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Chronology of Early Islam Muhammad Born in Mecca ca. 570 Muhammads First Revelation610 Muhammads Flight to Medina (Hijra)622 Muhammad Dies in Medina632.

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Presentation on theme: "Chronology of Early Islam Muhammad Born in Mecca ca. 570 Muhammads First Revelation610 Muhammads Flight to Medina (Hijra)622 Muhammad Dies in Medina632."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chronology of Early Islam Muhammad Born in Mecca ca. 570 Muhammads First Revelation610 Muhammads Flight to Medina (Hijra)622 Muhammad Dies in Medina632

3 Five regions conquered by Muslim soldiers in the seventh century. Iran and the Arabian peninsula. North Africa. Lower Egypt. The Iberian peninsula and as far north as Poitiers in France. As far east as the Indus River. The Christian city of Constantinople fell to the Muslims in 1453?

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5 Five Pillars of Islam Faith There is no God but God; Muhammad is his messenger Prayer Salat–obligatory prayers said five times daily Charity Zakat–purification or growth Fasting during month of Ramadan Pilgrimage Hajj–trip to Mecca once in a lifetime some go yearly during Ramadan

6 Abbasids A people who claimed descent from Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad, they overthrew the Umayyads in 750. Arabesque Natural forms so stylized they become purely decorative. Caliph Ruler (successor for successor of Muhammad) who unites religious and political leadership in one leader. Calligraphy Elegant writing as a decorative art. Ewer A pitcher; in the Islamic world, could be crafted in the form of a stylized animal such as a bird. Fatimids The Islamic dynasty that ruled in Egypt from Iman The leader of collective worship in a mosque. Iwan Vaulted rectangular recess in a mosque. Koran (Quran) Meaning recitations, the Holy Book of Islam. Kufic An early form of Arabic script; very angular, with uprights forming almost right angles with the baseline. Hejira Emigration; the Islamic calendar dates itself from when Muhammad fled from Mecca to Medina in 622. Minaret A tower from which the faithful are called to worship. Minbar The pulpit on which an imam stands in a mosque. Mirhab A semicircular niche set into the qibla wall of a mosque. Muhammad The founder of Islam, revered as its Final Prophet. He did not claim to be divine and did not perform miracles. Qibla wall The wall in the direction towards Mecca, which Muslims face when praying. Umayyads The Islamic dynasty that ruled Syria from

7 True or False Islamic art spread quickly both eastward and westward from the land once inhabited by the peoples of the ancient Near East. True

8 Dome of the Rock Jerusalem Muhammad is believed to have ascended to heaven from the Dome of the Rock The first great achievement of Islamic architecture was The Dome of the Rock

9 Dome of the Rock Jerusalem Dome of the Rock; constructed in Jerusalem. The shape was influenced by the Byzantine domed temples, like the neighboring Constantines Rotunda of the Holy Sepulchre. It was decorated originally in mosaics (now replaced by tile) in vivid colorful patterns for both the interior and exterior. The Dome of the Rock is located in Jerusalem

10 Dome of the Rock (interior) Jerusalem

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12 Great Mosque Damascus, Syria Four features of the Great Mosque at Damascus that show the influence of the Greco- Roman world. It is made of masonry blocks, columns, and capitals salvaged from Roman and Early Christian structures. The courtyard is bordered by pier arcades like those of Roman aqueducts. The minarets are modifications of Roman square towers that were there previously. Its main entrance contains a façade with a pediment that faces into the courtyard, like a Roman forum temple. True or False The Great Mosque of Damascus owes much to the architecture of the Greco-Roman and Early Christian East. True

13 Great Mosque Damascus, Syria The courtyard is bordered by pier arcades like those of Roman aqueducts.

14 Mosaic from Courtyard Great Mosque Damascus, Syria Why are there no human or animal forms in the mosaics of the Great Mosque at Damascus? Islam shuns the representation of any fauna in sacred places, so flora is dominant. True or False Islamic tradition encourages the representation of fauna in sacred places. False Byzantine, Late Classical, and Early Christian cultures influenced Islamic art The cycle of mosaics at the Great Mosque of Damascus were made by Byzantine mosaicists

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16 Plan of the Umayyad Palace Mshatta, Jordan ca All mosques are oriented toward the city of Mecca

17 Detail of the Frieze of the Umayyad Palace Mshatta, Jordan ca limestone 16 ft. 7 in. high Purpose and function of early rural Moslem palaces: Besides being country retreats, they were nuclei for agricultural development of acquired territories, and possibly functioned as hunting lodges.

