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Mobile Accessibility Landscape Jonathan Avila

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1 Mobile Accessibility Landscape Jonathan Avila

2 About SSB BART Group Unmatched Experience Accessibility Focus
Implementation-Oriented Solutions Solutions That Reduce Legal Risk Organizational Stability and Continuity Knowledge That Is Up-to-Date, All the Time Published and Peer Review Auditing Methodology Fourteen hundred organizations (1445) Fifteen hundred individual accessibility best practices (1595) Twenty-two core technology platforms (22) Fifty-five thousand audits (55,930) One hundred fifty million accessibility violations (152,351,725) Three hundred sixty-six thousand human validated accessibility violations (366,096) Unmatched Experience Founded in 1997 by engineers with disabilities, SSB BART Group has been in the accessibility business since before Section 508 and the WCAG existed and longer than any of our competitors. SSB has completed accessibility projects for hundreds of enterprise-class firms, has over 10,000 active AMP users and maintains a database of over 1,000 accessibility best practices across 13 core development platforms. SSB actively works with all major industry development platform vendors, assistive technology vendors, regulatory agencies and public sector organizations to constantly refine and update our understanding of the proper level of accessibility for your firm. For clients who must comply with the Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, many clients find it helpful to know that over half of SSB’s client services staff have worked directly as staff and contractors for the Section 508 compliance teams in U.S. Federal Government agencies. This means that we have experience in both working with vendors selling to the Federal Government and as part of the workforce validating the compliance of vendor solutions provided to the Government. Accessibility Focus SSB BART Group only does accessibility. Other firms we commonly are compared to provide products and services that run a wide gamut, including general usability, privacy, security, brand compliance and SEO. These solutions tend to be effective as jack-of-all-trade solutions but, in practice, leave most customers working with organizations that provide a variety of services poorly. SSB’s sole focus is on providing IT accessibility compliance solutions and our team’s depth in accessibility is unmatched. Given the complexity of IT accessibility and the difficulty of implementing solutions, such a focus tends to be the only match for customers serious about rapidly and cost effectively implementing accessibility. About half of SSB’s client services staff have disabilities, and this number is often far higher than total employees at competing companies. This means that we recommend what we know works for users with disabilities in the real world. Furthermore, this ensures that your organization can achieve compliance both with the technical and functional requirements of leading accessibility standards. Implementation Oriented Solutions Our organizational focus is implementing accessibility in the real world. Many accessibility companies focus on providing diagnostic information to clients often of the form "this doesn’t work in JAWS." While helpful in identifying an issue, this feedback provides no guidance on how to address the issue. In contrast, for all issues we identify, SSB provides specific, actionable guidance that can readily be implemented of the form "change this piece of code on this line." This includes providing code-level implementation and unit test guidance for all best practices in AMP and all content delivered in audits. Our implementation focus grows out of our team’s background—a group of people that have development experience in the context of enterprise-class IT systems. Competing companies tend to specialize in web accessibility testing but with little-to-no experience in the development of enterprise-class websites, web-based applications and software. While it is important for accessibility firms to understand the inner-workings of JAWS, the world’s leading screen reader, far more benefit is provided to the customer if they understand how to modify an AJAX application so that it works properly in JAWS. This is our focus as an organization: how to make systems compliant in the real world. In evaluating different accessibility consultants many of our clients have found that some firms live in a black-and-white world where nothing but fully compliant information technology is acceptable or tolerated. In the real world, trade-offs are required and dollars go to projects that provide the best ROI for an organization. As part of making systems compliant in the real world these constraints must be considered. As an organization, our goal is to ensure that we use your accessibility budget in an optimal fashion — ensuring that every dollar you spend on accessibility has the most impact. Solutions That Reduce Legal Risk SSB provides solutions that address the actual requirements of the law—rather than those that are just simple to test. Automated testing tools can only validate a sub-set of accessibility requirements and any validation process that solely uses automated testing cannot make an accurate claim of compliance. SSB utilizes automatic testing to address the set of requirements that can readily be validated using such testing and utilizes the cheapest first testing for the remaining requirements. SSB’s approach was born out of being the first company to release a commercial accessibility validation tool, InFocus, 12 years ago. As part of that, SSB became