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Cell Structure and Function 1. The Cell Theory 1. The Cell Theory A. All organisms composed of one or more cells A. All organisms composed of one or more.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Structure and Function 1. The Cell Theory 1. The Cell Theory A. All organisms composed of one or more cells A. All organisms composed of one or more."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Structure and Function 1. The Cell Theory 1. The Cell Theory A. All organisms composed of one or more cells A. All organisms composed of one or more cells B. Cell is smallest living organizational unit B. Cell is smallest living organizational unit C. Cells arise only from division of other cells C. Cells arise only from division of other cells 1. The Cell Theory 1. The Cell Theory A. All organisms composed of one or more cells A. All organisms composed of one or more cells B. Cell is smallest living organizational unit B. Cell is smallest living organizational unit C. Cells arise only from division of other cells C. Cells arise only from division of other cells

2 Attributes of cells A. Plasma membrane B. DNA C. Cytoplasm D. Obtain energy and nutrients from their environment A. Plasma membrane B. DNA C. Cytoplasm D. Obtain energy and nutrients from their environment

3 Cell Size 1 – 100 µ Cell Size A. Limitations of molecular diffusion 1. Faster passage through small cell 2. More efficient communication B. Limitations of surface-to-volume ratio 1. With increase in size, greater increase in volume than surface area a. Interaction with outside occurs only at surface b. Insufficient exchange of materials at plasma membrane for survival 1 – 100 µ Cell Size A. Limitations of molecular diffusion 1. Faster passage through small cell 2. More efficient communication B. Limitations of surface-to-volume ratio 1. With increase in size, greater increase in volume than surface area a. Interaction with outside occurs only at surface b. Insufficient exchange of materials at plasma membrane for survival

4 adult human tallest trees chicken egg frog embryo most eukaryotic cells mitochondrion most bacteria virus proteins atoms diameter of DNA double helix

5 Prokaryoticno nucleus, circular DNA, ribosomes, peptiglycon-prokayotic cell wall a.Carbohydrate matrix cross linked with peptide units Eukaryoticlarger, nucleus, linear chromosomes, membraned organelles, Compartmentalization Include true bacteria On earth 3.8 million years Found nearly everywhere Spores in each breath; intestines Naturally in soil, air, hot springs Prokaryoticno nucleus, circular DNA, ribosomes, peptiglycon-prokayotic cell wall a.Carbohydrate matrix cross linked with peptide units Eukaryoticlarger, nucleus, linear chromosomes, membraned organelles, Compartmentalization Include true bacteria On earth 3.8 million years Found nearly everywhere Spores in each breath; intestines Naturally in soil, air, hot springs Cell types

6 ribosomes cell wall plasma membrane food granule prokaryotic flagellum cytoplasm nucleoid (DNA)

7 Eukaryotic Cells Have numerous internal structures Various types & forms Plants, animals, fungi, protists Multicellular organisms Nucleus is control center of the cell 1. Membrane bound (nuclear envelope) 2. Contains nucleoli; synthesizes ribosomal RNA 3. DNA in chromosomes (DNA and proteins) Have numerous internal structures Various types & forms Plants, animals, fungi, protists Multicellular organisms Nucleus is control center of the cell 1. Membrane bound (nuclear envelope) 2. Contains nucleoli; synthesizes ribosomal RNA 3. DNA in chromosomes (DNA and proteins)

8 1.Plant cells a. Square- geometric shaped b. Cell wall- cellulose c. Chloroplast d. No centrioles e. Large vacuoles 1.Plant cells a. Square- geometric shaped b. Cell wall- cellulose c. Chloroplast d. No centrioles e. Large vacuoles

9 chloroplast central vacuole rough endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes microtubules (part of cytoskeleton) cell wall mitochondrion Golgi complex plasma membrane intermediate filaments smooth endoplasmic reticulum free ribosome vesicle nuclear pore chromatin nucleolus nuclear envelope nucleus

