PRACTICE CLASS #10 (#11) 2012-05-29/30 Complex Sentence PRACTICE CLASS #10 (#11) 2012-05-29/30.

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PRACTICE CLASS #10 (#11) 2012-05-29/30
Complex Sentence PRACTICE CLASS #10 (#11) /30

FIRST, AN EXCERSISES TO PRACTICE TYPES OF SENTENCES!
PAGE 166 – exercise 1 FIRST, AN EXCERSISES TO PRACTICE TYPES OF SENTENCES!

BEFORE THAT, SOME THEORY…

CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES
Based on the number and type of clauses in a sentence, there are three types of sentences: SENTENCE SIMPLE COMPOUND COMPLEX

CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES
SIMPLE SENTENCE = SINGLE INDEPENDENT/MAIN CLAUSE, all sentence elements are realized as phrases: [The members] [did not know] [the scope of the problem]. S (NP) V (VP) O (NP) COMPLEX SENTENCE = ONE INDEPENDENT/MAIN CLAUSE AND AT LEAST ONE DEPENDENT/SUBORDINATE CLAUSE, at least one sentence element is realized as a clause: [The members] [know] [that the problem has a wide scope]. S (NP) V (VP) O (clause) [The members] [knew] [the answer] [when the chairman asked]. S (NP) V (VP) O (NP) (A) (clause)

CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES
COMPOUND SENTENCE = AT LEAST TWO INDEPENDENT/MAIN CLAUSES: [She] [took] [the test] [in June] and [she] [passed] [it] [easily]. S (NP) V (VP) O (NP) A (PP) CONJ. S(NP) V (VP) O (NP) (A) (AdvP) [Mary] [likes] [dogs] but [she] [doesn’t like] [hamsters]. S (NP) V (VP) O (NP) CONJ. S(NP) V (VP) O (NP)

PAGE 166 – exercise 1 (a-c) COMPOUND SENTENCE COMPLEX SENTENCE
SIMPLE SENTENCE “who was buying a paper” is a postmodification of the noun “man”, so the SUBJECT is realized as a NOUN PHRASE

PAGE 166 – exercise 1 (d-f) COMPLEX SENTENCE COMPLEX SENTENCE

PAGE 166 – exercise 1 (g-i) COMPOUND SENTENCE COMPLEX SENTENCE
SIMPLE SENTENCE “when he will come” is a postmodification of the ADJ “sure”, so the sentence is simple: S (NP) V (VP) Cs (AP)

PAGE 166 – exercise 1 (j-l) COMPLEX SENTENCE SIMPLE SENTENCE
“of working so hard” is a postmodification of the ADJ “tired”, so the sentence is simple: S (NP) V (VP) Cs (AP) COMPLEX SENTENCE

PAGE 166 – exercise 1 (m-n) COMPLEX SENTENCE COMPOUND SENTENCE

NOW, AN EXERCISE TO TEST YOUR GENERAL KNOWLEDGE ON COMPLEX SENTENCES
PAGE 166 – exercise 2 NOW, AN EXERCISE TO TEST YOUR GENERAL KNOWLEDGE ON COMPLEX SENTENCES

PAGE 166 – exercise 2 (a-c) OBJECT OBJECT (ADVERBIAL)

PAGE 166 – exercise 2 (d-f) DIRECT OBJECT SUBJECT (ADVERBIAL)

PAGE 166 – exercise 2 (g-i) SUBJECT OBJECT (ADVERBIAL)

PAGE 166 – exercise 2 (l-o) l) Home is where the heart is.
m) Jill hurt her arm playing tennis. n) The chairman of the committee turned traitor, which was unexpected. o) To cut a long story short, they eventually broke up. ADVERBIAL (ADVERBIAL) (ADVERBIAL) (ADVERBIAL)

