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Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, 2008 1 For Improving August 2008 Project / Program ExecutionExecution.

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Presentation on theme: "Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, 2008 1 For Improving August 2008 Project / Program ExecutionExecution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, For Improving August 2008 Project / Program ExecutionExecution

2 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Developments Leading to Examination of This Topic Recent hi-profile complex product development delaysRecent hi-profile complex product development delays My retirement after 40 years planning, managing and executing complex projectsMy retirement after 40 years planning, managing and executing complex projects –Unique lessons learned could improve performance –Desire to contribute to the PM body of knowledge

3 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Objectives of this work Provide a basic understanding of integrationProvide a basic understanding of integration Prescribe a treatment to improve existing integration-deficient programs and prevent its occurrence on new programsPrescribe a treatment to improve existing integration-deficient programs and prevent its occurrence on new programs –Introduce integration concepts –Introduce new integration methodologies –Introduce process changes –Encourage involvement in grass roots effort for process improvement

4 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Topics for Discussion Complex program integration challengesComplex program integration challenges Symptoms of integration deficiencySymptoms of integration deficiency Approach to diagnosisApproach to diagnosis DiagnosisDiagnosis R x for TreatmentR x for Treatment Integration conceptsIntegration concepts –Updated definition of "Program Integration" –Introduction to the WBS as an integration tool –Improving planning and integration of schedules SummarySummary Q&AQ&A

5 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Program Integration Concept Current concept defines a program as complex product (system) development:Current concept defines a program as complex product (system) development: –Integrates the system using systems engineering and product development processes –Integrates the program with existing PM processes resulting in integration gaps and execution processes resulting in integration gaps and execution issues issues This concept defines a program as a system of systems that includes the following systems:This concept defines a program as a system of systems that includes the following systems: –Deliverable system –Program Development System Development systems & processesDevelopment systems & processes PM systems & processesPM systems & processes Baseline documentationBaseline documentation FacilitiesFacilities PeoplePeople

6 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Known-Unknowns Unknown-Unknowns Knowledge Knowns Concept Exploration Demonstration And Validation Full-Scale Development Production Deployment Operation Knowledge Over the Life Cycle Complex Program Integration Challenges

7 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Complex Program Integration Challenges Differing product development life-cycles to be integrated (including hardware, software, spiral and incremental)Differing product development life-cycles to be integrated (including hardware, software, spiral and incremental) Multi-year development with several program stages and major changes during the life cycle from concept to operation by the users.Multi-year development with several program stages and major changes during the life cycle from concept to operation by the users. Dozens of geographically dispersed teams, suppliers, associate contractors and sponsor agenciesDozens of geographically dispersed teams, suppliers, associate contractors and sponsor agencies –Complicated responsibility, authority, and accountability –Multiple time zones, languages, and facilities –Multiple product development systems (e.g., CAD/CAM) –Multiple project management systems –Multiple processes for the same work product Huge quantities of data and paperHuge quantities of data and paper Resistance to changeResistance to change

8 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Program Execution Issues Unplanned iteration and reworkUnplanned iteration and rework Assignment of inter-team working groupsAssignment of inter-team working groups Schedules/logic networks does not reflect actual program plan and status--inability to forecastSchedules/logic networks does not reflect actual program plan and status--inability to forecast Specialized spreadsheets and databases to supplement trackingSpecialized spreadsheets and databases to supplement tracking Late & unfinished deliveries of products from suppliersLate & unfinished deliveries of products from suppliers Incompatibility of product development automated systemsIncompatibility of product development automated systems Difficult and time consuming changes to the scope of work and configurationDifficult and time consuming changes to the scope of work and configuration Project manager changesProject manager changes

9 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Program Execution Issues Program Integration DeficiencyProgram Integration Deficiency –A chronic condition that results in delays and cost-overruns during execution that goes undiagnosed until too late to recover. –It potentially affects all complex programs –It is the result of all elements involved with initiating, planning and executing a program not all working together efficiently.

