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GSM (GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION). PRESENTATION PLAN INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION CELLULAR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS CELLULAR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS.

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Presentation on theme: "GSM (GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION). PRESENTATION PLAN INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION CELLULAR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS CELLULAR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS."— Presentation transcript:

1 GSM (GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION)

2 PRESENTATION PLAN INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION CELLULAR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS CELLULAR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS GSM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE GSM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE MOBILITY AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT MOBILITY AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT GSM PROTOCOLS GSM PROTOCOLS

3 HISTORY OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 1982 CEPT start to develop cell structure 1982 CEPT start to develop cell structure 1986 Basic GSM radio tarnsmission technics chosen 1986 Basic GSM radio tarnsmission technics chosen 1988 The Telecommunication Standarts Instute define GSM 1988 The Telecommunication Standarts Instute define GSM 1989 Explanation is finished for GSM Generation Explanation is finished for GSM Generation First call in GSM 1991 First call in GSM

4 1992 First GSM Network in the world 1992 First GSM Network in the world 1993 GSM Network is reached GSM Network is reached First GSM Network in Africa, 1994 First GSM Network in Africa, 1995 GSM Network is reached GSM Network is reached Million User on the World Million User on the World 1999 First GPRS 1999 First GPRS Million User on the World Million User on the World

5 Million User on the World Million User on the World G World Congress G World Congress Billion user on the world Billion user on the world

6 1st Generation Start to use in 1989 Call forwarding All calls No answer Engaged Unreachable Outgoing calls barring Incoming calls barring Global roaming

7 2nd Generation Finished process in 1995 SMS(Short Message Services) Multi Party Calling Call holding Call waiting Mobile data service Mobile fax service Call line identity Advice of charging Advice of charging Cell broadcast Cell broadcast

8 2+ Generation Start to use in 1998 Start to use in 1998 Services developed Services developed DECT and GSM DECT and GSM VPN(Virtual Private Network) VPN(Virtual Private Network) Packet Radio Packet Radio SIM development SIM development Enjoyable services Enjoyable services

9 Mobile Radio Cellular Mobile Communications

10 Definition –A cellular mobile comms. system uses a large number of low-power wireless transmitters to create cells –Variable power levels allow cells to be sized according to subscriber density and demand within a particular region –As mobile users travel from cell to cell, their conversations are handed off between cells –Channels (frequencies) used in one cell can be reused in another cell some distance away

11 Mobile Comms. Principles –Mobile uses a separate, temporary radio channel to talk to the cell site –Cell site talks to many mobiles at once, using one channel per mobile –Channels use a pair of frequencies for communication The forward link for transmitting from the cell site The forward link for transmitting from the cell site The reverse link for the cell site to receive calls from the users The reverse link for the cell site to receive calls from the users

12 Mobile Comms. Principles Radio energy dissipates over distance, so mobiles must stay near the base station to maintain communications Radio energy dissipates over distance, so mobiles must stay near the base station to maintain communications Basic structure of mobile networks includes telephone systems and radio services Basic structure of mobile networks includes telephone systems and radio services

13 Mobile Comms. Principles Where mobile radio service operates in a closed network and has no access to the telephone system, mobile telephone service allows interconnection to the telephone network Where mobile radio service operates in a closed network and has no access to the telephone system, mobile telephone service allows interconnection to the telephone network

14 Mobile Comms. Principles Radio energy dissipates over distance, so mobiles must stay near the base station to maintain communications Radio energy dissipates over distance, so mobiles must stay near the base station to maintain communications basic structure of mobile networks includes telephone systems and radio services basic structure of mobile networks includes telephone systems and radio services

15 Mobile Systems Using Cells The cellular concept employs variable low- power levels The cellular concept employs variable low- power levels –cells are sized according to the subscriber density and demand in a given area Cells can be added to accommodate population growth Cells can be added to accommodate population growth

16 Mobile Systems Using Cells As with early mobile radio systems, the base station communicates with mobiles via a channel As with early mobile radio systems, the base station communicates with mobiles via a channel – The channel is made of two frequencies, one for transmitting to the base station and one to receive information from the base station Mobile System using Cellular architecture

17 Cellular System Architecture In modern cellular telephony, rural and urban regions are divided into areas according to specific provisioning guidelines In modern cellular telephony, rural and urban regions are divided into areas according to specific provisioning guidelines Deployment parameters, such as amount of cell-splitting and cell sizes, are determined by engineers experienced in cellular system architecture Deployment parameters, such as amount of cell-splitting and cell sizes, are determined by engineers experienced in cellular system architecture

18 Cells A cell is the basic geographic unit of a cellular system A cell is the basic geographic unit of a cellular system –The term cellular comes from the honeycomb shape of the areas into which a coverage region is divided –Cells are base stations transmitting over small geographic areas that are represented as hexagons –Size varies depending on the landscape

