Presentation on theme: "COMPLEX SENTENCE. A complex sentence is a sentence containing an independent clause and one or more dependent clause. Like a compound sentence, a complex."— Presentation transcript:
A complex sentence is a sentence containing an independent clause and one or more dependent clause. Like a compound sentence, a complex sentence has an independent clause; however, the dependent clause (or subordinate) clause is introduced by a subordinate conjunction, which is sometimes referred as a clause a clause signal. Complex sentences employing adverbial clause An adverbial clause, as the name suggests, functions as an adverb and relates to the verb in the main or independent clause because it modifies the verb. The adverbial clause modifies or explain eight different aspects of the verbs, i.e.: 1) time, 2) place, 3) manner, 4) comparison, 5) reason, 6) result, 7) condition, and 8) contrast/concession. The subordinate conjunction of the clause will indicate its meaning and to which type of adverbial clause it belongs.
Adverbial clause of time Subordinate conjunctions used are: when, whenever, while, since, after, before, until, till, etc. 1.Jono was working in the rice field when the buffalo attacked him. 2.We will keep on watering the paddy until they enter the reproductive stage. 3.Germinating seeds consume the endosperm for energy source before roots can function normally. 4.We grow peanuts, eggplants and sweet potatoes since we moved here two years ago. 5.In a glasshouse you can grow the plants whenever you want to.
Adverbial clause of place Subordinate conjunctions used are: where, wherever, etc. 1.The fusarium wilt disease usually occurs in place where there is high temperature along with high humidity. 2.Ferns grow well in forest floor where rain falls abundantly. 3.The spores of fungi can germinate wherever they can get water and carbohydrate supply. 4.During dry season many animals including birds and rabbits migrate to places where they can get enough food. 5.The plant pathologists will carry out research wherever they can get adequate facilities.
Adverbial clause of manner Subordinate conjunctions used are: as, like, just like, as if, etc. 1.Farmers set up several scarecrows on their rice field as if there are so many birds that should be kept away from stealing the rice. 2.Jono did the fruit picking very well as he was instructed by the manager. 3.We always take care of the plant like other farmers do. Adverbial clause of reason/purpose Subordinate conjunctions used are: as, because, because of, since, due to, for, so that, in order, etc. 1.Plants grown under low light intensity are taller than those grown under high light intensity because of auxin activity is higher under low light intensity. 2.The flowers soon degenerate due to high temperature. 3.Many rice fields are flooded with water because the dam is broken.
Adverbial clause of results Subordinate conjunctions used are: so …… that, such ……. that, etc. 1.The disease attack was so severe that caused high production lost. 2.The soil is so poor that we can not grow any plant on it. 3.It was such a beautiful orchid that I could not see it died because of high concentration of fertilizer. Adverbial clause of condition Subordinate conjunctions used are: if, whether, unless, provided (that), on condition (that), etc. 1.Plants will grow better if they are well fertilized. 2.The quarantine officer is checking the imported plants to see if there is contaminated plant. 3.We need to know whether the irrigation system still works well or require fixing.
Adverbial clause of contrast/concern Subordinate conjunctions used are: although, though, even though, no matter how, if, even if, etc. 1.You should spray the plants regularly even if they look very healthy. 2.Tomatoes can grow well and produce high quality of fruits if they are watered and fertilized well. 3.Mycoplasm is very difficult to overcome although the growing area are kept clear of weeds.
Complex sentences employing adjective clause As it has been discussed, an adjective modifies a noun or pronoun. Therefore, as the name suggests, an adjective clause is a dependent clause that function as an adjective, and it modifies noun or pronoun. The adjective clause modifies or explain five different aspects of the nouns: person, thing, time, place, reason. The subordinate conjunction or clause signals fir adjective clause are: who, whose, whom, that for person; Joy Thompson, who reclassified Clianthus formosus into S. formosa stated that the genus Swainsona has a uniform chromosome number of 2n = 32 which, that for thing ; The endosperm, which is in the inner part of the seeds, provides foods during seed germination when for time. where for place; The seed bed, where they prepared the seedlings was also destroyed by the flood. why for reason.
Complex sentences employing noun clause As the name suggests, a noun clause functions as a noun. They are used as the subject of a verb, as the object of a verb, as the object of a preposition, as a subjective complement, and as an appositive. The following are some of the clause signals or introductory word for noun clauses: how that whether how far what which how long whatever who how many when whoever how often whenever whom how old where whose how soon wherever why