10 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Approach To Diagnosis of Symptoms IntegrationLessonsLearnedIntegrationLessonsLearned IntegrationMethodologyExperienceIntegrationMethodologyExperience Existing Process Documentation Existing Process Documentation DiagnosisDiagnosis

11 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Existing Documentation INCOSE Website: A Consensus of the INCOSE Fellows INCOSE Website: A Consensus of the INCOSE Fellows – –http://www.incose.org/practice/fellowsconsensus.aspxhttp://www.incose.org/practice/fellowsconsensus.aspx Work Breakdown Structures For Defense Materiel Items MIL-HDBK-881A 30 JULY 2005 Work Breakdown Structures For Defense Materiel Items MIL-HDBK-881A 30 JULY 2005 DoD Integrated Product and Process Development Handbook: Office Of The Under Secretary Of Defense (Acquisition And Technology) Washington, DC DoD Integrated Product and Process Development Handbook: Office Of The Under Secretary Of Defense (Acquisition And Technology) Washington, DC Interface ManagementA Facilitator of Lean Construction and Agile Project Management: Proceedings IGLC-15, July 2007, Michigan, USA; Qian Chen, Georg Reichard and Yvan Beliveau Interface ManagementA Facilitator of Lean Construction and Agile Project Management: Proceedings IGLC-15, July 2007, Michigan, USA; Qian Chen, Georg Reichard and Yvan Beliveau Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v3.1Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v3.1 A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) Third Edition 2004A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) Third Edition 2004 DoD Extension to the PMBOK®DoD Extension to the PMBOK® Existing Process Documentation Existing Process Documentation Provide insights but lack process detail and tools

12 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, PMExperiencePMExperience

13 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Integration Lessons Learned The importance of the WBS:The importance of the WBS: –For providing the structure for the organization (including analysis & integration elements) –For unifying and integrating a program –Most WBSs do not include program/project development and integration work-- should be added (people do work not planned or scheduled) A systematic approach to integration is needed: An approach that is a cross-between systems engineering and program management is neededA systematic approach to integration is needed: An approach that is a cross-between systems engineering and program management is needed More and better automation is needed: Due to the amount of data to be integrated, new methods and automated tools are needed.More and better automation is needed: Due to the amount of data to be integrated, new methods and automated tools are needed. Improved sequencing of plans and processes is needed: Better sequencing minimizes unplanned iteration and rework--dependency structure matrices (DSM) enable optimum sequencingImproved sequencing of plans and processes is needed: Better sequencing minimizes unplanned iteration and rework--dependency structure matrices (DSM) enable optimum sequencing Interface management between people teams: Negotiation and agreement of product exchanges between people/teams is needed for validation of the program plan--requires development logic for each product's lifecycle.Interface management between people teams: Negotiation and agreement of product exchanges between people/teams is needed for validation of the program plan--requires development logic for each product's lifecycle. Integration of baseline documentation is needed for efficient configuration and change management.Integration of baseline documentation is needed for efficient configuration and change management. IntegrationLessonsLearnedIntegrationLessonsLearned

14 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Integration Methodology Experience IDEF0IDEF0 Cross-Reference MatricesCross-Reference Matrices MS Project macros to capture interfacesMS Project macros to capture interfaces MS Access databasesMS Access databases Web-based I/F management between teamsWeb-based I/F management between teams Association for documentation baselinesAssociation for documentation baselines N2 Charts for I/F identification N2 Charts for I/F identification Dependency Structure Matrices (DSM) Dependency Structure Matrices (DSM) N2/DSM Prototype Planning Tool (sequencing and I/F management) N2/DSM Prototype Planning Tool (sequencing and I/F management) IntegrationMethodologyExperienceIntegrationMethodologyExperience

15 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Integration Tool Deficiency Notional Increasing Complexity Of Products & Projects Time Number Of Project Interfaces Number of Interfaces that can be accommodated by PM tools and techniques Potential Issues & Opportunities To Improve ProjectExecution Product Complexity Has Been Enabled by Automation Product Complexity Has Been Enabled by Automation Advances in CAD-CAM, Modeling and Simulation, et al. Advances in CAD-CAM, Modeling and Simulation, et al. PM Automation is Still Based Primarily on PERT/CPM & EVM PM Automation is Still Based Primarily on PERT/CPM & EVM IntegrationMethodologyExperienceIntegrationMethodologyExperience