well acquainted with the capabilities and general limitations of accessibility testing software. To address that, SSB has spent the last ten years investing in and developing the Accessibility Management Platform. AMP is focused at solving the broader problem that customers actually face, which is how to manage all the aspects of accessibility—Auditing, Training and Standards Management—over the course of many years and development cycles. Organizational Stability and Continuity SSB BART Group has the largest staff of W2 employees of any company of our kind. The vast majority of firms in accessibility use 1099 contractors that are hired on demand on a per-project basis. This has a significant, negative impact on the quality of work delivered, the consistency and repeatability of testing results and the accuracy of contractor work. With SSB, the people you talk to today will be available to help address your problems tomorrow. This ensures a consistent set of recommendations and allows us to develop organizational knowledge on how our accessibility solutions should be adopted to your business environment. SSB’s size also ensures that we can staff and handle the volume of business from large customers. Smaller companies or sole consultants cannot handle the volume of work of enterprise-class customers, whether private IT manufacturers, financial institutions or large government organizations. Knowledge That Is Up-to-Date, All the Time SSB uses AMP to deliver all our accessibility services, meaning that AMP is a system in constant use by the largest accessibility consulting firm in the world. This gives SSB the ability to include improvements to AMP that are born through a continuous feedback loop that includes our own staff using the product for client services work on a daily basis. As new standards are deployed, new requirements identified, new implementation techniques developed and issues resolved in real world developments, these experiences and lessons are immediately provided in AMP. This ensures that customers have instant, ongoing updates to all best practices, rule sets, tests and training content in AMP. This is in sharp contrast to competing firms, where compliance data is hard-coded and updates infrequently at best. Published and Peer Review Auditing Methodology All SSB testing engagements conform to SSB’s Unified Audit Methodology, a mature methodology meant to ensure the relevance, accuracy and repeatability of results in a manner which ensures thorough coverage. This auditing process includes a mix of automated, manual and assistive technology validation, as well as the use of individuals with disabilities performing actual system tasks. Audits are performed against a unified set of conformance criteria based on industry best practices, public compliance requirements and internal standards relevant to the client’s compliance needs. All audits published under the methodology are immediately available in AMP and include a description of accessibility issues, media types, non-compliant code examples, compliant source code examples, recommended approaches and options for addressing issues, unit tests allowing for validation of the issues and source public standards associated with each rule. Unmatched Support Capabilities SSB BART Group’s support policy defines our same-day response policy on all high-priority support requests. All licensed users of AMP are covered under our support policy, which includes full support for the product and all information within it. In addition, SSB provides the following support capabilities to all customers as part of our standard engagement: AMP Support Hours covers standard working hours across all regional U.S. zones and can provide full 24x7 support as needed; When new versions of AMP are released on a quarterly basis, free training is provided to all customers on the new version and its use; Upon sign-up, all licensed users of AMP are entitled to a free training session to understand how to use the product to the best of its abilities; SSB BART Group has no less than three staff members available to support the product at any given time during the support hours; All support is provided as part of SSB’s standard AMP license—no additional support or training contracts are required. SSB BART Group accepts support requests via telephone, or online form. Advocacy Group Relationships SSB has partnered with numerous industry and advocacy groups focused on promoting accessibility to IT systems. Partner organizations focused principally on web accessibility include G3ict, W3C WCAG, and the U.S. Access Board. SSB has also partnered with the following organizations, institutions and research firms focused on general accessibility, including IT access: U.S. Business Leadership Network (USBLN), NDI, National Organization on Disability (NOD), BBI, Syracuse University, Cornell University, Buffalo University, VCU RRTC. In addition, we also have relationships with NISH, Ability One, NFB and UCP. SSB has worked with the National Federation of the Blind (NFB) since 2001 to support advocacy activities in the blindness community. SSB launched the NFB’s Non-Visual Access (NVA) certification program in conjunction with the Federation in 2003 and provided the certification services for the first three program clients—Hewlett-Packard, Wells Fargo and the U.S. Social Security Administration—all of which remain active SSB clients. The American Action Fund for Blind Adults and Children—a proxy NFB investment vehicle—has an investment in SSB as part of SSB’s Series B stock. Finally, Ray Kurzweil, an SSB angel investor, sits on the NFB board and owns an NFB co-developed company for the Kurzweil reader. 2

