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Chapter 10: Personality: Theory and Measurement. Learning Outcomes Describe the psychoanalytical perspective and how it contributed to the study of personality.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: Personality: Theory and Measurement. Learning Outcomes Describe the psychoanalytical perspective and how it contributed to the study of personality."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10: Personality: Theory and Measurement

2 Learning Outcomes Describe the psychoanalytical perspective and how it contributed to the study of personality. Explain the trait perspective and the Big Five trait model.

3 Learning Outcomes Identify the contributions of learning theory to understanding personality. Describe the humanistic-existential perspective on personality.

4 Learning Outcomes Describe the sociocultural perspective on personality. Describe the different kinds of tests psychologists use to measure personality.

5 What is Personality? Personality consists of the reasonably stable patterns of emotions, motives, and behavior that distinguish one person from another

6 The Psychodynamic Perspective

7 Psychodynamic Theory Sigmund Freud – Personality characterized by conflict Conflict is first external, then internalized Our behavior is the result of these inner conflicts

8 Sigmund Freuds Theory of Psychosexual Development Three levels of awareness – Conscious, preconscious, unconscious Unconscious urges are kept below the surface by repression Psychoanalysis – Form of therapy used to explore the unconscious mind

9 The Human Iceberg According to Freud

10 Structure of Personality Three psychic structures of personality – Id – pleasure principle – Ego – reality principle Defense Mechanisms – Superego – moral principle Identification

11 Stages of Psychosexual Development Stages: Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital Fixations at any stage are expressed by characteristics of that stage – Oral Fixation – Anal Fixation

12 Stages of Psychosexual Development Oral Stage – Conflict centers on nature and extent of oral gratification – Excessive or insufficient gratification leads to fixation Anal Stage – Focuses on the control of elimination of waste – Learn to delay gratification – self-control

13 Stages of Psychosexual Development Phallic Stage – Oedipus or Electra complex – Resolved through identification with same sex parent Latency – Sexual feelings remain unconscious Genital Stage – Incest taboo

14 Neo-Freudians Carl Jung - Analytical Psychology – Downplayed importance of sexual instinct – Collective unconscious – Archetypes

15 Neo-Freudians Alfred Adler – Individual Psychology – People are motivated by an inferiority complex – Drive for superiority – Creative self

16 Neo-Freudians Karen Horney – Argued girls do not feel inferior to boys – Social relationships are more important than unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses

17 Neo-Freudians Erik Erikson – Psychosocial Development – Eight stages named for traits that should develop at each stage First stage – trust versus mistrust Goal of adolescence is attainment of ego identity

18 Evaluation of Psychodynamic Perspective Shift to examination of problems as having a psychological source Focused attention on childhood experiences No evidence for existence of psychic structures Problems with clinical method for gathering evidence

19 Truth or Fiction? Biting ones fingernails or smoking cigarettes is a sign of conflict experienced during early childhood.

20 Truth or Fiction? Biting ones fingernails or smoking cigarettes is a sign of conflict experienced during early childhood. FICTION!

21 The Trait Perspective

22 What are Traits? Traits are reasonably stable elements of personality that are inferred from behavior

23 History of the Trait Perspective Hippocrates (ca. 460-377 BCE) – Personality depends on the balance of four fluids (humors) in the body – Disease was reflected by imbalance and was restored through bloodletting and vomiting

24 Truth or Fiction? Bloodletting and vomiting were once recommended as ways of coping with depression.

25 Truth or Fiction? Bloodletting and vomiting were once recommended as ways of coping with depression. TRUE!

26 History of the Trait Perspective Charles Spearman – factor analysis – Heritable traits embedded in nervous system Gordon Allport (1936) – Catalogued 18,000 human traits

27 Hans Eysencks Trait Theory Focus on relationship between – Introversion – Extraversion – Stability – Instability (Neuroticism)

28 Truth or Fiction? Twenty-five hundred years ago, a Greek physician devised a way of looking at personality thatwith a little tweaking remains in use today.

29 Truth or Fiction? Twenty-five hundred years ago, a Greek physician devised a way of looking at personality thatwith a little tweaking remains in use today. TRUE!

30 Eysencks Personality Dimensions and Hippocrates Personality Types

31 The Big Five: The Five-Factor Model Five basic personality factors – extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness to experience Research has shown cross-cultural application and relationship to inborn temperament Popular means of developing personalitytypes

32 The Big Five: The Five-Factor Model

33 Truth or Fiction? Actually, there are no basic personality traits. We are all conditioned by society to behave in certain ways.

34 Truth or Fiction? Actually, there are no basic personality traits. We are all conditioned by society to behave in certain ways. FICTION!