16 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Integration Deficiency Diagnosis Integration/interface management in the context of complex programs and processes is not well documented.Integration/interface management in the context of complex programs and processes is not well documented. Lack of a systematic and disciplined process for planning, scheduling and integrating complex programsLack of a systematic and disciplined process for planning, scheduling and integrating complex programs Decentralization of the PM responsibility to individual teams or functional organizationsDecentralization of the PM responsibility to individual teams or functional organizations The responsibility for Integration is not specificThe responsibility for Integration is not specific Program management and product development systems and processes are not included in the WBS or SOW.Program management and product development systems and processes are not included in the WBS or SOW. PM practitioners are not trained or compensated to integrate projects or programs in the same way a engineers are trained to integrate products.PM practitioners are not trained or compensated to integrate projects or programs in the same way a engineers are trained to integrate products. PM tools do not facilitate optimum sequencing and management of interfacesPM tools do not facilitate optimum sequencing and management of interfaces Lack of leadership!!Lack of leadership!!

17 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Treatment Plan 1.PMs assume responsibility, investigate improved processes, tools and techniques, and implement the following as appropriate. 2.Focus on the WBS to integrate the program –Incorporate a tailored version of the "Program Development System" into the WBS. Plan, schedule and integrate its elements using the same process as the product development.Plan, schedule and integrate its elements using the same process as the product development. –Organize for integration: Add elements to the WBS and assign teams as necessary –Unify the program organization, planning and integration focusing on the WBS breakdown. 3.Organize the baseline configuration of product and program documentation for efficient configuration and change management

18 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Treatment Plan (Contd) 4.Improve logic network schedules with N2/DSM planning –Develop Life cycle plan for the program and for individual products, processes and services in the WBS –Integrate plans –Identify, and negotiate producer-consumer interfaces 5.Update documentation and training with experience 6.Support grass roots and A&D SIG efforts for process improvement

19 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Updated definition of "Program Integration Updated definition of "Program Integration –Introduction to the WBS as an integration tool –Improving planning and integration of schedules Integration concepts

20 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, "Program Integration (proposed) The process of bringing people, systems, processes, facilities and other things together to develop a product or service in an efficient manner. Involves everything that is assigned or created during a program in order to execute its objectives.The process of bringing people, systems, processes, facilities and other things together to develop a product or service in an efficient manner. Involves everything that is assigned or created during a program in order to execute its objectives. Includes activities of all project/program stakeholders, contractors, subcontractors, sponsors and users.Includes activities of all project/program stakeholders, contractors, subcontractors, sponsors and users. The primary activity is the design and management of the unique interfaces within and between products, processes, and services identified at the lowest level breakdown of the WBS.The primary activity is the design and management of the unique interfaces within and between products, processes, and services identified at the lowest level breakdown of the WBS.

21 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, –Updated definition of "Program Integration Introduction to the WBS as an integration tool Introduction to the WBS as an integration tool –Improving planning and integration of schedules Integration concepts

22 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Mil Hdbk 881b Product Integration is Part of Development Process ProductDevelopmentWBS WBS as an integration tool

23 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, WBS as an integration tool (contd) Unify the program with WBS development to identify work, organize, and integrate

24 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Other Cross Ref Matrices (CRM): – RAM (Resp) – Equip/ Make/Buy – Cost – et al WBS as an integration tool (contd) CrossReferenceMatrices Relate all data elements to the WBS Expand vertical breakdown to product/ process level that are assigned to a single team for development or used for development activities Analyze and Integrate Across All Stakeholders

25 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Identify Interfaces between elements (Xs or description) Identify Interfaces between elements (Xs or description) N-Squared (N2) Charts: Identify interfaces WBS as an integration tool (contd) X

26 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, –Updated definition of "Program Integration –Introduction to the WBS as an integration tool Improving planning and integration of schedules Improving planning and integration of schedules Activity-Based DSM for SequencingActivity-Based DSM for Sequencing N2/DSM Prototype Tool for Sequencing and Identifying InterfacesN2/DSM Prototype Tool for Sequencing and Identifying Interfaces Schedule IntegrationSchedule Integration Integration concepts

27 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Three Configurations that Characterize a Project A B AB A B ParallelSeries Coupled (Loop) DSM Representation Graphic Representation AB A B AB A X B AB AX BX (not allowed in CPM) (indicates iteration) (CPM) Relationship Activity-Based DSM (Sequencing)