3 Agenda Current Landscape Standards and Laws User Demographics
Benefits and Challenges iOS based products Android® Windows Phone®/Windows 8 Blackberry® Strategies For Accessible Apps User Impact App Development Resources

4 Smartphones and Tablets Platforms iOS Android Windows Blackberry
Current Landscape Platforms Smartphones and Tablets Platforms iOS Android Windows Blackberry Symbian, Windows Mobile and other OS are excluded from this presentation. Smartphones and Tablets: Typically have features such as , web browsing, instant messaging, multimedia, calendar, voice dialing, and other capabilities Platforms iOS (iPhone®, iPad®, iPod Touch® from Apple) Android® (open-source OS from Google) Windows Phone® and Windows 8® from Microsoft Blackberry® from Blackberry

5 Advanced Communication Services (chat, email, SMS, VOIP)
Laws and Standards Overview CVAA ACS Video programming Section 255 Section 508 47 CFR 20.19 HAC mobile handsets WCAG 2 Level A and AA Mandate M376 ADA CVAA Advanced Communication Services (chat, , SMS, VOIP) Video Programming Mobile browsers Section 255 Telecommunication product accessibility requirements Section 508 Federal accessible ICT procurement requirement - includes telecommunication products 47 CFR Hearing aid Compatibility w/ mobile WCAG 2 Level A and AA International guidelines for web content Basis for many accessibility laws and regulations Mandate M376 Proposed EU framework for procurement of ICT (expected completion February 2014) ADA US DoJ indicates ADA applies to websites and web only business (e.g. Netflix suit) Likely to propose WCAG Level A and AA (ANPRM expected this year)

6 Very popular for blind and visually impaired users
User Demographics WebAIM Survey #5 for Screen Reader Accessibility iOS Very popular for blind and visually impaired users Percentage of users with disabilities greater than general population Android Percentage of blind/visually impaired users less than general population – but growing Symbian/Nokia Percent of users with disabilities dropping Windows Phone/Blackberry < 1% total users WebAIM Survey for Screen reader accessibility Four surveys include mobile accessibility Latest in May 2012 iOS based products have become widely used by people who are blind and visually impaired. Percentage of iOS users with disabilities compared to population using iOS is lower but increasing Percent of Android users who are blind/visually impaired is less than the general population using Android devices Number of users who are blind/visually impaired dropping for feature/smart phones using Symbian or Windows Mobile

7 Keyboard/accessible touchscreen Name, role, state, and properties
User Impact Overview Blind Keyboard/accessible touchscreen Name, role, state, and properties Dynamically updating content Low vision Visual focus, size of content Color and contrast Complexity of layout/size of content Motor Impairment Touch-screen/D-pad access, visual focus Alternative input, one handed operation

8 Complexity/distractions of page Consistent use of icons and text
User Impact Overview (cont.) Reading Disabilities Complexity/distractions of page Consistent use of icons and text Spacing, color and size of elements  Dynamically updating content Photosensitive Epilepsy Blinking and moving content Deaf/Hard of Hearing Use of multimedia and audio content Auditory feedback (sound notifications)

9 Smart Phones and Tablets
Apps That Benefit Users with Disabilities Light detector Color identifier Money identifier Barcode reader Video magnifier Flashlight OCR Daisy book reader GPS Point of sale services Voice memos Grocery finder Switch enabled apps Mobile learning Control of video programming TTY Text relay Video relay/chat FCC Clearinghouse Feature Phones (not included in this presentation): Generally contain enhanced capabilities such as text messaging (SMS), contacts, voice dialing, and other standard phone features. Apps designed for or that indirectly benefit users with disabilities Light detector, color identifier, money identifier, Barcode reader, video magnifier, Flashlight,, OCR, daisy book reader, GPS, point of sale services, Voice memos, grocery finder/prices, switch enabled apps Mobile learning – removes barriers Control of video programming (AT&T U-verse®) Text relay, video relay/chat on the go FCC Clearinghouse for mobile phone accessibility

