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**If i = ,what are the values of the following**

If i = ,what are the values of the following? Hint: When you square a square root, all you do is take off the square root. 1. i i i6

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5.5 Complex Numbers

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You can see in the graph of f(x) = x2 + 1 below that f has no real zeros. If you solve the corresponding equation 0 = x2 + 1, you find that x = ,which has no real solutions. However, you can find solutions if you define the square root of negative numbers, which is why imaginary numbers were invented. The imaginary unit i is defined as You can use the imaginary unit to write the square root of any negative number.

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**Express the number in terms of i.**

Factor out –1. Product Property. Simplify. Multiply. Express in terms of i.

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**Express the number in terms of i.**

Factor out –1. Product Property. Simplify. Express in terms of i.

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Whiteboards Express the number in terms of i.

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Try this on your own. Express the number in terms of i.

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Whiteboards Express the number in terms of i.

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**Solving a Quadratic Equation with Imaginary Solutions**

Solve the equation. This is just like solving x2 = You take the Square root of both sides, making sure you consider both the positive and negative roots. Check x2 = –144 –144 (12i)2 144i 2 144(–1) x2 = –144 –144 144(–1) 144i 2 (–12i)2

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**Example 2: Solve the equation. 5x2 + 90 = 0 5x2 + 90 = 0 Check**

What happens here? What happens? Solve by taking square roots. Simplify. 5x = 0 5(18)i 2 +90 90(–1) +90 Check

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Now you try! Solve the equation. x2 = –36

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Your turn Solve the equation. x = 0

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One more Solve the equation. 9x = 0

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A complex number is a number that can be written in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers and i = The set of real numbers is a subset of the set of complex numbers C. Every complex number has a real part a and an imaginary part b.

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**Real numbers are complex numbers where b = 0**

Real numbers are complex numbers where b = 0. Imaginary numbers are complex numbers where a = 0 and b ≠ 0. These are sometimes called pure imaginary numbers. For example, 7 can be written as 7 = 7 + 0i. (7 is the real part a, and 0i is the complex part b). Two complex numbers are equal if and only if their real parts are equal and their imaginary parts are equal.

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**In the complex number 3x – 5yi, what is the real part?**

What is the complex part?

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**Example 3: Equating Two Complex Numbers**

Find the values of x and y that make the equation 4x + 10i = 2 – (4y)i true . Real parts 4x + 10i = 2 – (4y)i Imaginary parts Set the imaginary parts equal to each other. Set the real parts equal to each other. 10 = –4y 4x = 2 Solve for y. Solve for x.

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**Find the values of x and y that make each equation true.**

Example 3a Find the values of x and y that make each equation true. 2x – 6i = –8 + (20y)i Real parts 2x – 6i = –8 + (20y)i Imaginary parts Equate the imaginary parts. Equate the real parts. 2x = –8 –6 = 20y Solve for y. Solve for x. x = –4

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Your turn Find the values of x and y that make each equation true. –8 + (6y)i = 5x – i

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**Find the zeros of the function.**

f(x) = x2 + 10x + 26 x2 + 10x + 26 = 0 Set equal to 0. x2 + 10x = –26 + Rewrite. Add to both sides. x2 + 10x + 25 = – (x + 5)2 = –1 Factor. Take square roots. Simplify.

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**Find the zeros of the function.**

g(x) = x2 + 4x + 12 Set equal to 0. x2 + 4x + 12 = 0 x2 + 4x = –12 + Rewrite. Add to both sides. x2 + 4x + 4 = –12 + 4 (x + 2)2 = –8 Factor. Take square roots. Simplify.

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**Find the zeros of the function.**

Example 4a Find the zeros of the function. f(x) = x2 + 4x + 13 Set equal to 0. x2 + 4x + 13 = 0 x2 + 4x = –13 + Rewrite. x2 + 4x + 4 = –13 + 4 Complete the square. Factor. (x + 2)2 = –9 Take square roots. x = –2 ± 3i Simplify.

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Your turn Find the zeros of the function. g(x) = x2 – 8x + 18

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**The solutions and are related**

The solutions and are related. These solutions are a complex conjugate pair. Their real parts are equal and their imaginary parts are opposites. The complex conjugate of any complex number a + bi is the complex number a – bi. If a quadratic equation with real coefficients has nonreal roots, those roots are complex conjugates. When given one complex root, you can always find the other by finding its conjugate. Helpful Hint

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**Example 5: Finding Complex Zeros of Quadratic Functions**

Find each complex conjugate. B. 6i A i Write as a + bi. Write as a + bi. 0 + 6i 8 + 5i 0 – 6i Find a – bi. 8 – 5i Find a – bi. –6i Simplify. Reminder: ONLY the imaginary parts of complex conjugates are opposites.

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Your turn Find each complex conjugate. A. 9 – i B. C. –8i

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