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Teachers Salaries in Latin America Earnings Gaps and Their Evolution at the turn of the 20th century Alejandra Mizala and Hugo Ñopo.

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Presentation on theme: "Teachers Salaries in Latin America Earnings Gaps and Their Evolution at the turn of the 20th century Alejandra Mizala and Hugo Ñopo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teachers Salaries in Latin America Earnings Gaps and Their Evolution at the turn of the 20th century Alejandra Mizala and Hugo Ñopo

2 This paper What is this paper about? To what extent are teachers earnings below (or above) those of their peers? (with a particular emphasis on : who are their peers?) What role do their socio- demographic characteristics play? How are these differences distributed? How these differences evolved? How do we do it? Methodology Harmonized and comparable measures for a group of countries in the region Matching and a decomposition that compares only individuals with the same characteristics (Ñopo, 2008) A more precise comparison of teachers and their peers

3 Findings? Insights? The extent to which teachers are underpaid is stronger than what has been previously reported in the literature. Important role for education and part-time work. Cross country heterogeneity. Job schedules and job tenure (that is, larger vacations and more job stability) also play an important role (compenssting differentials) Teachers underpayment is more pronounced among males, older workers, household heads, part- timers, informal workers, those who work in the private sector, and among those with complete tertiary education. The earnings gaps decreased during last decade, especially for preschool and primary teachers, females, younger workers, and part-timers This paper (2)

4 Psacharopoulos et al. (1996). 12 countries LA circa Mixed evidence Liang (1999). 12 countries LA circa Mixed evidence: BRA, ECU ; BOL, CHI, PAR = Hernani (2005). 17 countries LA circa Teachers 25% (except in Brasil) Argentina, Bolivia, Guatemala, México, Perú (fuera de Lima): teachers. Chile: M: teachers. F: teachers. The Literature: Mixed Evidence

5 Teachers Salaries in Latin America. How Much are They (under or over) Paid?

6 This paper: 9 countries (9 household surveys)

7 Populations of interest: school teachers and other professionals and technicians

8 Comparing apples and oranges

9 Descriptive statistics: the sociodemographic profile

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11 Relative earnings: Average school teachers hourly earnings equal to 100 for each country. Teachers earn on average more than their peers In Nicaragua teachers earn on average slightly more than half of what their peers earn

12 Relative earnings

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14 The Main Counterfactual Question What would the distribution of earnings for teachers be, in the case that their individual characteristics follow the distribution of the characteristics for their peers? Matching on characteristics

15 The Matching Algorithm Result: A sample of matched teachers and their peers with the same distribution of observable individual characteristics (but not necessarily the same distribution of earnings).

16 This Matching Approach is… Ñopo (2008) A non-parametric alternative to B-O decompositions that has advantages in terms of: Simplicity Avoiding the estimation of earnings equations Flexibility It contains all possible propensity scores Identification/Correct specification Recognizing that the supports of empirical distributions of characteristics do not completely overlap (the failure to recognize this leads to an overestimation of the unexplained component of the wage gap) Information Allowing us to compute directly the distribution of the unexplained effects, not just the average

17 Advantages/Disadvantages It is not necessary to estimate earnings equations (no functional form assumption) Better assessment. The traditional approach seems to deliver biased results when the differences in supports are not taken into account Once the matching has been done, it is straightforward to: Explore the distribution of the unexplained wage gap Explore not only wage gaps but also gaps for other labor market outcomes (participation, unemployment, unemployment spells, segregation) Curse of Dimensionality. The method does not allow us to use too many explanatory variables. It does not take into account selection into the labor markets

18 The earnings gaps: school teachers vs. other professionals and technicians

19 The earnings gaps: pre-school and elementary teachers vs. other professionals and technicians

20 The earnings gaps: secondary teachers vs. other professionals and technicians

21 What about the differences across countries?

22 The earnings gaps: school teachers vs. other professionals and technicians

23 The earnings gaps: pre-school and elementary teachers vs. other professionals and technicians

24 The earnings gaps: secondary teachers vs. other professionals and technicians

25 Distribution of the unexplained differences

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34 Distribution of the unexplained differences (1)

35 Distribution of the unexplained differences (2)

36 Distribution of the unexplained differences (3)

37 Distribution of the unexplained differences (4)

38 Distribution of the unexplained differences (5)

39 The gap is still important when considering job-break periods

40 Tenure is a differentiating factor

41 Particularly in the public sector

42 And the way teachersearnings evolve with tenure is more plain

43 Evolution of Teachers Salaries in Latin America at the turn of the 20th century

44 This paper: 7 countries (14 household surveys)

45 Descriptive statistics: the sociodemographic profile

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47 Relative earnings: Average school teachers hourly earnings equal to 100 for each country.

48 The earnings gaps: pre-school and elementary teachers vs. other professionals and technicians

49 The earnings gaps: pre-school teachers vs. other professionals and technicians

50 The earnings gaps: secondary teachers vs. other professionals and technicians

51 Distribution of the unexplained differences (1)

52 Distribution of the unexplained differences

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55 Distribution of the unexplained differences (2)

56 Distribution of the unexplained differences (3)

57 Distribution of the unexplained differences (4)

58 Summarizing Teachers earn between 30% and 70% less than their peers (the situation used to be worse a decade ago) The underpayment persists even after accounting for two important compensating differentials: job schedules and vacation periods The underpayment of more pronounced among older workers, those highly educated and part- timers Still, behind the underpayment it is likely the case that there are important differences in abilities…

59 Fuente: Instituto Colombiano para la Evaluación de la Educación (ICFES) Nota: Las barras de color rojo corresponden a las carreras relacionadas a la formación de maestros de escuela * Los Normalistas Superiores se forman para cumplir actividades docentes a nivel de primaria y secundaria Colombian new teachers and reading skills

60 MUCHAS GRACIAS


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