10 Smart Phones and Tablets
The future of assistive technologies? A compelling platform for many assistive technologies Sample Capabilities Visual capture Image recognition and processing Location based services Integrated, adaptive communications Plain language control (Siri, GoogleNow Cortana) Processing power to spare OG reading machine Old school approach to AT is specific programs and devices to do specific jobs Approach we see over the next 10 – 20 years is using mobile devices to drive AT into mainstream Devices provide a common, commodity platform – AT focus shifts to software versus hardware Material advantages to this approach One device versus multiple devices Portable platform and power profile Materially lower costs for access to AT Automatic updates and platform improvements Mainstream technology versus “special” technology Not a panacea – can’t talk and use a magnifier at the same time That said we see it as drastically improving the options for mobility and independent living that are available to people with disabilities And we haven’t even started talking about wearable computing, augmented reality and the really cool stuff in the pipeline! New school reading machine

11 Smart Phones and Tablets
Challenges Hearing aid incompatibility Apps that do not follow accessibility API No app store rating for accessibility Third party sites rank accessible apps Touchscreens without alternatives Inaccessible browsers Missing assistive technologies or features Difficulty upgrading Inconsistencies between manufacturers

12 Includes all iPads, iPhone 3gs+, iPod Touch 4th+
iPhone and iOS Assistive Technology and Features Includes all iPads, iPhone 3gs+, iPod Touch 4th+ Many of the same ATs found in Mac OS VoiceOver (VO) Alternative touch screen access Speech output with audio cues Refreshable Braille support Zoom Magnifies entire screen w/ panning Assistive Touch Allows single touch access to gestures Launched in June 2007 iPhone 3gs began offering screen reader and enlargement in June of 2009 as part of OS Includes all iPad, iPod Touch 3rd + Many of the same ATs found in Mac OS VoiceOver Zoom and pinch zoom within some apps White on Black (Color inversion) Captioning for iTunes based multimedia Hearing Aid compatibility, TTY support through adapter Visual notification of sounds Assistive Touch Other accessibility features include: Guided access One touch answer Custom vibrations Large text Mono audio

13 Single touch switch access to actionable controls Captions TTY support
iPhone and iOS Assistive Technology and Features (cont.) Switch Control Single touch switch access to actionable controls Captions TTY support Custom vibrations Mono audio Visual alerts Other accessibility features include: Guided access Custom vibrations Large text Mono audio

14 Changes dark colors to light and light colors to dark Large text
iPhone and iOS Assistive Technology and Features (cont.) Invert Colors Changes dark colors to light and light colors to dark Large text Bold text Increased contrast Reduce motion Guided Access Aid to restrict access to app or region within an app Invert Colors Changes dark colors to light and light colors to dark Large text Bold text Increased contrast Reduce motion Guided Access

15 iPhone and iOS Primary input method is capacitive touch screen
Input Methods Capacitive Touch Screen Styli designed for touch screen Alternative gestures with VO Assistive touch Alternative Methods Bluetooth keyboards Limited external keyboard access without VO Bluetooth Braille display entry Speech recognition Siri & third party apps for dictation Accessible on-screen keyboard No system-wide custom keyboard Primary input method is capacitive touch screen Alternative gestures when VoiceOver is active Assistive touch feature provides one touch access Alternative methods of input include Bluetooth keyboards and Bluetooth braille display entry, and styli designed to work with the touch screen One handed operation may requires special case or mounting but most gestures are accessible with one stylus Speech recognition capabilities to voice dial, look up contacts, and play iTunes tracks. Third party apps for text dictation Third party assistive technology is limited to app specific (self-voicing)

16 When OS is upgraded AT upgrades To upgrade AT must upgrade OS
iPhone and iOS Assistive Technology Versions When OS is upgraded AT upgrades To upgrade AT must upgrade OS Activate/deactivate via phone or iTunes Access to standard phone features Access to third party and built-in apps Many accessible third party apps Custom on-screen keyboards are currently not available.

