2 Doc: Would you mind seeing John for a quick second opinion? Referred to cardiology clinic March 2009. Known case of cor Pulmonale and heart failure. Needed wheelchair assistance, extremely breathless.
4 Background 48 yr old former builder, retired 1987 because of back problems. Gradually worsening dyspnoea/oedema since 1996. 1997:Tachycardia 122/min, BP 170/116 mmHG. ECG: atrial tachycardia 2:1. Echo reported as showing an enlarged RV, LA enlarged at 6.1 cms.
5 1997 Coronary Angiography: LV function – overall mildly reduced, especially the anterior wall. Coronary arteries- essentially normal. Lung perfusion scan reported as normal. Pulmonary function tests reported as hyperventilation. DC Cardioversion back to Sinus Rhythm. Patient much improved after cardioversion.
6 December 1998 Admitted with increasing dyspnoea for 1 month. PO2 8.9KPa ? PE. Lung perfusion scan reported as small perfusion defects in the bases not matched with the ventilation scans – intermediate to high probability for PE. Warfarin started initially for 3 months but later advised life long anticoagulation.
7 2000 Readmitted with AF and central chest pain. Reverted to sinus rhythm post Cardioversion. Several Cardioversions 2000 and 2001. March 2001 admitted with heart failure – oedema. Discharged on ASA, Warfarin, Bumetanide 3mg am and 2 mg pm, Spironolactone 25mg, Metolazone 2.5 mg alt days, Ramipril 5mg, Digoxin 125 daily, Amiodarone 200mg, Valsartan 80mg BD, Colchicine for gout, Quinine So4 300mg, Omeprazole 20mgBD and Sandoz K.
8 Follow UP 2001 Heart failure clinic : now Permanent AF (3 prior Cardioversions) same medications, follow up heart failure nurse. Now diabetic. Admitted with dyspnoea and renal impairment May 2001 and Metolazone stopped. Readmitted that month with oedema, dyspnoea and pleuritic chest pain. Developed A Flutter with 1:1 conduction and was cardioverted to sinus rhythm.
9 2001 September presented to A&E with broad complex tachycardia. CCU narrow complex tachycardia 230/min with haemodynamic compromise - Cardioversion. Repeat coronary angiography. LV function reported as impaired, possibly early cardiomyopathy. Normal coronary arteries. EPS: no evidence of an accessory pathway but echo beats were induced consistent with AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia. Atrial flutter was also induced. Both were different to initial presentation.
15 Background Continued Patient readmitted with narrow complex tachycardia and cardioverted and put back on Amiodarone. AV Nodal Ablation and permanent pacing carried out Nov 2001. Followed up – initially clinical improvement with management of arrhythmia. 2005 OPD assessment now much worse with evidence of CCF, felt to be mainly R heart failure (echo showed PA pressure > 50mmHg). 2006 pacemaker follow up – permanent AF ARB added to ACE, consideration of trial of Sildenafil
16 2007 Follow up with repeat echos – patient remains extremely short of breath, on home oxygen. Referred to chest physician for opinion. July 2007: chest physician noted O2 sats 99 – 100% on room air and FEV1 of 2.7. CXR large heart and pulmonary congestion. Hg 19.8 g/dl and haematocrit of 52%. Followed up cardiology and respiratory medicine: presumed cor pulmonale secondary to PEs but extreme breathlessness remained a puzzle. Various inhalers and oxygen, heavy doses of diuretics. Heart Failure Clinic.
18 What more can be done at this stage? Thought Process At least moderate pulmonary hypertension. Possibility of CTEPH. What about chronic RV pacing? Work UP High Resolution CT. PFT & 6 minute walk test. Right and left heart catheterization. Review Echo and discuss possible CRT