19 Clusters A cluster is a group of cells A cluster is a group of cells –No channels are reused within a cluster A seven Cell Cluster

20 Cell Splitting Allows urban centres to be split into as many areas as necessary for acceptable service levels in heavy-traffic regions, while larger, less expensive cells can be used to cover remote rural regions Allows urban centres to be split into as many areas as necessary for acceptable service levels in heavy-traffic regions, while larger, less expensive cells can be used to cover remote rural regions

21 GSM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

22 OPEN INTERFACES OF GSM Network Switching Subsystem(NSS) Network Switching Subsystem(NSS) Base Station Subsystem(BSS) Base Station Subsystem(BSS) Network Management Subsystem(NMS) or Operation and Support Subsystem(OSS) Network Management Subsystem(NMS) or Operation and Support Subsystem(OSS) They connect with Air,A,O&M interfaces They connect with Air,A,O&M interfaces

23

24 MOBILITY FUNCTIONS Registration and Database Registration and Database SIM (The Subscriber Identity Module) SIM (The Subscriber Identity Module) Location Update Location Update

25 Registration and Database HLR (Home Location Register) HLR (Home Location Register) It includes all permanent users information It includes all permanent users information VLR(Visitor Location Register) VLR(Visitor Location Register) It includes temporary users information according to users position It includes temporary users information according to users position MSC (Mobile Switching Center) MSC (Mobile Switching Center) It is an integrated structure with phone exchange(Santral) It is an integrated structure with phone exchange(Santral)

26 Databases of GSM Network

27 SIM It includes numbers which provide definition of user for network It includes numbers which provide definition of user for network It also includes reachable networks list It also includes reachable networks list

28 Location Update

29 Procedure of Location Update

30 SET UP CALLS IN GSM NETWORK MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN CC : Country Code CC : Country Code NDC : National Destination Code NDC : National Destination Code SN : Subscriber Number SN : Subscriber Number GMSC : Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center GMSC : Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center

31 REACH CALLS FROM PSTN TO GSM NETWORK

32 GUİDE CALL TO GSM NETWORK

33 CONTENT OF HLR MSISDN MSISDN IMSI IMSI They provide the right call, right service They provide the right call, right service IMSI = MCC+MNC+MSIN MCC = Mobile Country Code MNC = Mobile Network Code MSIN = Mobile Sucscriber Identification Number

34 MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number) MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number) MSRN = CC + NDC + SN CC : Country Code CC : Country Code NDC : National Destination Code SN : Subscriber Number 2.MSC wants to MSRN FROM HLR(Left Photo) HLR gives MSRN to MSC for startin call(Right Photo)

35 PROCEDURE OF CALL SET UP

36 Procedure The number is MSISDN The number is MSISDN PSTN central analyse the MSISDN and connect to GMSC PSTN central analyse the MSISDN and connect to GMSC GMSC analyse the MSISDN and send message HLR GMSC analyse the MSISDN and send message HLR HLR control databases and thrust into the users location HLR control databases and thrust into the users location HLR query MSC/VLR HLR query MSC/VLR

37 MSC/VLR produce MSRN MSC/VLR produce MSRN MSC/VLR send MSRN to HLR, HLR send it to GMSC MSC/VLR send MSRN to HLR, HLR send it to GMSC GMSC realise MSC/VLR for forwarding call GMSC realise MSC/VLR for forwarding call MSC/VLR gets MSRN and starts to call MSC/VLR gets MSRN and starts to call MSC/VLR starts to paging process in location area.The user is found with paging signal and call set up MSC/VLR starts to paging process in location area.The user is found with paging signal and call set up

38 PROCEDURE OF CALL SET UP FROM MOBİLE USER

39 HANDOVER TWO REASON TWO REASON When The Radio Signals quality and power decreases to necessary scores, the connection deliver to more powerful cell When The Radio Signals quality and power decreases to necessary scores, the connection deliver to more powerful cell When The Trraffic Capacity approaches to maximum, the connection deliver to less density of traffic cell When The Trraffic Capacity approaches to maximum, the connection deliver to less density of traffic cell

40 SIGNALS AND PROTOCOLS STANDART MESSAGES STANDART MESSAGES SENDER WANTS TO SERVICE SENDER WANTS TO SERVICE OPERATOR ASK THAT YOU WANTS TO TALK,BUT WHICH USER OPERATOR ASK THAT YOU WANTS TO TALK,BUT WHICH USER OPERATOR CONNECT TO RECEIVER OPERATOR CONNECT TO RECEIVER WHEN THE RECEIVER REPLIES TO CALL,THE CALL STARTS WHEN THE RECEIVER REPLIES TO CALL,THE CALL STARTS WHEN THE RECEIVER OR SENDER CLOSE THE PHONE, THE OPERATOR FINISH CONNECTION TO EACH OTHER WHEN THE RECEIVER OR SENDER CLOSE THE PHONE, THE OPERATOR FINISH CONNECTION TO EACH OTHER

