chart for b
and Bluetooth Very short range (10 meters) Low Power (1 milliwatt power) Low data rates (up to 720Kbps) Uses spread spectrum frequency hopping over 79 channels. Ad Hoc network structure in a master/slave organization.
Mobility Moving from one AP to another while maintaining the same IP address. Simple approach is a flat network with an open subnet mask ( ). Wireless nodes have limited range (300 feet) so you may change nodes 18 times while traveling one mile.
Mobile routing Indirect –Routes back to home network then to foreign network Direct –Routing changes provide a path directly to the mobile node.
Outline What is the problem at the routing layer when Internet hosts move?! Can the problem be solved? What is the standard solution? – mobile IP What are the problems with the solution? Other approaches?
Internet hosts & Mobility Wireless networking – allows Internet users to become mobile As users move, they have to be handed over from one coverage area to another (since the coverage areas of access points are finite) … Ongoing connections need to be maintained as the user moves …
Problems? What are the problems? The IP address associated with a mobile host is network dependent! When user connects to another network, IP address needs to change Packets belonging to ongoing connections somehow need to be delivered to the mobile host
Problems (Contd.)? What are the options? Make IP address host specific instead of network specific – obvious pitfalls? Change IP address of host and start using the new IP address in the subsequent packets belonging to the connections
Intuitive Solution Take up the analogy of you moving from one apartment to another What do you do? Leave a forwarding address with your old post-office! The old post-office forwards mails to your new post-office, which then forwards them to you
Mobile IP Basics Same as the post-office analogy Two other entities – home agent (old post- office), foreign agent (new post-office) Mobile host registers with home agent the new location Home agent captures packets meant for mobile host, and forwards it to the foreign agent, which then delivers it to the mobile host
Reverse path? Same as in the post-office analogy Packets originating from the mobile host go directly to the static corresponding host … HA SH MH FA MH Hence the name triangular routing
Mobile IP Entities Mobile host Corresponding host Home address Care-of address Home agent Foreign agent
Mobile IP in detail … Combination of 3 separable mechanisms: –Discovering the care-of address –Registering the care-of address –Tunneling to the care-of address
Discovering the care-of address Discovery process built on top of an existing standard protocol: router advertisement (RFC 1256) Router advertisements extended to carry available care-of addresses called: agent advertisements Foreign agents (and home agents) send agent advertisements periodically A mobile host can choose not to wait for an advertisement, and issue a solicitation message
Agent advertisements Foreign agents send advertisements to advertise available care-of addresses Home agents send advertisements to make themselves known Mobile hosts can issue agent solicitations to actively seek information If mobile host has not heard from a foreign agent its current care-of address belongs to, it seeks for another care-of address
Registering the Care-of Address Once mobile host receives care-of address, it registers it with the home agent A registration request is first sent to the home agent (through the foreign agent) Home agent then approves the request and sends a registration reply back to the mobile host Security?
Registration Authentication Mobile IP requires the home agent and mobile host to share a security association MD5 with 128-bit keys to create digital signatures for registration requests to be used (registration message & header used for creating signature) Any problems? – replay attacks Solved by using an unique message identifier (timestamp or pseudorandom number)
Foreign Agent Security? No foreign agent authentication required Foreign agent can potentially discard data once registration happens However, the problem is same as in unauthenticated route advertisements (RFC 1256) in the wireline context
Home agent discovery If the mobile host is unable to communicate with the home agent, a home agent discovery message is used The message is sent as a broadcast to the home agents in the home network
Tunneling to the Care-of address When home agent receives packets addressed to mobile host, it forwards packets to the care-of address How does it forward it? - encapsulation The default encapsulation mechanism that must be supported by all mobility agents using mobile IP is IP-within-IP (RFC 2003) Using IP-within-IP, home agent inserts a new IP header in front of the IP header of any datagram
Tunneling (contd.) Destination address set to the care-of address Source address set to the home agents address Tunnel header uses 4 for higher protocol id – this ensures that IP after stripping out the first header, processes the packet again Tunnel header of 55 used if IP minimal encapsulation used (RFC 2004)
Recap Host mobility and Internet addresses Post-office analogy Home agent, foreign agent, care-of address, home address Registration and Tunneling IPv6 and Mobility support …
Cellular Internet access Text messaging Web Browsing Cell phones use FDM (frequency division multiplex) and TDM (time division multiplex) to increase utilization of scarce radio frequencies. MSC (mobile switching center) PSTN (public switched telephone network)
Wireless Networks Remember Homework 3 on the Web Site