10 Animal Cells Animal Cells a. Irregular shaped a. Irregular shaped b. Just Cell membrane b. Just Cell membrane c. Small vacuoles c. Small vacuoles d. Centrioles d. Centrioles Animal Cells Animal Cells a. Irregular shaped a. Irregular shaped b. Just Cell membrane b. Just Cell membrane c. Small vacuoles c. Small vacuoles d. Centrioles d. Centrioles

11 flagellum cytoplasm rough endoplasmic reticulum ribosome microtubules lysosome mitochondrion Golgi complex plasma membrane intermediate filaments vesicle smooth endoplasmic reticulum free ribosome vesicle nuclear pore chromatin (DNA) nucleolus nuclear envelope nucleus

12 nuclear pores chromatin nucleolus nuclear envelope

13 nuclear pores nucleus

14 chromosome chromatin

15 0.05 micrometers

16 Eukaryotic cell structure Organelles Endoplasmic reticulum consists of folded membranes attached to the nucleus Rough ER is site of protein synthesis and protein secretion. Proteins made here are processed and shipped out of the cell Organelles Endoplasmic reticulum consists of folded membranes attached to the nucleus Rough ER is site of protein synthesis and protein secretion. Proteins made here are processed and shipped out of the cell

17 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Ribosomes assemble amino acid into polypeptide chains a. Associated with the ER b. Composed of RNA and proteins Proteins for inside the cell Ribosomes assemble amino acid into polypeptide chains a. Associated with the ER b. Composed of RNA and proteins Proteins for inside the cell

18 0.5 micrometers ribosomes rough endoplasmic reticulum

19 0.5 micrometers smooth endoplasmic reticulum vesicles

20 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Golgi apparatus are membranous sacs associated with ER exported from the cell Processing and transport of proteins, lipids exported from the cell Synthesis and transport of polysaccharides Synthesis and transport of polysaccharides Lysosomes are Golgi-derived vesicles containing digestive enzymes Lysosomes are Golgi-derived vesicles containing digestive enzymes Golgi apparatus are membranous sacs associated with ER exported from the cell Processing and transport of proteins, lipids exported from the cell Synthesis and transport of polysaccharides Synthesis and transport of polysaccharides Lysosomes are Golgi-derived vesicles containing digestive enzymes Lysosomes are Golgi-derived vesicles containing digestive enzymes

21 ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________

22 Golgi complex vesicles from ER vesicles leaving Golgi complex

23 Mitochondria provide energy for cellular functions (respiration) Mitochondria provide energy for cellular functions (respiration) a. Matrix/cristae a. Matrix/cristae b. Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self- replicate b. Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self- replicate C. Bounded by double membrane-numerous C. Bounded by double membrane-numerous a. Outer membrane is smooth a. Outer membrane is smooth b. Inner membrane is folded into contiguous layers called cristae b. Inner membrane is folded into contiguous layers called cristae 1.Cristae are stuffed with 100,000 enzymes 1.Cristae are stuffed with 100,000 enzymes 2.Site of cellular respiration-Oxidation 2.Site of cellular respiration-Oxidation 3.Divides into inner matrix and outer compartment 3.Divides into inner matrix and outer compartment 4.Associated with proteins of oxidative metabolism 4.Associated with proteins of oxidative metabolism Mitochondria provide energy for cellular functions (respiration) Mitochondria provide energy for cellular functions (respiration) a. Matrix/cristae a. Matrix/cristae b. Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self- replicate b. Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self- replicate C. Bounded by double membrane-numerous C. Bounded by double membrane-numerous a. Outer membrane is smooth a. Outer membrane is smooth b. Inner membrane is folded into contiguous layers called cristae b. Inner membrane is folded into contiguous layers called cristae 1.Cristae are stuffed with 100,000 enzymes 1.Cristae are stuffed with 100,000 enzymes 2.Site of cellular respiration-Oxidation 2.Site of cellular respiration-Oxidation 3.Divides into inner matrix and outer compartment 3.Divides into inner matrix and outer compartment 4.Associated with proteins of oxidative metabolism 4.Associated with proteins of oxidative metabolism Energy sources for cell activities