18 Frieze of the Umayyad Palace Mshatta, Jordan ca. 740 – 750, limestone 16 ft. 7 in. high A series of triangles, each containing a large projecting rosette, framed by elaborately carved moldings. Each triangle is different, and animal figures appear in some of them, but not to the right of the entrancethe part of the façade corresponding to the mosques qibla wall.

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21 Aerial view of the Great Mosque Qayrawan, Tunisia ca

22 Plan of the Great Mosque Qayrawan, Tunisia ca True or False The hypostyle mosque exhibits the greatest variation from the original plan for the mosque, Muhammad's house in Medina. False

23 Great Mosque Qayrawan, Tunisia ca

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25 Malwiya minaret of the Great Mosque Samarra, Iraq ca The distinguishing feature of the minaret from Samarra is Its steeped spiral ramp. Its name, Malwiya, means snail shell in Arabic) The 165 foot tall Malwiya minaret is in Samarra, Iraq

26 Mausoleum of the Samanids Bukhara, Uzbekistan early 10th century

27 Malwiya minaret and Great Mosque Samarra, Iraq ca

28 Islamic ornament is characterized by Vivid surface pattern created by shaped bricks (mostly for exteriors). Vegetal designs, often highly stylized and abstract. Abstract geometric patterns. Animal figures (in secular settings).

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31 Confronting lions and palm tree fragment of a textile from Zandana, Uzbekistan 8th century silk compound twill 2 ft. 11 in. x 2 ft. 9 1/2 in. Textiles were so highly valued in the Islamic world because wood is rare in the Islamic world, so architectural spaces are mainly filled with carpets and cushions instead of furniture.

32 Sulayman Ewer in the form of a bird 796 brass with silver and copper inlay 1 ft. 3 in. high A Sulayman's occupation was a metalworker

33 Quran page with the beginning of surah 18, al Kahf (The Cave) 9th or early 10th century ink and gold on vellum 7 1/4 in. x 10 1/4 in. Most of the early examples of the script used in the Koran are written in Kufic

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37 Entrance to the Great Mosque Córdoba, Spain 8th to 10th centuries

38 Prayer hall of the Great Mosque Córdoba, Spain 8th to 10th centuries Horseshoe arches were an important architectural feature of Mosque at Córdoba

39 Prayer hall of the Great Mosque Córdoba, Spain 8th to 10th centuries

40 Maqsura of the Great Mosque Córdoba, Spain Spain is the European country that contains the best examples of Islamic architecture

41 Dome in front of the mihrab of the Great Mosque Córdoba, Spain

42 Plaque 10th or early 11th century ivory, quartz, pigment 4 1/4 x 8 in.

43 Plaque 10th or early 11th century ivory, quartz, pigment 4 1/4 x 8 in.

44 Plaque 10th or early 11th century ivory, quartz, pigment 4 1/4 x 8 in.

45 LATER ISLAMIC ART Madrasa Place of study; a theological college. Mamluks Former Turkish slaves who converted to Islam. Muqarnas Stalactite-like prismatic, lacelike forms. Ottoman Turks Osman I founded this dynasty in Anatolia after the Seljuks fell to Genghis Khan in the 13 th century. By the 15 th century they were one of the great world powers. Shahnama Persian national epic poem by Firdawsi, recounting the history of Iran from Creation until the Muslim conquest. Sinan the Great The most famous Ottoman architect (c ). A contemporary of Michaelangelo, he perfected the Ottoman architectural style. Suliyman the Magnificent Metalworker, creator of fine metal objects such as a ewerstatuette in the shape of a bird.

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47 Court of Lions Alhambra Palace Granada, Spain The Alhambra, Meaning the red, a huge palace-fortress constructed of rose-colored stone on a rocky spur at Granada, built by the Nasrids. Its gardens were intended to conjure images of Paradise.

48 Court of Lions Alhambra Palace Granada, Spain

49 Court of Lions Alhambra Palace Granada, Spain

50 Muqarnas dome, hall of the Two Sisters Alhambra Palace Granada, Spain The Alhambra is the Hall of the Two Sisters

51 Mamluk Art

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53 Madrasa-mosque-mausoleum complex of Sultan Hasan Cairo, Egypt Madrasa-mosque-mausoleum complex of Sultan Hasan is uncolumned, unlike hypostyle mosques. It is relatively austere compared to the filigreed Alhambra and other mosques; it is dominated by its massiveness and geometric clarity. It has a fountain in its courtyard, not seen elsewhere, and the tomb of Hasan is south of the qibla, so praying Muslims would be directing their prayers towards the tomb.

