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The Components of Life Organic Chemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "The Components of Life Organic Chemistry."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Components of Life Organic Chemistry

2 4 Big Ones….

3 I. Organic Chemistry Compounds created by living organisms are organic compounds. Organic chemistry studies all compounds that have bonds between carbon atoms.

4 A. Carbon: (2 reasons carbon is important)
1st: Carbon has 4 valence electrons which are those that are involved in chemical reaction. So carbon can bond to four different elements.

5 Figure 2-11 Carbon Compounds
Section 2-3 Methane Acetylene Butadiene Benzene Isooctane Go to Section:

6 2nd: Carbon atoms can bond to other carbon atoms to form single or double or triple bonds.
This allows carbon to form long chains that can be almost any length and loop to form cyclic structures.

7 Simple organic structures:

8 B. Organic Compounds: Not all molecules in living organisms are organic. Ex: Water and Salt 2. Four types of large organic compounds (macromolecules) include: i. proteins ii.carbohydrates iii. lipids iv. nucleic acids

9 Concept Map Carbon Compounds Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids
Section 2-3 Carbon Compounds include Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids Proteins that consist of that consist of that consist of that consist of Sugars and starches Fats and oils Nucleotides Amino Acids which contain which contain which contain which contain Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Carbon,hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus hydrogen,oxygen, nitrogen, Go to Section:

10 3. Macromolecules are formed when smaller molecules called monomers are joined together in a process known as polymerization. 4. Polymerization forms polymers which may be made from hundreds or thousands of monomers

11 Example of Polymerization

12 Examples of compounds:
Organic Carbohydrates Protein Lipids/fats Nucleic acids Enzymes Carbon-based polymers Non-organic Salts Minerals and simple elements Water Ionic compounds Compounds without carbon

13 II. Carbohydrates A. Structure of Carbohydrates:
1. macromolecules made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen usually in a ratio of 1:2:1 B. Purposes of carbohydrates: 1) primary source of fast energy 2) structural purposes for plants and some animals

14 C. Monosaccharides are the simplest kinds of carbohydrates.
1. Used by plants during photosynthesis to store glucose as starch Examples: Fructose- found in many fruits Glucose- stored as starch Galactose- found in milk

15

16 D. Polysaccharides 1. Larger carbohydrates-”poly” means many so these compounds are “many sugars” linked together with covalent bonds. 2. Examples:

17 a. Starch produced when sugar molecules form a chain
b. Glycogen-type of animal starch to store excess sugars c. Cellulose-used in cell walls of plants

18 Figure 2-13 A Starch Section 2-3 Starch Glucose Go to Section:

19 Picture of cellulose fiber from print paper

20 III. Lipids--Section 4.3 organic molecules
Can be of fats, waxes, or steroids. Fewer oxygen atoms than carbohydrates. Not soluble in water.

21 A. Fats can be used to store energy but are used for long term storage.
Made of Glycerol + 3 fatty acid molecules

22 G------Fatty acid L Y C------Fatty acid E R O L Fatty acid

23 Lipids continued… 2. Some are saturated fats having the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible.

24 3. Examples of saturated fats are butter, shortening, and lard.

25 4. Unsaturated fats have one double carbon to carbon bond.
5. Polyunsaturated fats have more than one double bond. They are liquids at room temperature

26 Not all fats are bad…. 6. Humans need some fat to live. Two essential fats are omega-3 and omega-6 found in cold water fish, nuts and seeds.

27 Other lipids… 7. Waxes form coverings on leaves, skin, or fur.

28 Examples of Fatty Acids:

29 B. Phospholipids: Similar to fats but have a phosphate group instead of a 3rd fatty acid. Found in the cell membrane.

30 C. Steroids: 1. The chemical structure of a steroid contains 4 carbon rings. 2. Arranged in 6,6,6,5 format. 3. Cholesterol is a steroid that is used to make hormones.

31 IV. Proteins-Section 4.4 A. Functions of Proteins:
1. Form the main structural component of skeletal muscle, skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, horns, bone, hair and feathers.

32 Receptors that detect chemical signals so that cells can respond to stimuli
Important in the movement of muscles and for movement of many cells.

33 More functions of proteins:
Serve as antibodies to protect against diseases. Highly specialized as enzymes Help transport substances through the body Provide storage for elements like iron.

34 B. Amino Acids: 1. Are the building blocks of proteins.
2. Contain C, H, O, and nitrogen(N). 3. Are joined together by a type of covalent bond called a peptide bond. 4. Chains of amino acids are called polypeptides and may contain as many as 3000 amino acids.