17 Open source platform initially developed by Google
Android Assistive Technology and Features Open source platform initially developed by Google Assistive Technology such as Talkback included in Android 4.3 OS (Current version 4.4) Support varies in prior versions Talkback screen reader Explore by touch support in Android 4.1+ Supports on-screen keyboard Speech output with audio cues Braille displays supported Latest version required for many features Open source platform developed by Google Many manufacturers and models of Smartphones use Android Assistive technology such as the Talkback screen reader is included in Android 4.3 OS but can be installed on older versions such as Android 2.2, 3, or 4 Input may consist of phone with keyboard and or directional pad (D-pad) or touchscreen only devices Types of touchscreens vary with manufacturer and may require special styli if the user is unable to use a finger Apps must be keyboard accessible with trackball or D-pad to be used by users of a screen reader Provides basic screen reading capabilities to the phone and some third party applications Functional explore by touch support in Android 4.1+ Latest version required for some TalkBack Braille displays supported

18 Screen magnifier available in 4.2+
Android Assistive Technology and Features (cont.) Screen magnifier available in 4.2+ Captions supported by media player API Other third party screen readers available Custom on-screen system-wide keyboards available Some manufacturers Hearing aid compatible Mono audio Inverse colors TTY Screen magnifier in 4.2+ Captions supported in Media Player Other third party screen readers available Have similar limitations with Talkback Custom on-screen keyboard available

19 Phone with keyboard, and/or Directional pad (D-pad), or
Android Input Types Phone with keyboard, and/or Directional pad (D-pad), or Touchscreen only devices May by resistance or capacitance screens Dictation and Speech Control GoogleNow Google Voice cloud based services Third party applications from Nuance

20 Can upgrade OS and AT separately
Android Assistive Technology Versions Can upgrade OS and AT separately AT support is limited on older versions of OS OS upgrades not available for many devices Access to standard phone features Access to third party and built-in apps Many accessible third party apps Third party assistive technology Screen magnifier available in 4.2+ Hearing aid compatibility and TTY is supported in the OS Requires support from manufacturer of device Captions supported by media player API Dictation and Speech Control Google offers some cloud based services Speech-to-text Voic to text Third party applications from Nuance Support voice dictation to text and web search Some manufacturers support mono audio

21 Replaces Windows Mobile No accessibility layer in Windows Phone 8 OS
Overview Replaces Windows Mobile No accessibility layer in Windows Phone 8 OS No built-in screen reader Bundled with alternative apps (Code Factory) Support magnification; large text; high contrast Feature like talking caller id, speak SMS Windows 8 tablets (e.g. Microsoft Surface) Narrator supports touchscreen and IE 10 Touchscreen magnification feature Built-in apps are directly accessible Support high contrast theme in Windows 8 Windows Phone replaces Window Mobile Windows Phone 8 OS does not including an accessibility layer Silverlight and XNA applications can’t expose accessibility without the accessibility layer No system-wide screen reader exist at this time for it Bundled with Code Factory third party self voicing apps to provide phone feature access Windows 8 tablets (e.g. Microsoft Surface) Narrator supports touchscreen access Narrator supports IE 10 browsing Touchscreen magnification feature Built-in apps are directly accessible Support high contrast theme in Windows 8

22 Blackberry Version 10.2 Version 10 - Z10 and Q10 Version < 10
Assistive Technology and Features Version 10.2 System touch screen reader on Z30 Version 10 - Z10 and Q10 No screen reader or accessibility API Version < 10 Accessibility API in version 4.6 and above Older Screen reader available All versions Color inversion and gray scale color mode Text enlargement/magnification One-handed operation including sticky keys Popular due to security settings and compatibility with Microsoft Exchange Version 10.2 on the Z30 will offer screen reader Version < 10 accessibility API in version 4.6 and above Screen reader available Provides access to phone features & standard apps Limited access to web content and 3rd party apps Limited support of models – limited updates All versions Provides color inversion as well as gray scale color mode Provides text enlargement/magnification One handed operation including sticky keys