41 PROCEDURE OF SIGNALS

42 COMMON CHANNEL SIGNALLING SYSTEM MTP(MASSAGE TRANSFER PART) MTP(MASSAGE TRANSFER PART) TUP(TELEPHONE USER PART) TUP(TELEPHONE USER PART) SSCP(SIGNALLING CONNECTION AND CONTROL PART) SSCP(SIGNALLING CONNECTION AND CONTROL PART)

43 MTP(MASSAGE TRANSFER PART)

44 PHYSICAL CONNECTION PHYSICAL CONNECTION It includes data links and their propertie It includes data links and their propertie DATA LINK CONTROL It helps to transfer messages between component of network perfectly NETWORK LAYER It provides to transfer messages between component of network It provides to transfer messages between component of network

45 TUP(TELEPHONE USER PART)

46 Users identification Users identification Who get this messages or signals Who get this messages or signals Who make a process this signal Who make a process this signal TUP,NUD,ISUP help to set up calls and they make same task TUP,NUD,ISUP help to set up calls and they make same task

47 SIGNALLING CONNECTION AND CONTROL PART

48 It provides virtual connections It provides virtual connections It guarentee to transfer messages from every signals point to every signals point secure It guarentee to transfer messages from every signals point to every signals point secure It provides multi-point communication It provides multi-point communication

49 Briefly MTP transmit messages MTP transmit messages TUP use this messages.It sets up calls,manages calls and finishes calls TUP use this messages.It sets up calls,manages calls and finishes calls SCCP create virtual connections and multi-point communication SCCP create virtual connections and multi-point communication

50 OTHER SS7 APPLICATION IN GSM NETWORK BSSAP(Base Station Subsystem Application Part) BSSAP(Base Station Subsystem Application Part) MAP (Mobile Application Part) MAP (Mobile Application Part) TCAP (Transaction Capabilities Application Part) TCAP (Transaction Capabilities Application Part)

51 BASE STATION SUBSYSTEM APPLICATION PART It provide MSC-BSC and MSC-MS communication SCCP service is required

52 MOBILE APPLICATION PART Before the call is guided to HLR, MSRN is wanted from HLR, so the another protocol is added SS7 which is called MAP Before the call is guided to HLR, MSRN is wanted from HLR, so the another protocol is added SS7 which is called MAP It provides to communicate between Component of Network Switching Subsystem It provides to communicate between Component of Network Switching Subsystem MAP only uses for non-call-related messaging in MSC- MSC communication MAP only uses for non-call-related messaging in MSC- MSC communication

53 TCAP (Transaction Capabilities Application Part) It manages to communication in MAP It likes a secretary

54 SS7 LAYER IN COMPONENT OF GSM SET OF PROTOCOL IN MSC SET OF PROTOCOL IN MSC SET OF PROTOCOL IN HLR SET OF PROTOCOL IN HLR SET OF PROTOCOL IN BSC SET OF PROTOCOL IN BSC

55 SET OF PROTOCOL IN MSC

56 MSC control calls MTP is required for all components which works with SS7 MTP is required for all components which works with SS7 TUP/ISUP is reuired for calls TUP/ISUP is reuired for calls It has all components of layers in SS7 It has all components of layers in SS7

57 SET OF PROTOCOL IN HLR

58 It does not intersest control of calls, so TUP/ISUP is not necessary It does not intersest control of calls, so TUP/ISUP is not necessary It does not connect directly, so BSSAP is not necessary It does not connect directly, so BSSAP is not necessary

59 SET OF PROTOCOL IN BSC

60 BSS AP is only required BSS AP is only required SCCP services are necessrary SCCP services are necessrary Consequently MTP is required Consequently MTP is required

61 SS7 PROTOCOLS IN DIFFERENT NETWORK COMPONENTS

62 Next table show functions of SS7 Protocols for all components of GSM network

63 MSCBSCHLR MTP It provides to transfer the messages of SS7 between different network components TUP/ISU P It provides to set up, manage and control the calls No exist SCCP It provides connectionless communication and virtual connections It provides virtual connection between MSC and MS Connectionless Communication BSSAP It provides GSM communication between BSC and MS MSC and GSM communication No exist MAP It provides basic communication between HLR and other MSC No exist It provides basic communication between MSC and HLR TCAP It provides to connect service to MAP No exist It provides to connect service to MAP INAP It provides communication via Intelligent Network No exist It provides communication via Intelligent Network


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