35 Biology and Traits Biological factors related to traits – Heredity, Neurotransmitters Temperament – Shyness and behavioral inhibition – Antisocial personality disorder

36 Evaluation of Trait Model Personality tests have been used to identifytypes related to certain occupations Trait theory has been more descriptive than explanatory

37 Positive Psychology and Trait Theory Character Strengths and Virtues – Virtuous traits

38 Learning-Theory Perspectives

39 Behaviorism John B. Watson – Focus on determinants of observable behavior, not unseen, undetectable, unconscious forces B.F. Skinner – Emphasized the effects of reinforcements on behavior Criticism – Ignored the role of choice and consciousness

40 Social Cognitive Theory Albert Bandura – Focuses on learning by observation and cognitive processes of personal differences Person and Situational Variables

41 Person Variables and Situational Variables in Social-Cognitive Theory

42 Social Cognitive Theory Predicting behavior is based on – Expectancies about the outcome, and – Subjective values perceived about those outcomes Self-efficacy expectations – Beliefs we can accomplish certain things

43 Observational Learning Modeling or cognitive learning – Acquiring knowledge by observing others

44 Biology, Social Cognition, and Gender- Typing Gender-Typing – Evolution – natural selection – Biology – prenatal levels of sex hormones – Social cognition – observation Gender Schema Theory – gender schema

45 Evaluation of Learning Perspective Emphasize observable behaviors which can be measured Emphasize environmental conditions – Avoid internal variables Social cognitive theory does not explain self- awareness and genetic variation

46 The Humanistic-Existential Perspective

47 What is Humanism? Humanism argues people are capable of – free choice – self-fulfillment – ethical behavior Existentialism

48 Abraham Maslow and the Challenge of Self-Actualization Maslows Hierarchy of Needs – Conscious need for self-actualization

49 Carl Rogers Self Theory Self – Your ongoing sense of who and what you are – Your sense of how and why you react to the environment – How you choose to act on the environment Self Theory – Focuses on nature of self and conditions that allow the self to develop freely

50 Self-Concept and Frames of Reference Self-Concept – Our impressions of ourselves and our evaluations of our adequacy Frames of Reference – The way in which we look at ourselves and the world

51 Self-Esteem and Positive Regard Unconditional positive regard – Accept child as having intrinsic merit regardless of present behavior Conditional positive regard – Accept child only when they behave in the desired manner Conditions of Worth – Develop in response to conditional positive regard

52 Evaluation of Humanistic-Existential Perspective Focus on conscious experience – Private and subjective Does not address development of traits and personality types

53 The Sociocultural Perspective

54 Individualism Versus Collectivism Individualist – Define self in terms of personal identities – Give priority to personal goals Collectivist – Define self in terms of groups to which you belong – Give priority to the groups goals

55 The Self in Relation to Others from the Individualist and Collectivist Perspectives

56 Truth or Fiction? The most well-adjusted immigrants are those who abandon the language and customs of their country of origin and become like members of the dominant culture in their new host country.

57 Truth or Fiction? The most well-adjusted immigrants are those who abandon the language and customs of their country of origin and become like members of the dominant culture in their new host country. FICTION!

58 Acculturation, Adjustment and Self- Esteem Acculturation Patterns of Adjustment – Complete assimilation, Bicultural, Complete separation Highest self-esteem in those who do not surrender their culture

59 Evaluation of Sociocultural Perspective Considers roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in personality formation Enhances our sensitivity to cultural differences and expectations

60 Measurement of Personality

61 Characteristics of Scientific Personality Tests Validity – Extent to which test measures what it is supposed to measure Reliability – Stability of ones test results from one testing to another Standardization

62 Use of Personality Tests Behavior-rating scales – Classrooms or mental hospitals Decision making – Occupations, School, Medications Aptitude and interest scales

63 Truth or Fiction? Psychologists can determine whether a person has told the truth on a personality test.

64 Truth or Fiction? Psychologists can determine whether a person has told the truth on a personality test. FICTION!

65 Objective Tests Respondents are presented with standardized group of test items in form of questionnaire – Forced-choice format Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – Designed to diagnose psychological disorders

66 Truth or Fiction? There is a psychological test made up of inkblots, and test-takers are asked to say what the blots look like to them.

67 Truth or Fiction? There is a psychological test made up of inkblots, and test-takers are asked to say what the blots look like to them. TRUE!

68 Projective Tests No clear, specified answers Rorschach Inkblot Test – Response that reflects the shape of the inkblot Sign of adequate reality testing – Response that integrates several features of the blot Sign of high intellectual functioning

69 An Inkblot Test

70 Projective Tests Thematic Apperception Test – Individuals are asked to make up stories about drawings that are open to various interpretations – Widely used in research on motivation and to determine attitudes toward others


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