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AP LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION #grammarisfun #grammarisntreallyfunbutclickersare
Phrases A group of related words that is missing a subject or verb Review from last year…. Prepositional: In the middle of the room Participle: Walking in the hallways, I tripped. Gerund: Watching the Bears play today was depressing. Appositive: My sinuses, the source of all my misery, apparently hate me. Infinitive: He loves to visit pumpkin patches in the fall.
Clauses Independent clause= stands alone I walked. The mom is kind. Dependent clause= Cannot stand alone Also called a subordinating clause Often begin with a subordinating conjunction After I came home. Before I take the test. Because you are so intelligent.
Subordinating Conjunctions BA WAWBITS! Before, after, when, although, while, because, if, that, since
I was singing driving home from school. 1. Phrase 2. Dependent Clause 3. Independent Clause
He is excited to attend the concert on Friday. 1. Phrase 2. Dependent Clause 3. Independent Clause
They were coming home after they went to the birthday party. 1. Phrase 2. Dependent Clause 3. Independent Clause
Which of the following is a phrase? 1. Before the world ended. 2. If it ends. 3. Forgetting to bring my homework. 4. When I come home.
Which of the following is a dependent clause? 1. While running the mile. 2. If I forget the vocabulary words. 3. Amy ate her lunch. 4. During the middle of the night.
Participant Scores PointsParticipantPointsParticipant 500Esser, Monika 500Gastfield, Roland 500Greene, Tyler 500Hupp, Will 500Koenig, Emma
But wait…theres more!!!! Four Types of Sentences!!!!! Think CLAUSES. PHRASES dont count. At all. Period. Pretend they dont exist. They are invisible. Ghosts. 1 Independent Clause= Simple 2+ Independent Clauses= Compound 1 Independent Clause and 1+ Dependent Clause= Complex 2+ Independent Clauses and 1+ Dependent Clause= Compound Complex
How many types of grammatical sentences are there? 1. 1 2. 2 3. 3 4. 4
Use CONJUNCTIONS to help! Conjunction junction, whats your function? To help me pass my grammar quiz! Coordinating Conjunctions= FANBOYS For And Nor But Or Yet So (these are the only ones) Subordinating Conjunctions= BA WAWBITS Before After When Although While Because If That Since (and more- you will be able to recognize them once you get used to their sentence placement)
Which of the following is a coordinating conjunction? 1. When 2. Because 3. For 4. Although
Which of the following is a subordinating conjunction? 1. And 2. But 3. Or 4. If
Your Guide If you see a FANBOYS….suspect COMPOUND If you see a BA WAWBITS….suspect COMPLEX Just go through a couple of tests first
Compound Sentences: FANBOYS The test: Make sure there are two complete sentences (two independent clauses) Two independent clauses joined with a FANBOYS or a semi-colon A semi-colons only job is joining two independent clauses Examples: Tina felt sick, so she went to the nurse. Harrison was my friend, and he knew Melissa. I love tomatoes, but I hate ketchup. Ice cream is my favorite food; I could eat it every day.
FANBOYS but simple? Sometimes a FANBOYS only joins two words or two phrases…then it is simple Examples: Maria and Jon were in the play. I enjoy sleeping in on the weekends and going to see movies. The pizza was not too hot but not too cold either.
Gracie is going crazy and running all over my condo. 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound- Complex
Wendy knew Carlos five years ago, but he didnt know her. 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound- Complex
Complex= BA WAWBITS BA WAWBITS introduce dependent clauses If you see one, suspect complex Put it through a quick test first- make sure it is actually a clause (NOT just a phrase)
Real Complex Sentences Although I was sick, I still ate dinner. She was hungry because she worked out. Kelly thought about the plan while she was on the plane. When he got home from the trip, he took a nap. If we all get an A+ on our quiz, we will eat pie.
FAKE Complex Sentences If not, at least we know we tried. While swimming, I drowned. I was tired because of the dance. Although fun, soccer is really dangerous. There are simple!
If we visit Paris, we will see the Eiffel Tower. 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound- Complex
While doing homework, I listened to music. 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound- Complex
So whats left? Simple Sentences: No conjunctions at all OR a sentence that fails the compound or complex tests In the middle of the room, the girl sat sadly, wishing for a vacation. Compound-Complex Sentences: A sentence that has a FANBOYS and a BA WAWBITS and passes the two tests While he was eating, he got sick because the tuna was bad.
She was happy that she won. 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound- Complex
Drake was upset, for he knew Sarah was mad. 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. CC
Ms. Ratliff, my English teacher, has a dog. 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound- Complex
While swimming in the lake, the swan looked so graceful. 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound- Complex
They were excited because it was almost Christmas, so they wanted to go shopping. 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound- Complex
Participant Scores PointsParticipantPointsParticipant 1300Gastfield, Roland 1300Greene, Tyler 1200Esser, Monika 1200Hupp, Will 1200Koenig, Maddie
Weird Complex Sentences The Invisible That I am happy you won the game. She was sad he didnt bring home dinner. The W Clauses Emmie, who is my best friend, is an architect. The house, which was vacant for years, has a new owner. Does anyone know who left the phone on the desk?
After running for 5 miles, Sophia felt tired and frustrated at her poor time. 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound-Complex
Olivia wants to visit France, but her husband hates to fly because he cant stand enclosed places. 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound-Complex
She was happy she won. 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound- Complex
The computer was broken, but the cell phone still worked even after the storm. 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound-Complex
I toured Paris with Emma who had been living in the city for several weeks. 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound-Complex
Loose and Periodic Sentences Two more ways to classify sentences A DIFFERENT classification system than the four grammatical sentences A loose sentence: The extra information of a sentence is at the end A periodic sentence: The extra information of a sentence is at the beginning or in the middle Its a continuum.
Examples Ms. Ratliff drove home sadly, discouraged by the way her AP students made fun of her shoes. Loose My childhood home, a beautiful cabin built on the edges of Kentucky Lake, no longer exists. Periodic After sorting through piles of letters and reading old cards, I miss college even more. Periodic
Swimming in the lake, the swan looked so graceful. 1. Loose 2. Periodic 3. Complex 4. Compound
Spring, the season of rebirth and awakening, is a welcome relief from winter. 1. Loose 2. Periodic
The party ended after the guests went home and the mess was cleaned up. 1. Loose 2. Periodic
Tim, who was my student a few years ago, is now in college. 1. Loose 2. Simple 3. Compound 4. Complex
Parallel Structure Making sure that all parts of a sentence are balanced. Look for a list or series (or items on two sides of a sentence). Make sure all items in that series are balanced. Examples: Lisa enjoys playing soccer, watching movies, and reading books. Franks favorite outfits include his orange hoodie, his ripped jeans, and his brown sandals.
They said he scavenged for food by digging roots and bulbs, drank from streams, and runs on all fours. A. NO CHANGE B. is running C. ran D. had run
I like riding horses and to hike in the mountains. A. NO CHANGE B. riding horses and hiking C. riding horses and to go on hikes D. to ride horses and hiking