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13-1 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Mobile IPv6 Raj Jain Washington University in Saint Louis Saint Louis, MO 63130 Jain@cse.wustl.edu These slides are available on-line at: http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-06/
13-2 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Overview IPv6: Overview, Extension Headers, Neighbor Discovery, Address Auto configuration Mobile IPv4 vs. IPv6 Route Optimization Return Routability Procedure Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGAs) Fast Handover Hierarchical Mobile IPv5 (HMIPv6)
13-3 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis IPv6: Overview 128 bit addresses: 64-bit Prefix + 64-bit Interface ID lsb of MSB = u = universal or local interface ID g = group ID Routers advertise network prefix Colon-hex notation: 3FFE:0200:0000:0000:0000:0012:F0C8:79CA 3FFE:0200::0012:F0C8:79CA :: Unspecified Address Flow Label: SA-DA-Label One flow Scoped Addresses: Link-Local, Site-Local Extension headers: Routing, Hop-by-Hop, Destination Options Subnet ID Interface ID 64b56b8b gu Prefix Global Routing Prefix
13-4 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Address Auto Configuration Stateful : Using DHCP Stateless : Hosts can make a global address using advertised network prefix Interface identifier should be unique Stateless No one needs to keep record of what address was allocated
13-5 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Mobile IPv4 vs. IPv6 1.No need for a foreign agent 2.Route optimization 3.Secure Route optimization 4.New extension header in place of tunneling Less overhead. Less state. 5.Neighbor discovery in place of ARP More general L2 6.Dynamic home agent discovery returns a single reply
13-6 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Binding Updates Binding Update Registration New Mobility Header MH Type=5 Binding Update Each binding update has a Sequence Number. Mobile keeps track of last seq # for each destination Home agent performs Duplicate Address Detection (DAD), updates binding cache, sends binding ack New network prefix and default router unreachable Network change
13-7 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Route Optimization Shortest path in both directions Mobile sends a binding update to the correspondent New Destination Option: Home Address (HoA) Option HoA option is used in all packets. Correspondent replaces SA with HoA before passing to upper layer Home Agent Correspondent Mobile Node HoACNTCP PktHoACNTCP Pkt CoA CNTCP Pkt HoA Dest. Option Header On media: Upper layers
13-8 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Route Optimization (Cont) SA and destination option addresses are interchanged before transmission and after reception In the reverse direction: New header type: Routing Header type 2 contains home address DA and Routing header type 2 addresses are interchanged before transmission and after reception Binding error message Sorry I don't have a binding for this HoA IP-in-IP tunneling will require 4 addresses instead of 3 with new headers
13-9 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Return Routability Procedure Mobile must prove to correspondent that it owns both HoA and CoA Mobile does not share any secret with correspondent Correspondent send messages to HoA and CoA. Mobile responds correctly if it receives both. Home Adr Test Init (HOTI) Care-of Adr Test Init (COTI) COT: with one half of a key HOT: with another half of key Binding Update (Authenticated) Binding Ack HOTI HOT: Here is another nonce MobileCorrespondentHome Agent
13-10 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Return Routability Procedure (Cont) Mobile starts this test. Sends HoTI via HA with a cookie. CN generates Home Keygen Token = First(64, HMAC_SHA1(Kcn, HoA|nonce|0)) CN returns HoT containing MN's cookie, Home keygen token, and CN's nonce index Mobile sends CoTI directly to CN with another cookie CN generates Care-of Keygen Token = First(64, HMAC_SHA1(Kcn, CoA|nonce|1)) CN returns CoT containing MN's cookie, Co Keygen Token, CN's nonce index Mobile constructs a key and sends an encrypted binding update Kbm = Sha1(Home Keygen Token|Care-of Keygen Token) Auth_data = First(96, MAC(Kbm, Mobility_data)) Mobility_data = CoA|final dest address|Mobility Header data Final Dest Address = CN's Home address if CN is mobile
13-11 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Cryptographically Generated Addresses IPv6 address includes 64 bit interface id A node can generate Interface ID using its public key on network prefix 64-bit Interface ID = First(64, Hash(home_prefix|public key|context) &0xFCFF FFFF FFFF FFFF) C Universal and group bits on the interface id are zero Mobile node can sign the binding update using its private key.
