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6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-1 Chapter 6.5-6.9 outline Mobility r 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users r 6.6 Mobile IP r 6.7 Handling.

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Presentation on theme: "6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-1 Chapter 6.5-6.9 outline Mobility r 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users r 6.6 Mobile IP r 6.7 Handling."— Presentation transcript:

1 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-1 Chapter outline Mobility r 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users r 6.6 Mobile IP r 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks r 6.8 Mobility and higher- layer protocols 6.9 Summary

2 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-2 Mobile Switching Center Public telephone network, and Internet Mobile Switching Center Components of cellular network architecture connects cells to wide area net manages call setup (more later!) handles mobility (more later!) MSC covers geographical region base station (BS) analogous to AP mobile users attach to network through BS air-interface: physical and link layer protocol between mobile and BS cell wired network

3 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-3 Cellular networks: the first hop Two techniques for sharing mobile-to-BS radio spectrum r combined FDMA/TDMA: divide spectrum in frequency channels, divide each channel into time slots r CDMA: code division multiple access frequency bands time slots

4 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-4 Cellular standards: brief survey 2G systems: voice channels r IS-136 TDMA: combined FDMA/TDMA (north america) r GSM (global system for mobile communications): combined FDMA/TDMA m most widely deployed r IS-95 CDMA: code division multiple access IS-136 GSM IS-95 GPRS EDGE CDMA-2000 UMTS TDMA/FDMA Dont drown in a bowl of alphabet soup: use this for reference only

5 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-5 Cellular standards: brief survey 2.5 G systems: voice and data channels r for those who cant wait for 3G service: 2G extensions r general packet radio service (GPRS) m evolved from GSM m data sent on multiple channels (if available) r enhanced data rates for global evolution (EDGE) m also evolved from GSM, using enhanced modulation m Date rates up to 384K r CDMA-2000 (phase 1) m data rates up to 144K m evolved from IS-95

6 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-6 Cellular standards: brief survey 3G systems: voice/data r Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) m GSM next step, but using CDMA r CDMA-2000 ….. more (and more interesting) cellular topics due to mobility (stay tuned for details)

7 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-7 Chapter 6 outline 6.1 Introduction Wireless r 6.2 Wireless links, characteristics m CDMA r 6.3 IEEE wireless LANs (wi-fi) r 6.4 Cellular Internet Access m architecture m standards (e.g., GSM) Mobility r 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users r 6.6 Mobile IP r 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks r 6.8 Mobility and higher- layer protocols 6.9 Summary

8 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-8 What is mobility? r spectrum of mobility, from the network perspective: no mobility high mobility mobile wireless user, using same access point mobile user, passing through multiple access point while maintaining ongoing connections ( like cell phone) mobile user, connecting/ disconnecting from network using DHCP.

9 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-9 Mobility: Vocabulary home network: permanent home of mobile (e.g., /24) Permanent address: address in home network, can always be used to reach mobile e.g., home agent: entity that will perform mobility functions on behalf of mobile, when mobile is remote wide area network correspondent

10 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-10 Mobility: more vocabulary Care-of-address: address in visited network. (e.g., 79, ) wide area network visited network: network in which mobile currently resides (e.g., /24) Permanent address: remains constant ( e.g., ) home agent: entity in visited network that performs mobility functions on behalf of mobile. correspondent: wants to communicate with mobile

11 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-11 How do you contact a mobile friend: r search all phone books? r call her parents? r expect her to let you know where he/she is? I wonder where Alice moved to? Consider friend frequently changing addresses, how do you find her?

12 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-12 Mobility: approaches r Let routing handle it: routers advertise permanent address of mobile-nodes-in-residence via usual routing table exchange. m routing tables indicate where each mobile located m no changes to end-systems r Let end-systems handle it: m indirect routing: communication from correspondent to mobile goes through home agent, then forwarded to remote m direct routing: correspondent gets foreign address of mobile, sends directly to mobile

13 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-13 Mobility: approaches r Let routing handle it: routers advertise permanent address of mobile-nodes-in-residence via usual routing table exchange. m routing tables indicate where each mobile located m no changes to end-systems r Let end-systems handle it: m indirect routing: communication from correspondent to mobile goes through home agent, then forwarded to remote m direct routing: correspondent gets foreign address of mobile, sends directly to mobile not scalable to millions of mobiles

14 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-14 Mobility: registration End result: r Foreign agent knows about mobile r Home agent knows location of mobile wide area network home network visited network 1 mobile contacts foreign agent on entering visited network 2 foreign agent contacts home agent home: this mobile is resident in my network

15 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-15 Mobility via Indirect Routing wide area network home network visited network correspondent addresses packets using home address of mobile home agent intercepts packets, forwards to foreign agent foreign agent receives packets, forwards to mobile mobile replies directly to correspondent

16 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-16 Indirect Routing: comments r Mobile uses two addresses: m permanent address: used by correspondent (hence mobile location is transparent to correspondent) m care-of-address: used by home agent to forward datagrams to mobile r foreign agent functions may be done by mobile itself r triangle routing: correspondent-home-network- mobile m inefficient when correspondent, mobile are in same network

17 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-17 Indirect Routing: moving between networks r suppose mobile user moves to another network m registers with new foreign agent m new foreign agent registers with home agent m home agent update care-of-address for mobile m packets continue to be forwarded to mobile (but with new care-of-address) r mobility, changing foreign networks transparent: on going connections can be maintained!

18 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-18 Mobility via Direct Routing wide area network home network visited network correspondent requests, receives foreign address of mobile correspondent forwards to foreign agent foreign agent receives packets, forwards to mobile mobile replies directly to correspondent 3

19 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-19 Mobility via Direct Routing: comments r overcome triangle routing problem r non-transparent to correspondent: correspondent must get care-of-address from home agent m what if mobile changes visited network?