23 Hearing aid compatibility Visual, audible, and vibration notifications
Blackberry Assistive Technology and Features (cont.) Hearing aid compatibility Visual, audible, and vibration notifications Closed captioning support for multimedia Support for connection to a TTY device Browser Zoom Voice dialing Video Chat Some models Tactilely discernible keyboard

24 Strategies for Accessible Apps
Recommendations Mobile Apps Focus on iOS and Android WCAG 2 Level A and AA and Section 508 Web Apps HTML 5 and ARIA based WCAG 2 Level A and AA Responsive design and progressive enhancement Embedded Web Apps (WebView) Supported with Talkback (issues with some pages) Supported with iOS Design for accessibility Mobile Apps Focus on iOS and Android based app accessibility Best practices should be based on WCAG 2 Level A and AA and Section 508 (non-web ICT document) Web Apps Use HTML 5 and ARIA based mobile web apps Support is still involving for HTML5 and ARIA in mobile browsers and with mobile assistive technologies Best practices should be based on WCAG 2 A AA Use responsive design and progressive enhancement

25 Strategies for Accessible Apps
Recommendations (cont.) PhoneGap (uses web view) Supported in iOS Support for Android* PDF and Word Documents Most apps only render text No heading, table or alt text indication Adobe Reader follows Order panel eBook Readers EPUB 3 standard Rapid Development and eLearning Tools AIR apps do not expose accessibility eBook Readers EPUB 3 standard includes accessibility features from Daisy and eBook readers are supported on many mobile devices such as iOS, Windows 8, and Android Rapid development and eLearning tools generally don't create fully accessible apps or HTML5 content On Android use: <access origin="https://ssl.gstatic.com/accessibility/javascript/android*"/> <!-- allow enhanced accessibility -->

26 Strategies for Accessible Apps
Recommendations (cont.) Normative Testing Accessibility Inspector (iOS) Lint (Android) Safari developer tools Adobe Edge Inspect (DOM) Screenshot testing for contrast Functional/Use Case Testing End users with disabilities Core tasks of the app Different end user personas Embedded Web Apps (WebView) Supported with Talkback under OS 3.x Honeycomb Supported with iOS Normative testing Accessibility Inspector for iOS native apps Adobe Edge Inspect – DOM inspection Screenshot testing for contrast Functional/Use Case Testing End users with disabilities Core tasks of the app Cover different end user personas

27 App Development iOS Android OS Cocoa Touch UI/Objective-C/Xcode
Overview iOS Cocoa Touch UI/Objective-C/Xcode Accessibility Inspector Apple’s Human Interface Guidelines Set label, traits, hint, frame and value Notifications Android OS Keyboard accessible UI elements contentDescription, hint, labelFor, states Accessibility events for custom view components Use Lint for Accessibility Checking iOS Cocoa objective C based using XCode on the Mac Use Inspector to inspect accessibility properties in simulator Use or subclass standard controls and follow Apple’s Human Interface Guidelines Set label, traits, hint, frame, and value Post notifications to indicates changes Android OS Ensure all UI elements are keyboard accessible Label widgets Send accessibility events for custom view components Use the accessibilityService class of the Android SDK

28 Resources iOS Accessibility Best Practices https://www.webaccessibility.com/best_practices.php?technology _platform_id=222 Android Accessibility Best Practices https://www.webaccessibility.com/best_practices.php?technology _platform_id=286 Designing for Accessibility (Android) html iOS Accessibility Blackberry Accessibility Overview

29 Resources Accessibility Management Platform (AMP) iOS app accessibility rating Accessible Android app lists BBC Mobile Accessibility Standards and Guidelines /mobile_access.shtml Bridging Apps connects children with disabilities with appropriate apps WebAIM Survey for Screen reader accessibility

30 Questions?

31 Contact Us Follow Us Thank You Jonathan Avila
Chief Accessibility Officer SSB Contact Information (800) Follow Us Twitter @SSBBARTGroup LinkedIn Facebook Blog


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