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25 5 micrometers

26 Chloroplastsfunction in photosynthesis 1) Greencontain chlorophyll pigment 1) Greencontain chlorophyll pigment 2) Stroma/grana (thylakoid stacks) 2) Stroma/grana (thylakoid stacks) 3) Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self-replicate 3) Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self-replicate 4) Up to 100 per cell 4) Up to 100 per cell 5) Become leucoplasts when deprived of light 5) Become leucoplasts when deprived of light a. Specialized amyloplasts store starch a. Specialized amyloplasts store starch b. Plastids are derived from proplastids b. Plastids are derived from proplastids Chloroplastsfunction in photosynthesis 1) Greencontain chlorophyll pigment 1) Greencontain chlorophyll pigment 2) Stroma/grana (thylakoid stacks) 2) Stroma/grana (thylakoid stacks) 3) Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self-replicate 3) Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self-replicate 4) Up to 100 per cell 4) Up to 100 per cell 5) Become leucoplasts when deprived of light 5) Become leucoplasts when deprived of light a. Specialized amyloplasts store starch a. Specialized amyloplasts store starch b. Plastids are derived from proplastids b. Plastids are derived from proplastids Energy sources for cell activities

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29 Cytoskeleton Internal infrastructure a.Actin filaments-microfiliments a. Muscle movement b. Pinches cell when it divides during cytokinesis b.Microtubules 1. Hollow tubes of 13 protein protofilaments-made of tubulin 2. Function a.Help move materials within the cell itself b.Skeletal System c.Aides in cell Division-spindle d.Cilia, Flagella, sperm tails c.Intermediate filaments Surface structures extensions of the plasma membrane aid in movement of simple organisms Cytoskeleton Internal infrastructure a.Actin filaments-microfiliments a. Muscle movement b. Pinches cell when it divides during cytokinesis b.Microtubules 1. Hollow tubes of 13 protein protofilaments-made of tubulin 2. Function a.Help move materials within the cell itself b.Skeletal System c.Aides in cell Division-spindle d.Cilia, Flagella, sperm tails c.Intermediate filaments Surface structures extensions of the plasma membrane aid in movement of simple organisms

30 tubulin subunit actin subunits subunit

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33 Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes Similarities & differences Both surrounded by plasma membrane, but very different Prokaryotes – Archaebacteria and Eubacteria Eukaryotes – everything else Similarities & differences Both surrounded by plasma membrane, but very different Prokaryotes – Archaebacteria and Eubacteria Eukaryotes – everything else

34 ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________

35 Evolution of Eukaryotic cell Endosymbiotic Hypothesis Similarities between bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts Self-reproducing by binary fission Size of organism and genome Single circular naked DNA Proportion of (G & C) to (A & T) Same sized ribosome Protein synthesis inhibited by antibiotics Enzymes for synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein Electron transport system

36 ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________

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38 Plant & Animal Cells Similarities Both constructed from eukaryotic cells __________________________________________ ______________________________________ Both contain similar organelles __________________________________________ ________________________________________ Both surrounded by cell membrane __________________________________________ _______________________________________ Similarities Both constructed from eukaryotic cells __________________________________________ ______________________________________ Both contain similar organelles __________________________________________ ________________________________________ Both surrounded by cell membrane __________________________________________ _______________________________________

39 Plant & Animal Cells Differences Plants have Cell wall – provides strength & rigidity Have chloroplasts, photosynthetic Animals have Other organelle not found in plants (lysosomes formed from Golgi) Centrioles, important in cell division Differences Plants have Cell wall – provides strength & rigidity Have chloroplasts, photosynthetic Animals have Other organelle not found in plants (lysosomes formed from Golgi) Centrioles, important in cell division

40 Brief Look at Viruses Viruses are acellular Not considered to be living Cause serious diseases in most organisms Viruses are acellular Not considered to be living Cause serious diseases in most organisms

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