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Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

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Presentation on theme: "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – , India

2 OC-SBT/ SBI/ SGS031-U02-02 Introduction Programmes and Courses SEP – SBT031 – Unit 02 SEP – SBI031 – Unit 02 SEP – SGS031 – Unit 02

3 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.3 Credits Academic Inputs by- Mrs. Rasika Bhore M.sc ( Microbiology)

4 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of minutes during Face-To-Face counseling. Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about minutes. Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student. Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam. Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course. Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam.

5 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives After studying this module, you should be able to: Define Lipids. Describe the classification of lipids. Discuss various lipids with their location & function. Describe importance of lipids.

6 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Introduction The lipids are a large and diverse group of naturally occurring organic compounds. Common features are solubility in nonpolar organic solvents (e.g. ether, chloroform, acetone & benzene) and general insolubility in water. There is great structural variety among the lipids. Due to predominance of hydrocarbon chains, lipids have hydrophobic nature. Lipids include fats,oils,steroides,hormones,waxes & related compounds. All lipids shows diversity in their biological functions. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.6

7 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Definition-Lipids Lipids may defined as organic substances that dissolves in organic solvents like benzene, chloroform but not in water. They are esters of fatty acids with alcohol or capable of forming such esters. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.7

8 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Classification Of Lipids © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.8 Lipids can be classified as- Simple lipids Complex or compound lipid Terpenoids & steroids Derived lipids

9 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Simple Lipids Esters of fatty acids with various alcohols. Depending on the types of alcohols these are classified as- Triglycerides, neutral fats: Found in adipose tissue, fish oils, olive oil, corn oil, etc. Esters of three molecules of fatty acids plus one molecule of glycerol; the fatty acid may all be different. Waxes: beeswax, head oil of sperm whale, cerulean, carnauba oil, and lanolin. Composed of esters of fatty acids with alcohol other than glycerol; of industrial and medicinal importance. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.9

10 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Complex or Compound Lipid These are esters of fatty acids, with alcohol containing additional prosthetic group. Class one complex lipid: 1.Phospholipids (Phosphatides): Found chiefly in animal tissues. Substituted fats, consisting of phosphatidic acid; composed of glycerol, fatty acids, and phosphoric acid bound in ester linkage to a nitrogenous base. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.10

11 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Phospholipids-1 Lecithin: Found in brain, egg yolk, and organ meats. Phosphatidyl choline or serine; phosphatide linked to choline; a lipotropic agent; important in fat metabolism and transport; used as emulsifying agent in the food industry. Cephalin: Occurs predominantly in nervous tissue. Phosphatidyl ethanolamine; phosphatide linage to serine or ethanolamine; plays a role in blood clotting. Plasmalogen: Found in brain, heart, and muscle. Phosphatidyl ethanolamine or choline; phosphatide containing an aliphatic aldehyde. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.11

12 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Phospholipids-2 Lipositol : Found in brain, heart, kidneys, and plant tissues together with phytic acid. Phosphatidyl inositol; phosphatide linked to inositol; rapid synthesis and degradation in brain; evidence for role in cell transport processes. Sphingomyelin : Found in nervous tissue, brain, and red blood cells. Sphingosine-containing phosphatide; yields fatty acids, choline, sphingosine, phosphoric acid, and no glycerol; source of phosphoric acid in body tissues. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.12

13 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Class Two Complex Lipids Glycolipids Cerebroside : myelin sheaths of nerves, brain, and other tissues. Yields on hydrolysis of fatty acids, sphingosine, galactose (or glucose), but not fatty acids; includes kerasin and phrenosin. Ganglioside: brain, nerve tissue, and other selected tissues, notably spleen; contains a ceramide linked to hexose (glucose or galactose), neuraminic acid, sphingosine, and fatty acids. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.13

14 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Class Three Complex Lipids Lipoproteins : Formed by combination of lipid with a prosthetic group protein,e.g. serum lipoproteins. VLDL: Synthesizes at liver, transport endogenous triacylglycerol from liver to peripheral tissues. LDL: Synthesizes at plasma VLDL, transport cholesterol from liver to peripheral tissues. HDL: Synthesizes at liver & intestine, transport free cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.14

15 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Terpenoids Terpenes found in essential oils, resin acids, rubber, plant pigments such as carotenes and lycopenes, Vitamin A, and camphor. Large group of compounds made up of repeating isoprene units; Vitamin A of nutritional interest; fat soluble Vitamin E and K, which are also related chemically to Terpenes. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.15

16 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Steroids 1.Sterols: Cholesterol: found in egg yolk, dairy products, and animal tissues. A constituent of bile acids and a precursor of Vitamin D. Ergo sterol: found in plant tissues, yeast, and fungi. Converted to Vitamin D2 on irradiation. 7-dehydrocholesterol: found in animal tissues and underneath skin. Converted to D3 on irradiation. 2.Androgens and estrogens: (Sex hormones) Found in ovaries and testes. 3.Adrenal corticosteroids: adrenal cortex, blood. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.16

17 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Derived Lipids Fatty acids: Occur in plant and animal foods; also exhibit in complex forms with other substances. Obtained from hydrolysis of fats; usually contains an even number of carbon atoms and are straight chain derivatives. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.17

18 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… General Functions Of Lipids 1.Storage form of energy. 2.Structural components of membranes. 3.Act as precursors. 4.Act as thermal insulator around certain organs. 5.Non-polar lipids act as electrical insulators. 6.Activators of enzymes. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.18

19 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… What We Learn Lipids are the organic substances which are soluble in organic solvents but insoluble in water due to presence of long hydrocarbon chain. There are four types of lipids; simple lipids, compound lipids, terpenoids & steroids & derived lipids. These main four types are again sub-divided according to the different groups they contain. Lipids carry out very important functions like- 1.Storage of energy 2.Act as insulator 3.Component of cell membranes etc. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.19

20 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Critical thinking questions 1.Why lipids are insoluble in water? © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.20

21 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Hints to Critical Thinking Questions 1.Lipids have long hydrocarbon chain having hydrophobic end. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.21

22 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.22 Study Tips Book Title: Biochemistry Author: Dr.Mrs.Pankaja Naik Book Title: Biochemistry Author: Lubert Stryer

23 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.23 Study Tips Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Classification of lipids

24 End of the Presentation Thank You


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