Presentation on theme: "TOEFL (Structure) Revision Lesson before Mini-test 4 8 th grade Galina Polikhronidy Grammar school #40 Taraz, Kazakhstan."— Presentation transcript:
TOEFL (Structure) Revision Lesson before Mini-test 4 8 th grade Galina Polikhronidy Grammar school #40 Taraz, Kazakhstan
Give definitions: A simple s-ce A compound s-ce A complex s-ce consists of one clause. consists of two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunctions and or but. consists of an independent clause (the main clause) and a dependent (subordinate) clause.
Define the type of clause: People need vitamins. (a simple s-ce) The man took a vitamin pill because he had a cold. ( a complex s-ce: IC + AdvC) The man took a vitamin pill, and he drank a glass of orange juice. (A compound s-ce) I didnt realize that Nancy was there. (a complex s-ce: IC + NC) Tom walked to his office, which is located on Broadway, every day during the summer. (a complex s-ce: IC + AC)
Clauses with There and It There + It + It + It + It +
Clauses with There and It There + to be + subject. It + to be + adjective + to V It + to be + adverbial + Noun Clause It + to be + noun + Adjective Clause It + to take + time phrase + to V
Give definitions: Incomplete Adj-ve Clauses Incomplete Adverb Clauses Incomplete Noun Clauses modify a noun in another clause of the s-ce. AC usually begins with an AC marker. consist of an AdvC-marker and, at least a subject and a verb. begin with NC – markers. NC that are formed from statements begin with the NC – marker that. NC that are formed from yes/no questions begin with the NC – markers whether or if. Those formed from information questions begin with wh-words: where, when, what, etc.
Put the marker in the correct column: Adjective ClausesAdverb ClausesNoun Clauses
Put the marker in the correct column: Adjective ClausesAdverb ClausesNoun Clauses WhoBecauseThat WhomSinceWhether WhoseAlthoughIf WhichEven thoughWhere ThatWhileWhen WhereIfWhat WhenUnlessWhy WhenHow WhileHow many AsHow much SinceHow old Until Once Before After
Define the type of the highlighted clause: This is the patient whom the doctor treated. Art that is in public places can be enjoyed by everyone. Dont put off going to the dentist until you have a problem. Because the speaker was sick, the program was cancelled. When the meeting will be held has not been decided. The weather announcer said that there would be the thunderstorms. This is what you need.
Reduced AC and AdvC: Reduced AC Notional Verb To be Active Passive Noun Phrase V ing V 3 Participial Appositive Phrases (Noun phrase) Marker is reduced Reduced AdvC Notional verb To be Active Passive V ing V 3 Adjective Marker is NOT reduced
Reduce the following AC and AdvC: Minnesota, which joined the Union in 1858, became the 32 nd state. William and Mary College, which was founded in 1693, is the second oldest university in the United States. Buffallo Bill, who was a famous frontiersman, operated his own Wild West Show When astronauts are orbiting the Earth, they dont feel the force of gravity. Although it had been damaged, the machine was still operational. Some people like to listen to music while they are studying. !!! Reduced AdvC is NEVER used after because!!! !!! AC & AdvC can only be reduced when the S of the Main Clause and the S of the Sub-te Clause are the SAME!!!
Prepositional Phrases in the same meaning as Adverb Clauses: Because of Due to On account of In spite of Despite During Because/Since Although/Even though When/While
Change these AdvC into Prepositional Phrases: He chose that university because/since it has fine reputation. Visibility is poor today because/since the air is polluted. He enjoys motorcycle riding although/even though it is dangerous. Her father lived in England when/while he was a child.
Check up: He chose that university because of/due to its fine reputation. Visibility is poor today on account of/because of air pollution. He enjoys motorcycle riding in spite of/despite the danger. Her father lived in England during his childhood.
Vocabulary Revision. Find antonyms: 1.- c Extra 2.- g Solid 3.- f Straight 4.- j Remote 5.- a To weaken 6.- i To survive 7.- d Harmless 8.-h Dense 9.-b Shallow 10.- e Natural a)To strengthen b)Deep c)Necessary d)Harmful e)Artificial f)Curved g)Liquid h)Loose i)To die j)Close
Match the pairs of synonyms: Despite Frontier Primarily To preserve Face-to-face encounters To struggle On account of Mature Aircraft Nearly Due to Meetings in person To fight Almost Border In spite of Plane Mainly Grown-up To save
Match the pairs of synonyms: Despite Frontier Primarily To preserve Face-to-face encounters To struggle On account of Mature Aircraft Nearly In spite of Border Mainly To save Meetings in person To fight Grown – up Due to Plane Almost
A triangle A square A circle A curved line A straight line A rectangular An oval A ring
Insert the prepositions: To depend … To consist … … addition … To be known … To be concerned … To have an effect …. … a clear night To be … use The struggle … survival To shine … the sunlight A major impact … To be … rest To be concentrated … An availability … sth To talk … sb To be interested … … photographs … age
Insert the prepositions: To depend on To consist of In addition to To be known for To be concerned with To have an effect on On a clear night To be in use The struggle for survival To shine in the sunlight A major impact on To be at rest To be concentrated on An availability of sth To talk to sb To be interested in In photographs With age
Make a compound noun: Rain Every Wide Down Smoke Fire Fortune Upside Water Deep Air tissue jumpers down bow way spread craft where teller fighter ward
Make up a compound noun: Rain Every Wide Down Smoke Fire Fortune Upside Water Deep Air tissue jumpers down bow way spread craft where teller fighter ward
Using prefixes make the following words negative: … understood … believable … expensive … agreement …conception … dependent …aided Misunderstood Unbelievable Inexpensive Disagreement Misconception Independent Unaided
Word formation. Form the new parts of speech from the given words: Verb Noun React Resemble Discover Invent Survive Require Preserve Specialize Noun Design Mobile Tour Leader Sponsor
Word formation. Form the new parts of speech from the given words: Verb Noun React - reaction Resemble - resemblance Discover - discovery, discoverer Invent - invention, inventor Survive - survival Require - requirement Preserve - preservation Specialize – specialist, specialization Noun Design - designer Mobile - mobility Tour – tourism, tourist Leader - leadership Sponsor - sponsorship
Word formation. Form the new parts of speech from the given words: Noun Adjective Absence Science Poison Resident Colour Picture Fertility Industry Necessity Commerce Allergy Flower Convenience Money
Word formation. Form the new parts of speech from the given words: Noun Adjective Absence - absent Science - scientific Poison - poisonous Resident - residential Colour - colourful Picture – picturesque Fertility - fertile Industry- industrial Necessity - necessary Commerce -commercial Allergy - allergic Flower - flowering Convenience – convenient Money- monetary
Do the Mini-test 4. I variant : 1 - d 3 - d 5 - b 7 - c 9 - b 11 - a 13 - c 15 - a 17 - a 19 - a II variant: 2 - c 4 - a 6 - d 8 - d 10 - a 12 - d 14 - c 16 - b 18 - a 20 - a