4CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES Based on the number and type of clauses in a sentence, there are three types of sentences:SENTENCESIMPLECOMPOUNDCOMPLEX
5CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES SIMPLE SENTENCE = SINGLE INDEPENDENT/MAIN CLAUSE, all sentence elements are realized as phrases:[The members] [did not know] [the scope of the problem].S (NP) V (VP) O (NP)COMPLEX SENTENCE = ONE INDEPENDENT/MAIN CLAUSE AND AT LEAST ONE DEPENDENT/SUBORDINATE CLAUSE, at least one sentence element is realized as a clause:[The members] [know] [that the problem has a wide scope].S (NP) V (VP) O (clause)[The members] [knew] [the answer] [when the chairman asked].S (NP) V (VP) O (NP) (A) (clause)
6CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES COMPOUND SENTENCE = AT LEAST TWO INDEPENDENT/MAIN CLAUSES:[She] [took] [the test] [in June] and [she] [passed] [it] [easily].S (NP) V (VP) O (NP) A (PP) CONJ. S(NP) V (VP) O (NP) (A) (AdvP)[Mary] [likes] [dogs] but [she] [doesn’t like] [hamsters].S (NP) V (VP) O (NP) CONJ. S(NP) V (VP) O (NP)
7PAGE 166 – exercise 1 (a-c) COMPOUND SENTENCE COMPLEX SENTENCE SIMPLE SENTENCE“who was buying a paper” is a postmodification of the noun “man”, so the SUBJECT is realized as a NOUN PHRASE
17PAGE 166 – exercise 2 (l-o) l) Home is where the heart is. m) Jill hurt her arm playing tennis.n) The chairman of the committee turned traitor, which was unexpected.o) To cut a long story short, they eventually broke up.ADVERBIAL(ADVERBIAL)(ADVERBIAL)(ADVERBIAL)
18PAGE 167 – exercise 3NOW, AN EXERCISE TO PRACTICE SYNTACTIC RELATIONS OF COORDINATION AND SUBORDINATION
20SUBORDINATION vs. COORDINATION Both SUBORDINATION and COORDINATION are processes of linking of at least two syntactic units.However, they are different HIERARCHICALLY:SUBORDINATION: syntactic units being linked are NOT on the same syntactic level.COORDINATION: syntactic units being linked ARE ON THE SAME syntactic level.Why do we talk about SYNTACTIC UNITS and not CLAUSES?Because, both CLAUES and PHRASES can be COORDINATED (but, phrases CANNOT be SUBORDINATED)
21SUBORDINATION OF CLAUSES SUBORDINATION (← OR →) is a non-symmetrical relation holding between 2 clauses in such a way that one is a constituent of the other (MAIN/MATRIX CLAUSE has SUBORDINATE CLAUSE as ITS CONSTITUENT).They think that she can succeed if she tries hard enough.S V Oconj. S V (ADV)conj. S V (ADV)-----THIS MEANS THAT SUBORDINATION IS RECURSIVE:A subordinate clause itself can have as its constituent another subordinate clause (that she can succeed if she tries hard enough).
22SUBORDINATION OF CLAUSES The relationship of subordination can be represented graphically with a TREE DIAGRAM:They thinkthat she can succeedif she tries hard enough
23COORDINATIONCOORDINATION (↔) is a symmetrical relation holding between 2 clauses which are of EQUAL STATUS.Why do we mention EQUAL STATUS?Because, the two coordinated clauses can be either two MAIN/INDEPENDENT clauses (=COMPOUND sentence), or two SUBORDINATE/DEPENDENT clauses.
25→ SUBORDINATION ↔ COORDINATION PAGE 167 – exercise 3 (a, b, c)S V O ADV[conj.→ S V Cs] ↔S V O ADV[conj. → S V Cs]S V O ADV[conj.→ S V Cs ↔ conj.→S V O]S V O[conj.→ S V O[→O S V] ADV[conj.→SV (ADV)]]
26PAGE 167 – exercise 3 (d, e, f) ADV[conj.→ S V O ] S V O → SUBORDINATION ↔ COORDINATIONPAGE 167 – exercise 3 (d, e, f)ADV[conj.→ S V O ] S V OS V O[conj.→ S V O ADV[conj.→ S V O ]S V O ADV[conj. → S V O] ↔ S V O[→ V O]
28FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES Dependent clauses can function as:SYNTACTIC CONSTITUENTSNOMINAL CLAUSES (functioning as S, O, C)ADVERBIAL CLAUSES (functioning as ADV(erbial)s)PARTS OF OTHER PHRASES (postmodification of NP, postmodification of AP, complement of PP, postmodification of AdvP) e.g.:Relative clausesComparative clauses
29FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES [He did the right thing.]I know [that he did the right thing].She will be happy [providing he did the right thing].[The fact [that he did the right thing]] is undisputable.The public pressed him [so hard [that he did the right thing]].Od(A)Inside NPInside AdvP
30NOW, MORE EXERCISES ON COMPLEX SENTENCES… PAGE 167 – EXERCISE 4PAGE 168 – EXERCISE 5NOW, MORE EXERCISES ON COMPLEX SENTENCES…
31PAGE 167 – exercise 4 (a, b) Subordinate: ADVERBIAL (finite) MAIN Subordinate2: O - NOMINAL(finite, coordinated)Subordinate1: O – NOMINAL (finite, coordinated)MAIN
32PAGE 167 – exercise 4 (c, d, e) MAIN (coordinated) Subordinate: ADVERBIAL (finite)MAIN (coordinated)Subordinate:ADVERBIAL (finite)MAINSubordinate:ADVERBIAL (verbless)Subordinate: O – NOMINAL (non-finite, inf.)MAINSubordinate: O – NOMINAL (finite, wh)
44AN EXERCISE TO TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE ON LINKERS PAGE 169 – exercise 8AN EXERCISE TO TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE ON LINKERS
45PAGE 169 – exercise 8 (a-c) You should retire before you are too old. He gave an order that John be transformed into managing director. ORHe gave an order that John should be transformed into …It is possible that some people may/might blame you.
46PAGE 169 – exercise 8 (d-f)She said that he/she must have been waiting since that morning.If you are skeptical, you cannot learn.If I had not examined the photograph myself, I would have thought it was a fake.
47PAGE 169 – exercise 8 (g-i)Although I really disliked the questionnaire, I liked the interview.As they do not exercise, some people become really unfit.Some runners train so hard that they have great pain.