28 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Precedence Ordered DSM Precedence Network Resulting Gantt Schedule Step A n Step B nnn Step C n Step D Step E Improves Logic Network/Project Schedules Activity-Based DSM (Sequencing)

29 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Sequence Tasks N2/DSM Prototype Planning Tool Suite is Available from Website N2/DSM Prototype Planning Tool Suite is Available from Website Identify Relationships Detect Loops Optimize Sequence N2/DSM Prototype Planning Tool Improve Sequencing

30 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Identify work products for each activity Identify Inputs for each activity Data is Consolidated for Reports and Sharing With Other Groups/Teams (Interface Management) N2/DSM Prototype Planning Tool Improve Interface Management

31 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Plan all products and processes to synchronize with the program level program definition Schedule Integration

32 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, SummarySummary Complex program integration challenges Complex program integration challenges Symptoms of integration deficiency Symptoms of integration deficiency Approach to diagnosis Approach to diagnosis Diagnosis Diagnosis R x for Treatment R x for Treatment Integration concepts Integration concepts Updated definition of "Program Integration" Updated definition of "Program Integration" Introduction to the WBS as an integration tool Introduction to the WBS as an integration tool Improving planning and integration of schedules Improving planning and integration of schedules Summary Summary Q&AQ&A

33 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Rx Summary Integration/interface management in the context of complex programs and processes is not well documented.Integration/interface management in the context of complex programs and processes is not well documented. Lack of a systematic and disciplined process for planning, scheduling and integrating complex programsLack of a systematic and disciplined process for planning, scheduling and integrating complex programs Decentralization of the PM responsibility to individual teams or functional organizationsDecentralization of the PM responsibility to individual teams or functional organizations The responsibility for Integration is not specificThe responsibility for Integration is not specific Program management and product development systems and processes are not included in the WBS or SOW.Program management and product development systems and processes are not included in the WBS or SOW. PM practitioners are not trained or compensated to integrate projects or programs in the same way a engineers are trained to integrate products.PM practitioners are not trained or compensated to integrate projects or programs in the same way a engineers are trained to integrate products. PM tools do not facilitate optimum sequencing and management of interfacesPM tools do not facilitate optimum sequencing and management of interfaces Lack of leadership!!Lack of leadership!! Integration Defined Integration Defined Added to WBS Added to WBS Make changes with Make changes with Experience Experience N2/DSM Tools N2/DSM Tools Supt grass roots Supt grass roots & A&D SIG Effort & A&D SIG Effort PM responsibility PM responsibility Apply SE process Apply SE process as needed as needed Organize by WBS Organize by WBS with A&I as needed with A&I as needed

34 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Q & A

35 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, BackupBackup

36 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Existing Documentation ProjectProject –A novel undertaking or systematic process to create a new product or service the delivery of which signals completion. Projects involve risk and are typically constrained by limited resources. Program (Any one of the following)Program (Any one of the following) –A portfolio of projects selected and planned in a coordinated way so as to achieve a set of defined objectives…. A single, large or very complex project, or A single, large or very complex project, or –A set of otherwise unrelated projects bounded by a business cycle. SystemSystem –A group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements forming a complex whole. –A methodical arrangement of activities or parts designed to achieve repetitive or reproducible results. Interface ManagementInterface Management –The management of communication, coordination and responsibility across a common boundary between two (or more) organizations, phases, or physical entities which are interdependent. Source: Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v3.1 is copyright by R. Max Wideman, March Wideman Glossary Wideman Glossary

37 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Existing Documentation Existing Documentation Project Integration Management …Integration in the context of managing a project, is making choices about where to concentrate resources and effort on any given day, anticipating potential issues, dealing with these issues before they become critical, and coordinating work for the overall project good. The integration effort involves making trade-offs among competing objectives and alternatives. Integration is primarily concerned with effectively integrating the processes among the Project Management Process Groups that are required to accomplish project objectives within an organizations defined procedures. The integrative project management processes include: 4.1 Develop Project Charter 4.2 Develop Preliminary Project Scope Statement 4.3 Develop Project Management Plan 4.4 Direct and Manage Project Execution 4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work 4.6 Integrated Change Control 4.7 Close Project Source: A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) Third Edition 2004 Project Management Institute, Four Campus Boulevard, Newtown Square, PA USA PMBoK Guide PMBoK Guide

