Presentation on theme: "TOEFL (Structure) Revision Lesson before Mini-test 4 8th grade"— Presentation transcript:
1 TOEFL (Structure) Revision Lesson before Mini-test 4 8th grade Galina PolikhronidyGrammar school #40Taraz, Kazakhstan
2 Give definitions: A simple s-ce A compound s-ce A complex s-ce consists of one clause.consists of two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunctions and or but.consists of an independent clause (the main clause) and a dependent (subordinate) clause.
3 Define the type of clause: People need vitamins.(a simple s-ce)The man took a vitamin pill because he had a cold.( a complex s-ce: IC + AdvC)The man took a vitamin pill, and he drank a glass of orange juice.(A compound s-ce)I didn’t realize that Nancy was there.(a complex s-ce: IC + NC)Tom walked to his office, which is located on Broadway, every day during the summer.(a complex s-ce: IC + AC)
5 Clauses with There and It There + to be + subject.It + to be + adjective + to VIt + to be + adverbial + Noun ClauseIt + to be + noun + Adjective ClauseIt + to take + time phrase + to V
6 Give definitions: Incomplete Adj-ve Clauses Adverb Clauses Noun Clausesmodify a noun in another clause of the s-ce. AC usually begins with an AC marker. consist of an AdvC-marker and, at least a subject and a verb. begin with NC – markers. NC that are formed from statements begin with the NC – marker that. NC that are formed from yes/no questions begin with the NC – markers whether or if. Those formed from information questions begin with wh-words: where, when, what, etc.
7 Put the marker in the correct column: Adjective ClausesAdverb ClausesNoun Clauses
8 Put the marker in the correct column: Adjective ClausesAdverb ClausesNoun ClausesWhoBecauseThatWhomSinceWhetherWhoseAlthoughIfWhichEven thoughWhereWhileWhenWhatUnlessWhyHowHow manyAsHow muchHow oldUntilOnceBeforeAfter
9 Define the type of the highlighted clause: This is the patient whom the doctor treated.Art that is in public places can be enjoyed by everyone.Don’t put off going to the dentist until you have a problem.Because the speaker was sick, the program was cancelled.When the meeting will be held has not been decided.The weather announcer said that there would be the thunderstorms.This is what you need.
10 Reduced AC and AdvC: Reduced AC Reduced AdvC Notional Verb To be Active PassiveNoun PhraseVing V3Participial AppositivePhrases (Noun phrase)Marker is reducedReduced AdvCNotional verb To beActive PassiveVing V AdjectiveMarker is NOT reduced
11 Reduce the following AC and AdvC: Minnesota, which joined the Union in 1858, became the 32nd state.William and Mary College, which was founded in 1693, is the second oldest university in the United States.Buffallo Bill, who was a famous frontiersman, operated his own Wild West ShowWhen astronauts are orbiting the Earth, they don’t feel the force of gravity.Although it had been damaged, the machine was still operational.Some people like to listen to music while they are studying.!!! Reduced AdvC is NEVER used after because!!!!!! AC & AdvC can only be reduced when the S of the Main Clause and the S of the Sub-te Clause are the SAME!!!
12 Prepositional Phrases in the same meaning as Adverb Clauses: Because ofDue toOn account ofIn spite ofDespiteDuringBecause/SinceAlthough/Even thoughWhen/While
13 Change these AdvC into Prepositional Phrases: He chose that university because/since it has fine reputation.Visibility is poor today because/since the air is polluted.He enjoys motorcycle riding although/even though it is dangerous.Her father lived in England when/while he was a child.
14 Check up:He chose that university because of/due to its fine reputation.Visibility is poor today on account of/because of air pollution.He enjoys motorcycle riding in spite of/despite the danger.Her father lived in England during his childhood.
16 Vocabulary Revision. Find antonyms: - c Extra- g Solid- f Straight- j Remote- a To weaken- i To survive- d Harmless-h Dense-b Shallow- e NaturalTo strengthenDeepNecessaryHarmfulArtificialCurvedLiquidLooseTo dieClose
17 Match the pairs of synonyms: DespiteFrontierPrimarilyTo preserveFace-to-face encountersTo struggleOn account ofMatureAircraftNearlyDue toMeetings in personTo fightAlmostBorderIn spite ofPlaneMainlyGrown-upTo save
18 Match the pairs of synonyms: DespiteFrontierPrimarilyTo preserveFace-to-face encountersTo struggleOn account ofMatureAircraftNearlyIn spite ofBorderMainlyTo saveMeetings in personTo fightGrown – upDue toPlaneAlmost
20 Name the geometric figures: A triangle A square A circleA curved line A straight lineA rectangularAn oval A ring
21 Insert the prepositions: To depend …To consist …… addition …To be known …To be concerned …To have an effect ….… a clear nightTo be … useThe struggle … survivalTo shine … the sunlightA major impact …To be … restTo be concentrated …An availability … sthTo talk … sbTo be interested …… photographs… age
22 Insert the prepositions: To depend onTo consist ofIn addition toTo be known forTo be concerned withTo have an effect onOn a clear nightTo be in useThe struggle for survivalTo shine in the sunlightA major impact onTo be at restTo be concentrated onAn availability of sthTo talk to sbTo be interested inIn photographsWith age
23 Make a compound noun: Rain Every Wide Down Smoke Fire Fortune Upside WaterDeepAirtissuejumpersdownbowwayspreadcraftwheretellerfighterward
24 Make up a compound noun: RainEveryWideDownSmokeFireFortuneUpsideWaterDeepAirtissuejumpersdownbowwayspreadcraftwheretellerfighterward
25 Using prefixes make the following words negative: … understood… believable… expensive… agreement…conception… dependent…aidedMisunderstoodUnbelievableInexpensiveDisagreementMisconceptionIndependentUnaided
26 Word formation. Form the new parts of speech from the given words: Verb NounNoun NounReactResembleDiscoverInventSurviveRequirePreserveSpecializeDesignMobileTourLeaderSponsor
27 Word formation. Form the new parts of speech from the given words: Noun NounVerb NounDesign - designerMobile - mobilityTour – tourism, touristLeader - leadershipSponsor - sponsorshipReact - reactionResemble - resemblanceDiscover - discovery, discovererInvent - invention, inventorSurvive - survivalRequire - requirementPreserve - preservationSpecialize – specialist, specialization
28 Word formation. Form the new parts of speech from the given words: Noun AdjectiveAbsenceSciencePoisonResidentColourPictureFertilityIndustryNecessityCommerceAllergyFlowerConvenienceMoney
29 Word formation. Form the new parts of speech from the given words: Noun AdjectiveAbsence - absentScience - scientificPoison - poisonousResident - residentialColour - colourfulPicture – picturesqueFertility - fertileIndustry- industrialNecessity - necessaryCommerce -commercialAllergy - allergicFlower - floweringConvenience – convenientMoney- monetary
30 Do the Mini-test 4. I variant : 1 - d 3 - d 5 - b 7 - c 9 - b 11 - a II variant:2 - c4 - a6 - d8 - d10 - a12 - d14 - c16 - b18 - a20 - a