8 B. Organic Compounds:Not all molecules in living organisms are organic. Ex: Water and Salt2. Four types of large organic compounds (macromolecules) include:i. proteinsii.carbohydratesiii. lipidsiv. nucleic acids
10 3. Macromolecules are formed when smaller molecules called monomers are joined together in a process known as polymerization.4. Polymerization forms polymers which may be made from hundreds or thousands of monomers
12 Examples of compounds: OrganicCarbohydratesProteinLipids/fatsNucleic acidsEnzymesCarbon-based polymersNon-organicSaltsMinerals and simple elementsWaterIonic compoundsCompounds without carbon
13 II. Carbohydrates A. Structure of Carbohydrates: 1. macromolecules made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygenusually in a ratio of 1:2:1B. Purposes of carbohydrates:1) primary source of fast energy2) structural purposes for plants and some animals
14 C. Monosaccharides are the simplest kinds of carbohydrates. 1. Used by plants during photosynthesis to store glucose as starchExamples:Fructose- found in many fruitsGlucose- stored as starchGalactose- found in milk
29 B. Phospholipids:Similar to fats but have a phosphate group instead of a 3rd fatty acid.Found in the cell membrane.
30 C. Steroids:1. The chemical structure of a steroid contains 4 carbon rings.2. Arranged in 6,6,6,5 format.3. Cholesterol is a steroid that is used to make hormones.
31 IV. Proteins-Section 4.4 A. Functions of Proteins: 1. Form the main structural component of skeletal muscle, skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, horns, bone, hair and feathers.
32 Receptors that detect chemical signals so that cells can respond to stimuli Important in the movement of muscles and for movement of many cells.
33 More functions of proteins: Serve as antibodies to protect against diseases.Highly specialized as enzymesHelp transport substances through the bodyProvide storage for elements like iron.
34 B. Amino Acids: 1. Are the building blocks of proteins. 2. Contain C, H, O, and nitrogen(N).3. Are joined together by a type of covalent bond called a peptide bond.4. Chains of amino acids are called polypeptides and may contain as many as 3000 amino acids.
35 Figure 2-16 Amino Acids General structure Alanine Serine Section 2-3 Amino groupCarboxyl groupGeneral structureAlanineSerineGo to Section:
36 Figure 2-16 Amino Acids General structure Alanine Serine Section 2-3 Amino groupCarboxyl groupGeneral structureAlanineSerineGo to Section:
37 Figure 2-16 Amino Acids General structure Alanine Serine Section 2-3 Amino groupCarboxyl groupGeneral structureAlanineSerineGo to Section:
38 Figure 2-17 A ProteinSection 2-3AminoacidsGo to Section:
39 VI. Nucleic Acids--Section 4.6: A. Nucleic Acids are:1. Macromolecules containing C, H, O, N and phosphorus (P).2. Made of units called nucleotidesEach nucleotide is made of 3 partsSugarPhosphate groupNitrogen base
40 B. Two types of Nucleic acids: 1. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) contains deoxyribose (sugar)DNA is shaped like a double helix or a twisted ladder -Discovered by Watson and Crick
41 3. DNA forms genes that store genetic information
42 DNA: It is made of nucleotides ; each contain one of four bases. The four bases are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T)
43 The backbone of the ladder is formed by the sugars and the phosphatesThe rungs of the ladder are formed by hydrogen bonds between base pairsAdenine – ThymineGuanine - Cytosine
44 2. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) contains ribose sugar. Main function is protein synthesis.RNA is a single strandedRNA bases are A, G, C and Uracil (U). There is no Thymine in RNA.Bases are adenine-uracil cytosine-guanine
45 VII. Enzymes--Section 4.6A. Enzymes are special proteins that allow certain chemical reactions to occur that normally would occur too slowly or require too much energy to be practical inside living things.B. Enzymes act as catalysts which lower the amount of energy needed and speed up the reactions.
46 Effect of Enzymes Reaction pathway without enzyme Activation energy Section 2-4Reaction pathwaywithout enzymeActivation energywithout enzymeReactantsActivationenergywith enzymeReaction pathwaywith enzymeProductsGo to Section:
47 Figure 2-19 Chemical Reactions Section 2-4Energy-Absorbing ReactionEnergy-Releasing ReactionProductsActivationenergyActivation energyReactantsReactantsProductsGo to Section:
48 Figure 2-19 Chemical Reactions Section 2-4Energy-Absorbing ReactionEnergy-Releasing ReactionProductsActivationenergyActivation energyReactantsReactantsProductsGo to Section:
49 C. Enzymes are very specific. They work only on certain substances called substrates.Each substrate has an area on it called the active site.The active site and the shape of the substrate fit together like pieces of a puzzle.
50 The the two pieces don’t fit, the enzyme will not work The the two pieces don’t fit, the enzyme will not work. This specific fit is called the lock and key model.If the enzyme does fit, it remains there until the reaction is complete and then it is released to be used in another reaction.
55 D. Factors that affect how well this works…. Concentration of substrateTemperature (body is 98.6 degrees)pH (different systems in body are require different pH levels)
56 Copy Questions and answer What type of macromolecule is produced by plants in photosynthesis?Animal cells may store excess energy as molecules of ________.What type of molecules are formed when monosaccharides bond together?What elements are found in carbohydrates?Which of the following is a monsaccharide?-sucrose, glucose, starch, celluloseWhat are organic molecules that are used for long-term energy called?
57 7. What are the two parts of a fat molecule? 8. What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fat?9. List three types of lipids.10. List three functions of proteins.What elements are found in proteins?13. What type of bond joins amino acids in a polypeptide?What are the building blocks of proteins called?List three factors that affect enzyme activity.
58 What is the area of an enzyme where the substrate fits called? What type of macromolecule is an enzyme