13-12 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Fast Handover Mobile AP1 AP2 AR1 AR2 Proxy Solicitation Proxy Advertisement Fast Binding Update Binding Ack Fast Neighbor Advertisement Neighbor Advertisement Ack Handover Initiate Handover Ack Who is the router for AP2? AR2 is the router. N2 is prefix. Mobile wants an Adr Use Adrx What Address Can I use? Hi! This is Adrx Welcome to our network!
13-13 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Fast Handover (Cont) Ask AR1 about router for AP2 Router Solicitation for Proxy w list of Access Points AR1 returns Proxy Router Advertisement w at least one prefix AR1 sends Handover initiate (HI) message to AR2 and sets up a tunnel AR2 does DAD and send Handover Ack (Hack) Mobile sends Binding update to AR1 AR1 sends Binding Ack to old CoA or new CoA Mobile sends Fast Neighbor Advertisement (F-NA) to AR2 AR2 returns Fast Neighbor Advertisement Ack to Mobile Mobile can use CGA to avoid HI/Hack
13-14 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) Regional Home Agent: Mobile Anchor Point (MAP) Regional CoA address Correspondent Access Router 1 Access Router 2 Mobility Anchor Point Home Agent Mobile Node Local CoA Regional CoA Home Address BU1 BU2 BU3
13-15 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Summary IPv6 has a new "mobility" extension header. Two-way optimal route using binding updates with correspondent Security using Return Routability procedure Fast handover using local mobility Hierarchical anchors to minimize mobile overhead
13-16 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Reading Assignment Text Books: Dixit and Prasad, Chapter 16, pp. 335-439. Murthy and Manoj, Section 4.3, pp. 158-172 Other Books: Hesham Soliman, "Mobile IPv6," Addison-Wesley, 2004, ISBN:0201788977 Key RFCs: RFC 3775 Mobility Support in IPv6 RFC 4068 Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 RFC 4260 Mobile IPv6 Fast Handovers for 802.11 Networks RFC 4140 Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Mobility Management (HMIPv6)
13-17 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Reading Assignment (Cont) Secondary RFCs: RFC 1688 IPng Mobility Considerations RFC 3776 Using IPsec to Protect Mobile IPv6 Signaling Between Mobile Nodes and Home Agents RFC 4225 Mobile IP Version 6 Route Optimization Security Design Background RFC 4283 Mobile Node Identifier Option for Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) RFC 4285 Authentication Protocol for Mobile IPv6
13-18 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Thank You!
13-19 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Mobility Management Layer 2 Mobility IEEE 802.11 allows handover between access points IEEE 802.21 is working on inter-technology handovers IP Layer Mobility Only one Layer 3 protocol Transport Layer Mobility Three Transports: TCP, UDP, SCTP (Stream Control TP) Every transport will have to support Applications using these transports also have to understand Application Layer Mobility Too many applications. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Mobile VOIP signaling
13-20 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis IP Mobility Requirements Session continuity Reach ability Application Independence Lower Layer Independence End-to-end signaling: All routers do need not change
13-21 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Neighbor Discovery Replacement for ARP (IEEE 802 only) in IPv6. Uses ICMPv6 messages Uses link-local addresses Not forwarded beyond the link Router Solicitation: To "All-Router Multicast" All routers on the link respond by router advertisement Router Advertisements: Include stateful/stateless addresses, Agent capability, reachable lifetime, address resolution retransmission time, network prefix Neighbor Solicitation: Solicited-Node Multicast, Target Adr Neighbor Advertisement: Includes Link layer address Redirect Message: Use another router for a given target address Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD)
13-22 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Extension Headers Hop-by-hop Options Header Routing Header Fragmentation Header Authentication Header (AH) Encapsulation Security Payload (ESP) Header Destination Options Header: Includes a tunnel encapsulation limit
13-23 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Host Data Structures Neighbor Cache: IP and Link layer addresses for all known hosts on the link Destination Cache: IP and next hop router's addresses for recent hosts Prefix List: All valid prefixes on this link Default router list
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