38 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Project Management ElementsProject Management Elements –An interactive group of 10 management responsibilities applied to all phases of the Project Cycle by all organizations participating in the project to accomplish the project objectives. These ten elements are: Project Requirements.Project Requirements. Organizational Options.Organizational Options. Project Team.Project Team. Project Planning.Project Planning. Opportunities and Risks.Opportunities and Risks. Project Control.Project Control. Project Visibility.Project Visibility. Project Status.Project Status. Corrective Action.Corrective Action. Project LeadershipProject Leadership Project Management ProcessProject Management Process –Project cycle, phases, and activities that are managed by the techniques and tools of the ten project management elements to ensure that all project control gates are completed satisfactorily and that project objectives are accomplished. The formality of application is tailored to the type of project and value and risk of the project. [D04197] Source: Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v3.1 is copyright by R. Max Wideman, March Existing Documentation Wideman Glossary Wideman Glossary

39 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Existing Documentation Project Management System The project management system is the set of tools, techniques, methodologies, resources, and procedures used to manage a project. It can be formal or informal and aids a project manager in effectively guiding a project to completion. The system is a set of processes and related control functions that are consolidated and combined into a functioning, unified whole. PMBoK Guide PMBoK Guide Development Processes: Processes that facilitate the making of a product. These processes are not delivered to the customer (although the results of their work are) and they are driven by the needs of the particular product being developed. Examples include Integration, Production, Computer Support, and Modeling and Simulation. DoD IPPD Handbook DoD IPPD Handbook

40 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, Existing Documentation Source: INCOSE Website: A Consensus of the INCOSE Fellows Integration Systems, businesses and people must be integrated so that they interact with one another.Systems, businesses and people must be integrated so that they interact with one another. Integration means bringing things together so they work as a whole.Integration means bringing things together so they work as a whole. Interfaces between subsystems must be designed.Interfaces between subsystems must be designed. Subsystems should be defined along natural boundaries.Subsystems should be defined along natural boundaries. Subsystems should be defined to minimize the amount of information to be exchanged between the subsystems.Subsystems should be defined to minimize the amount of information to be exchanged between the subsystems. Well-designed subsystems send finished products to other subsystemsWell-designed subsystems send finished products to other subsystems The consequence of integration is a system that is built and operated using efficient processes.The consequence of integration is a system that is built and operated using efficient processes. Teams, processes, systems can be used inter- changeably with subsystems INCOSE

41 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, IntegrationIntegration –The process of bringing people, activities and other things together to perform effectively. InterfaceInterface –The functional and physical characteristics required to exist at a common boundary or connection between persons, or between systems, or between persons and systems. Interface ManagementInterface Management –The management of communication, coordination and responsibility across a common boundary between two (or more) organizations, phases, or physical entities which are interdependent. Source: Wideman Comparative Glossary of Common Project Management Terms v3.1 is copyright by R. Max Wideman, March Existing Documentation Wideman Glossary Wideman Glossary Interfaces within and between: Persons Persons Systems Systems Organizations Organizations Phases Phases Physical Entities Physical Entities Hardware Hardware Software Software Facilities Facilities + Documentation + Documentation + Processes + Processes + Activities/Tasks + Activities/Tasks + Companies + Companies Et al Et al Interfaces within and between: Persons Persons Systems Systems Organizations Organizations Phases Phases Physical Entities Physical Entities Hardware Hardware Software Software Facilities Facilities + Documentation + Documentation + Processes + Processes + Activities/Tasks + Activities/Tasks + Companies + Companies Et al Et al

42 Andrew Wold Andrew Wold projectintegrationconcepts.com Andrew Wold, PMP August 10, The Systems Engineering Process SIMILAR process is familiar to most program personnel and could be used for development and/or tailoring of products, processes, and systems.The Systems Engineering Process SIMILAR process is familiar to most program personnel and could be used for development and/or tailoring of products, processes, and systems.SIMILARSIMILAR Source: INCOSE Website: A Consensus of the INCOSE Fellows


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