PAGE 167 – exercise 3 NOW, AN EXERCISE TO PRACTICE SYNTACTIC RELATIONS OF COORDINATION AND SUBORDINATION

BEFORE THAT, SOME THEORY…

SUBORDINATION vs. COORDINATION
Both SUBORDINATION and COORDINATION are processes of linking of at least two syntactic units. However, they are different HIERARCHICALLY: SUBORDINATION: syntactic units being linked are NOT on the same syntactic level. COORDINATION: syntactic units being linked ARE ON THE SAME syntactic level. Why do we talk about SYNTACTIC UNITS and not CLAUSES? Because, both CLAUES and PHRASES can be COORDINATED (but, phrases CANNOT be SUBORDINATED)

SUBORDINATION OF CLAUSES
SUBORDINATION (← OR →) is a non-symmetrical relation holding between 2 clauses in such a way that one is a constituent of the other (MAIN/MATRIX CLAUSE has SUBORDINATE CLAUSE as ITS CONSTITUENT). They think that she can succeed if she tries hard enough. S V O conj. S V (ADV) conj. S V (ADV)----- THIS MEANS THAT SUBORDINATION IS RECURSIVE: A subordinate clause itself can have as its constituent another subordinate clause (that she can succeed if she tries hard enough).

SUBORDINATION OF CLAUSES
The relationship of subordination can be represented graphically with a TREE DIAGRAM: They think that she can succeed if she tries hard enough

COORDINATION COORDINATION (↔) is a symmetrical relation holding between 2 clauses which are of EQUAL STATUS. Why do we mention EQUAL STATUS? Because, the two coordinated clauses can be either two MAIN/INDEPENDENT clauses (=COMPOUND sentence), or two SUBORDINATE/DEPENDENT clauses.

COORDINATION AND SHE TOOK THE TEST SHE PASSED IT

→ SUBORDINATION ↔ COORDINATION
PAGE 167 – exercise 3 (a, b, c) S V O ADV[conj.→ S V Cs] ↔S V O ADV[conj. → S V Cs] S V O ADV[conj.→ S V Cs ↔ conj.→S V O] S V O[conj.→ S V O[→O S V] ADV[conj.→SV (ADV)]]

PAGE 167 – exercise 3 (d, e, f) ADV[conj.→ S V O ] S V O
→ SUBORDINATION ↔ COORDINATION PAGE 167 – exercise 3 (d, e, f) ADV[conj.→ S V O ] S V O S V O[conj.→ S V O ADV[conj.→ S V O ] S V O ADV[conj. → S V O] ↔ S V O[→ V O]

NOW, MORE THEORY…

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES
Dependent clauses can function as: SYNTACTIC CONSTITUENTS NOMINAL CLAUSES (functioning as S, O, C) ADVERBIAL CLAUSES (functioning as ADV(erbial)s) PARTS OF OTHER PHRASES (postmodification of NP, postmodification of AP, complement of PP, postmodification of AdvP) e.g.: Relative clauses Comparative clauses

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES
[He did the right thing.] I know [that he did the right thing]. She will be happy [providing he did the right thing]. [The fact [that he did the right thing]] is undisputable. The public pressed him [so hard [that he did the right thing]]. Od (A) Inside NP Inside AdvP

NOW, MORE EXERCISES ON COMPLEX SENTENCES…
PAGE 167 – EXERCISE 4 PAGE 168 – EXERCISE 5 NOW, MORE EXERCISES ON COMPLEX SENTENCES…

PAGE 167 – exercise 4 (a, b) Subordinate: ADVERBIAL (finite) MAIN
Subordinate2: O - NOMINAL(finite, coordinated) Subordinate1: O – NOMINAL (finite, coordinated) MAIN

PAGE 167 – exercise 4 (c, d, e) MAIN (coordinated)
Subordinate: ADVERBIAL (finite) MAIN (coordinated) Subordinate: ADVERBIAL (finite) MAIN Subordinate: ADVERBIAL (verbless) Subordinate: O – NOMINAL (non-finite, inf.) MAIN Subordinate: O – NOMINAL (finite, wh)