20 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-20 wide area network 1 foreign net visited at session start anchor foreign agent 2 4 new foreign agent 3 5 correspondent agent correspondent new foreign network Accommodating mobility with direct routing r anchor foreign agent: FA in first visited network r data always routed first to anchor FA r when mobile moves: new FA arranges to have data forwarded from old FA (chaining)

21 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-21 Chapter 6 outline 6.1 Introduction Wireless r 6.2 Wireless links, characteristics m CDMA r 6.3 IEEE wireless LANs (wi-fi) r 6.4 Cellular Internet Access m architecture m standards (e.g., GSM) Mobility r 6.5 Principles: addressing and routing to mobile users r 6.6 Mobile IP r 6.7 Handling mobility in cellular networks r 6.8 Mobility and higher- layer protocols 6.9 Summary

22 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-22 Mobile IP r RFC 3220 r has many features weve seen: m home agents, foreign agents, foreign-agent registration, care-of-addresses, encapsulation (packet-within-a-packet) r three components to standard: m indirect routing of datagrams m agent discovery m registration with home agent

23 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-23 Mobile IP: indirect routing Permanent address: Care-of address: dest: packet sent by correspondent dest: dest: packet sent by home agent to foreign agent: a packet within a packet dest: foreign-agent-to-mobile packet

24 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-24 Mobile IP: agent discovery r agent advertisement: foreign/home agents advertise service by broadcasting ICMP messages (typefield = 9) R bit: registration required H,F bits: home and/or foreign agent

25 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-25 Mobile IP: registration example

26 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-26 Components of cellular network architecture correspondent MSC wired public telephone network different cellular networks, operated by different providers recall:

27 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-27 Handling mobility in cellular networks r home network: network of cellular provider you subscribe to (e.g., Sprint PCS, Verizon) m home location register (HLR): database in home network containing permanent cell phone #, profile information (services, preferences, billing), information about current location (could be in another network) r visited network: network in which mobile currently resides m visitor location register (VLR): database with entry for each user currently in network m could be home network

28 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-28 Public switched telephone network mobile user home Mobile Switching Center HLR home network visited network correspondent Mobile Switching Center VLR GSM: indirect routing to mobile 1 call routed to home network 2 home MSC consults HLR, gets roaming number of mobile in visited network 3 home MSC sets up 2 nd leg of call to MSC in visited network 4 MSC in visited network completes call through base station to mobile

29 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-29 Mobile Switching Center VLR old BSS new BSS old routing new routing GSM: handoff with common MSC r Handoff goal: route call via new base station (without interruption) r reasons for handoff: m stronger signal to/from new BSS (continuing connectivity, less battery drain) m load balance: free up channel in current BSS m GSM doesnt mandate why to perform handoff (policy), only how (mechanism) r handoff initiated by old BSS

30 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-30 Mobile Switching Center VLR old BSS GSM: handoff with common MSC new BSS 1. old BSS informs MSC of impending handoff, provides list of 1 + new BSSs 2. MSC sets up path (allocates resources) to new BSS 3. new BSS allocates radio channel for use by mobile 4. new BSS signals MSC, old BSS: ready 5. old BSS tells mobile: perform handoff to new BSS 6. mobile, new BSS signal to activate new channel 7. mobile signals via new BSS to MSC: handoff complete. MSC reroutes call 8 MSC-old-BSS resources released

31 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-31 home network Home MSC PSTN correspondent MSC anchor MSC MSC (a) before handoff GSM: handoff between MSCs r anchor MSC: first MSC visited during call m call remains routed through anchor MSC r new MSCs add on to end of MSC chain as mobile moves to new MSC r IS-41 allows optional path minimization step to shorten multi-MSC chain

32 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-32 home network Home MSC PSTN correspondent MSC anchor MSC MSC (b) after handoff GSM: handoff between MSCs r anchor MSC: first MSC visited during cal m call remains routed through anchor MSC r new MSCs add on to end of MSC chain as mobile moves to new MSC r IS-41 allows optional path minimization step to shorten multi-MSC chain

33 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-33 Mobility: GSM versus Mobile IP GSM elementComment on GSM elementMobile IP element Home systemNetwork to which the mobile users permanent phone number belongs Home network Gateway Mobile Switching Center, or home MSC. Home Location Register (HLR) Home MSC: point of contact to obtain routable address of mobile user. HLR: database in home system containing permanent phone number, profile information, current location of mobile user, subscription information Home agent Visited SystemNetwork other than home system where mobile user is currently residing Visited network Visited Mobile services Switching Center. Visitor Location Record (VLR) Visited MSC: responsible for setting up calls to/from mobile nodes in cells associated with MSC. VLR: temporary database entry in visited system, containing subscription information for each visiting mobile user Foreign agent Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN), or roaming number Routable address for telephone call segment between home MSC and visited MSC, visible to neither the mobile nor the correspondent. Care-of- address

34 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-34 Wireless, mobility: impact on higher layer protocols r logically, impact should be minimal … m best effort service model remains unchanged m TCP and UDP can (and do) run over wireless, mobile r … but performance-wise: m packet loss/delay due to bit-errors (discarded packets, delays for link-layer retransmissions), and handoff m TCP interprets loss as congestion, will decrease congestion window un-necessarily m delay impairments for real-time traffic m limited bandwidth of wireless links

35 6: Wireless and Mobile Networks6-35 Mobility Summary Mobility r principles: addressing, routing to mobile users m home, visited networks m direct, indirect routing m care-of-addresses r case studies m mobile IP m mobility in GSM r impact on higher-layer protocols


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