Presentation on theme: "Atkins & de Paula: Atkins’ Physical Chemistry 9e"— Presentation transcript:
1Atkins & de Paula: Atkins’ Physical Chemistry 9e Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics
2Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics REACTIVE ENCOUNTERS22.1 Collision theory rate constant, kr encounter rate minimum energy requirement steric requirement.22.1(a) Collision rates in gases collision density, the number of (A,B) collisions in a region of the sample in an interval of time divided by the volume of the region and the duration of the interval:
3Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics collision cross-section22.1(b) The energy requirement
6Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.1(c) The steric requirementsteric factor, P = σ*/σ. reactive cross-section, σ*, the area within which a molecule must approach another molecule for reaction to occur.rate constant from collision theory,harpoon mechanism, a process in which electron transfer precedes atom extraction.(Exercise Example 22.2!)
7Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.1(d) The RRK model The Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel model (RRK model), a model that takes into account the distribution of energy over all the bonds in a molecule.Lindemann-Hinshelwood mechanismRRK modelsExp. data for unimolecular isomerization of trans-CHD=CHD
8Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.2 Diffusion-controlled reactionscage effect, the lingering of one molecule near another on account of the hindering presence of solvent molecules.
9Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.2(a) Classes of reaction diffusion-controlled limit, a reaction in which the rate is controlled by the rate at which reactant molecules encounter each other in solution. activation-controlled limit, a reaction in solution in which the rate is controlled by the rate of accumulating sufficient energy to react.
10Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.2(b) Diffusion and reaction
11Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.3 The material balance equation
12Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics TRANSITION STATE THEORYtransition state theory (or activated complex theory, ACT), a theory of rate constants for elementary bimolecular reactions.transition state, the arrangement of atoms in an activated complex that must be achieved in order for the products to form.22.4 The Eyring equationOur task!!
13Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.4(a) The rate of decay of the activated complextransmission coefficient, κ, the constant of proportionality between the rate of passage of the complex (k‡) through the transition state and the vibrational frequency along the reaction coordinate (‡); k‡ = κ‡.22.4(b) The concentration of the activated complex
14Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.4(c) The rate constant22.4(d) The collision of structureless particles
15Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.4(e) Observation and manipulation of the activated complexNa+I- decayPhotoreaction of IH∙∙∙OCO van der Waals complexIH∙∙∙OCO HOCO resembles the activated complex of H + CO2[HOCO] ‡ HO+CO
16Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.5 Thermodynamic aspects22.5(a) Activation parameters correlation analysis, a procedure in which ln K (=-ΔrGθ/RT) is plotted against ln k (proportional to -Δ‡G /RT). liner free energy relation (LFER), a linear relation obtained in correlation analysis; reaction becomes thermodynamically more favorable.
17Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.5(b) Reactions between ions kinetic salt effect, the effect of a change in ionic strength on the rate constant of a reaction.Exercise Example 22.3!
18Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics THE DYNAMICS OF MOLECULAR COLLISIONS22.6 Reactive collisions22.6(a) Experimental probes of reactive collisions infrared chemiluminescence, a process in which vibrationally excited molecules emit infrared radiation as they return to their ground states.IR chemiluminescenceO+CSCO+S
19Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), a technique in which a laser is used to excite a product molecule from a specific vibration–rotation level and then the intensity of fluorescence is monitored.
20Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics multiphoton ionization (MPI), a process in which the absorption of several photons by a molecule results in ionization.resonant multiphoton ionization (REMPI), a technique in which one or more photons promote a molecule to an electronically excited state and then additional photons are used to generate ions from the excited state.A laser pulse excites electrons in a semiconductor surface (10 layers C 60 on a Cu(111) substrate) which in turn pass their energy to adsorbed molecules (NO). REMPI measures the motion of the desorbed molecules.
21Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics reaction product imaging, a technique for the determination of the angular distribution of products.Reaction products detected in the Streamer Chamber when a 1.1-GeV-per-nucleon beam of holmium-165 collided with a holmium-165 target at the Bevalac.
22Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.7 Potential energy surfaces potential energy surface, the potential energy as a function of the relative positions of all the atoms taking part in the reaction.HA + HB-HC HA-HB + HC
23Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics saddle point, the highest point on a potential energy surface encountered along the reaction coordinate.HA + HB-HC HA-HB + HC
24Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics saddle point, the highest point on a potential energy surface encountered along the reaction coordinate.HA + HB-HC HA-HB + HC
25Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics Example of potential energy surfaces.Ultrafast reaction dynamics of the complete photo cycle of an indolylfulgimide studied by absorption, fluorescence and vibrational spectroscopy
26Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.8 Some results from experiments and calculationsHA + HB-HC HA-HB + HC
27Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics HA + HB-HC HA-HB + HC
28Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.8(a) The direction of attack and separation300
29Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.8(b) Attractive and repulsive surfaces attractive surface, a potential energy surface in which the saddle point occurs early on the reaction coordinate. repulsive surface, a potential energy surface in which the saddle point occurs late on the reaction coordinate.H + Cl2 HCl +Clattractive surfacerepulsive surface
30Chapter 22: Reaction Dynamics 22.8(c) Classical trajectories direct mode process, a bimolecular process in which the switch of partners takes place very rapidly. complex mode process, a bimolecular process in which the activated complex survives for an extended period.direct mode processcomplex mode process