How does Kingdom Animalia compare to the others?
Animalia Eukaryotic cells Multicellular organisms No cell walls
Animalia–Informal Groups Vertebrates Vertebrates –Have a backbone –5% of all animals Invertebrates Invertebrates –No backbone –95% of all animals
Essential functions What do animals do to survive? There are 7 functions they must perform to stay alive.
FEEDING Must bring in food (and water) to provide energy for life. Examples: Herbivores=> plants Carnivores=> animals Omnivores=> animals and plants Detritovores=> decomposer Filter-feeders=> filter water Parasites=> live off of a host
Respiration Must exchange gases between body and the environment –O 2 brought in, CO 2 removed Performed via… simple diffusion => complex systems
Circulation Transport of food, wastes, and gases (O 2, CO 2 ) Performed via… –simple diffusion => complex systems
Excretion Removal of cellular wastes –Primary waste is ammonia (poisonous) Must eliminate immediately or convert into something less toxic (like urea) Performed via… –simple diffusion => complex systems
Response Respond to the environment with nerve cells –Other organisms respond, but none with nerve cells
Movement Just like it sounds (and voluntary) Usually have muscle or muscle-like tissue Attached to a single spot => fully motile
Reproduction Passing on of genetic material Most animals use sexual reproduction with haploid gametes Some are asexual
Trends in Animal Evolution There are five ways that animals change as they go from simple to complex
1. Cell Specialization & Levels of Organization As the cells of an organism get more specialized… …the more complex the organism becomes.
2. Early Embryonic Development
3. Body Symmetry – 2 main types Radial Radial –Infinite number of planes –Tend to be sessile or drifting –Usually a cylinder body shape Bilateral Bilateral –Divide the body into 2 halves –Have a left/right and usually a front/back –Allow for segmentation Same genes control segmentation and appendages in insects and humans
4. Cephalization Concentration of sense organs & nerves at the anterior end of the body The more complex the animal… –…More cephalization If different enough => qualifies as a head –This is good and positive Allows for walking/flying movements
5. Body Cavity Formation Def: fluid-filled space between the digestive tract and the body wall Important because… a)Can suspend internal organs (for safety) b)Allows for specialized regions