35 Figure 2-16 Amino Acids General structure Alanine Serine Section 2-3
Amino group Carboxyl group General structure Alanine Serine Go to Section:

36 Figure 2-16 Amino Acids General structure Alanine Serine Section 2-3
Amino group Carboxyl group General structure Alanine Serine Go to Section:

37 Figure 2-16 Amino Acids General structure Alanine Serine Section 2-3
Amino group Carboxyl group General structure Alanine Serine Go to Section:

38 Figure 2-17 A Protein Section 2-3 Amino acids Go to Section:

39 VI. Nucleic Acids--Section 4.6:
A. Nucleic Acids are: 1. Macromolecules containing C, H, O, N and phosphorus (P). 2. Made of units called nucleotides Each nucleotide is made of 3 parts Sugar Phosphate group Nitrogen base

40 B. Two types of Nucleic acids:
1. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) contains deoxyribose (sugar) DNA is shaped like a double helix or a twisted ladder -Discovered by Watson and Crick

41 3. DNA forms genes that store genetic information

42 DNA: It is made of nucleotides ; each contain one of four bases.
The four bases are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T)

43 The backbone of the ladder is formed by the
sugars and the phosphates The rungs of the ladder are formed by hydrogen bonds between base pairs Adenine – Thymine Guanine - Cytosine

44 2. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) contains ribose sugar.
Main function is protein synthesis. RNA is a single stranded RNA bases are A, G, C and Uracil (U). There is no Thymine in RNA. Bases are adenine-uracil cytosine-guanine

45 VII. Enzymes--Section 4.6 A. Enzymes are special proteins that allow certain chemical reactions to occur that normally would occur too slowly or require too much energy to be practical inside living things. B. Enzymes act as catalysts which lower the amount of energy needed and speed up the reactions.

46 Effect of Enzymes Reaction pathway without enzyme Activation energy
Section 2-4 Reaction pathway without enzyme Activation energy without enzyme Reactants Activation energy with enzyme Reaction pathway with enzyme Products Go to Section:

47 Figure 2-19 Chemical Reactions
Section 2-4 Energy-Absorbing Reaction Energy-Releasing Reaction Products Activation energy Activation energy Reactants Reactants Products Go to Section:

48 Figure 2-19 Chemical Reactions
Section 2-4 Energy-Absorbing Reaction Energy-Releasing Reaction Products Activation energy Activation energy Reactants Reactants Products Go to Section:

49 C. Enzymes are very specific.
They work only on certain substances called substrates. Each substrate has an area on it called the active site. The active site and the shape of the substrate fit together like pieces of a puzzle.

50 The the two pieces don’t fit, the enzyme will not work
The the two pieces don’t fit, the enzyme will not work. This specific fit is called the lock and key model. If the enzyme does fit, it remains there until the reaction is complete and then it is released to be used in another reaction.

51 Figure 2-21 Enzyme Action Enzyme (hexokinase) Substrates Products
Section 2-4 Enzyme (hexokinase) Glucose Substrates ADP Products Glucose-6- phosphate ATP Products are released Active site Enzyme-substrate complex Substrates bind to enzyme Substrates are converted into products Go to Section:

52 Figure 2-21 Enzyme Action Enzyme (hexokinase) Substrates Products
Section 2-4 Enzyme (hexokinase) Glucose Substrates ADP Products Glucose-6- phosphate ATP Products are released Active site Enzyme-substrate complex Substrates bind to enzyme Substrates are converted into products Go to Section:

53 Figure 2-21 Enzyme Action Enzyme (hexokinase) Substrates Products
Section 2-4 Enzyme (hexokinase) Glucose Substrates ADP Products Glucose-6- phosphate ATP Products are released Active site Enzyme-substrate complex Substrates bind to enzyme Substrates are converted into products Go to Section:

54 Figure 2-21 Enzyme Action Enzyme (hexokinase) Substrates Products
Section 2-4 Enzyme (hexokinase) Glucose Substrates ADP Products Glucose-6- phosphate ATP Products are released Active site Enzyme-substrate complex Substrates bind to enzyme Substrates are converted into products Go to Section:

55 D. Factors that affect how well this works….
Concentration of substrate Temperature (body is 98.6 degrees) pH (different systems in body are require different pH levels)

56 Copy Questions and answer
What type of macromolecule is produced by plants in photosynthesis? Animal cells may store excess energy as molecules of ________. What type of molecules are formed when monosaccharides bond together? What elements are found in carbohydrates? Which of the following is a monsaccharide?-sucrose, glucose, starch, cellulose What are organic molecules that are used for long-term energy called?

57 7. What are the two parts of a fat molecule?
8. What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fat? 9. List three types of lipids. 10. List three functions of proteins. What elements are found in proteins? 13. What type of bond joins amino acids in a polypeptide? What are the building blocks of proteins called? List three factors that affect enzyme activity.

58 What is the area of an enzyme where the substrate fits called?
What type of macromolecule is an enzyme


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