54 plan of the Madrasa - Mosque - Mausoleum complex of Sultan Hasan Cairo, Egypt

55 Qibla wall, main iwan Madrasa-mosque-mausoleum complex of Sultan Hasan Cairo, Egypt Mosque developed by the Ottoman Turks A square prayer hall covered by a dome as its 0e, which became the nucleus of all Ottoman architecture. It is more centralized than other hypostyle mosques, with four minarets, one on each corner of the square base of the mosque, to offset the central dome. Any number and size of domes and juxtaposed geometric spaces could be put together.

56 Ottoman Turkish Art

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58 Sinan Mosque of Selim II Edirne, Turkey Sinan the Great built the Mosque of Selim II at Edirne

59 Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey

60 Anthemius of Tralles & Isidorus of Miletus Hagia Sophia Constantinpole, (Istanbul), Turkey

61 Sinan plan of Mosque of Selim II Edirne, Turkey

62 Sinan Mosque of Selim II (interior) Edirne, Turkey

63 Seljuk Art

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65 Aerial View of the Great Mosque Isfahan, Iran 11th to 17th centuries Four iwans open onto the courtyard, one at the center of each side. A dome leads into the mihrab. The qibla iwan is always the largest, which immediately indicated to worshippers which direction to pray.

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67 Courtyard of the Great Mosque Isfahan, Iran 11th to 17th centuries

68 Winter Prayer Hall of the Shahi (Imam) Mosque Isfahan, Iran

69 Dome of the Shah Mosque Isfahan, Iran

70 Mihrab from the Madrasa Imami Isfahan, Iran ca glazed mosaic tilework 11 ft. 3 in. x 7 ft. 6 in. Three types of objects that were often decorated with calligraphy: Walls. Manuscripts. Tiles. Islamic decoration makes extensive use of calligraphic, organic, and arabesque Characteristics of the arabesque include abstract patterns, potential for unlimited growth, and independence of the carrier of the design

71 Timurid Art

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73 Maqsud of Kashan Carpet from the funerary mosque of Shaykh Safi al-Din Ardabil, Iran 1540 knotted pile of wood and silk 34 ft. 6 in. x 17 ft. 7 in. One of the most highly developed Islamic art forms was textiles Carpet weaving was elevated to a national industry in Iran by Shah Tahmasp

74 Bihzad Seduction of Yusuf folio 52 verso of the Bustan of Sultan Husayn Mayqara From Herat, Afghanistan 1488 ink and color on paper 11 7/8 x 8 5/8 in.

75 Safavid Art

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77 Sultan-Muhammad The court of Gayumars detail of folio 20 verso of the Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp Tabriz, Iran ca ink, watercolor and gold on paper 13 x 9 in. The Shahnama is the Persian national epic poem.

78 Sultan-Muhammad The court of Gayumars detail of folio 20 verso of the Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp Tabriz, Iran ca ink, watercolor and gold on paper 13 x 9 in.

79 Sultan-Muhammad The court of Gayumars detail of folio 20 verso of the Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp Tabriz, Iran ca ink, watercolor and gold on paper 13 x 9 in.

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81 Sultan-Muhammad Hushang discovers fire detail of folio recto of the Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp Tabriz, Iran ca ink, watercolor and gold on paper 13 x 9 in.

82 Ayyubid Art

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84 Canteen with Episodes from the Life of Christ From Syria ca brass inlaid with silver 1 ft. 2 1/2 in. high

85 Mamluk Art

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87 Mosque lamp of Sayf al-Din Tuquztimur From Egypt 1340 glass with enamel decoration 1 ft. 1 in. high Luxury items Manuscript paintings, ceramics, textiles, and metalwork, usually produced as gifts for sultans or specific patrons. They were decorated with literary or religious scenes, or were purely (intricately) decorative.

88 Muhannad Ibn al-Zayn Basin (Baptistère de Saint Louis) From Egypt ca brass, inlaid with gold and silver 8 3/4 in. high

89 Mughal Art

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91 Taj Mahal Agra, India True or False The first great achievement of Islamic architecture is the Taj Mahal. False

92 Sub-Saharan Islamic Art

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94 Aerial view of Great Mosque Djenne, Mali begun 13th century, rebuilt

95 Eastern façade of Great Mosque Djenne, Mali begun 13th century, rebuilt

96 Eastern façade of Great Mosque Djenne, Mali begun 13th century, rebuilt

97 Sultan-Muhammad The court of Gayumars detail of folio 20 verso of the Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp Tabriz, Iran ca ,ink, watercolor and gold on paper,13 x 9 in. David composing the Psalms Paris Psalter ca tempera on vellum 14 1/8 in. x 10 1/4 in. Compare the treatment of volume and space in the manuscript illumination from the Shanama with that in the Paris Psalter. In what ways does the Persian miniature differ from the Byzantine one? What factors might account for the differences?


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