PAGE 167/8 – exercise 4 (f, g, h) MAIN
Subordinate2: ADVERBIAL (finite, coordinated) Subordinate1: ADVERBIAL (finite, coordinated) MAIN (coordinated) MAIN (coordinated) Subordinate: ADVERBIAL (non-finite, inf.) Subordinate: O - NONMINAL (non-finite, inf.) Subordinate1: ADVERBIAL (non-finite, -ing) MAIN Subordinate2: O(finite)

PAGE 168 – exercise 5 (a-e) S – NOMINAL CLAUSE (fin)
Complement of NP – RELATIVE CLAUSE (restrictive) (fin) Od – NOMINAL CLAUSE (fin) Cs – NOMINAL CL. (fin) Od – NOMINAL CL. (non-fin) Od – NOMINAL CL. (non-fin) Od – NOMINAL CL. (non-fin.)

PAGE 168 – exercise 5 (f-j) (A) – adjunct (non-fin.)
Od – NOMINAL CL. (non-fin.) Od – NOMINAL CL. (fin) Complement of PP – NOMINAL CL. (fin) Complement of NP – RELATIVE CL. (restrictive) (fin) Oi – NOMINAL CL. (fin) Add in (I): properly qualified for the job AS “non-finite complement of NP (no one)” Complement of PP – NOMINAL CL. (fin) Complement of NP - NOMINAL CL. (non-fin) Complement of NP – RELATIVE CL. (restrictive) (fin)

PAGE 168 – exercise 5 (k-o) Complement of PP – NOMINAL CL. (fin)
(A) – disjunct (fin) Od – NOMINAL CL. (non-fin) S/Cs – NOMINAL (fin) Od – NOMINAL (fin)

PAGE 168 – exercise 5 (p-u) Complement of AP – NOMINAL CL. (fin)
Od (coordinated) – NOMINAL (fin) Od (coordinated, verbless) Od – NOMINAL (fin) Od – NOMINAL (fin) Od – NOMINAL (non-fin) (A) – adjunct (fin)

PAGE 168 – exercise 5 (v-z) (A) – adjunct (fin) (A) – adjunct (fin)

MORE COMPLEX SENTENCES

PAGE 168/9 – exercise 6 (a-d) COMPARATIVE CLAUSE, Comp. of AP (finite)
RELATIVE CLAUSE (restrictive) Comp. of NP (finite) RELATIVE CLAUSE (restrictive) Comp. of NP (finite) RELATIVE (non-restrictive) Comp. of NP (finite)

PAGE 169 – exercise 6 (e-h) RELATIVE CL (restrictive)
Comp. of NP (finite) COMPARATIVE CLAUSE Comp. of NP/AP (finite) NOMINAL WH CLAUSE Comp. of PP (finite) NOMINAL CLAUSE Comp. of AP (non-finite)

PAGE 169 – exercise 6 (i-k) APPOSITIVE modification (Nominal THAT) of NP (finite) ELIDED COMPARATIVE CLAUSE complement of AdvP (finite) COMPARATIVE CLAUSE modification of AP (finite)

PAGE 169 – exercise 7

PAGE 169 – exercise 8 AN EXERCISE TO TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE ON LINKERS

PAGE 169 – exercise 8 (a-c) You should retire before you are too old.
He gave an order that John be transformed into managing director. OR He gave an order that John should be transformed into … It is possible that some people may/might blame you.

PAGE 169 – exercise 8 (d-f) She said that he/she must have been waiting since that morning. If you are skeptical, you cannot learn. If I had not examined the photograph myself, I would have thought it was a fake.

PAGE 169 – exercise 8 (g-i) Although I really disliked the questionnaire, I liked the interview. As they do not exercise, some people become really unfit. Some runners train so hard that they have great pain.

THE END

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