Presentation on theme: "Writing Complex Sentences. Independent and Dependent Clauses An independent clause contains a subject, verb, and makes sense when it stands by itself."— Presentation transcript:
Writing Complex Sentences
Independent and Dependent Clauses An independent clause contains a subject, verb, and makes sense when it stands by itself. oThe childs endless crying is very disturbing to her parents. oColds, flu, and other respiratory infections happen frequently in the winter and cause absences from work. oJames got a cup of coffee and turned on his computer.
Independent and Dependent Clauses A dependent clause contains a subject(s) and verb(s), but it does not make sense when it stands by itself because it begins with a subordinating conjunction that is supposed to join it to an independent clause. oBecause she has had a terrible cold all week oWhen I got to the office and checked my email this morning oAfter Maria and Hector waited for an hour in the doctors office
The Simple Sentence oA simple sentence is one independent clause. oAn independent clause ends with a period or semicolon.
The Compound Sentence A compound sentence is made up of two or more simple sentences joined by one of the following: oA comma and a coordinating conjunction oA semicolon oA semicolon and a conjunctive adverb or transitional expression
Coordinating Conjunctions Remember the coordinating conjunctions by the acronym: FANBOYS F for A and N nor B but O or Y yet S so
Conjunctive Adverbs and Transitional Expressions oA conjunctive adverb is a word that connects two independent clauses and shows the relationship between the ideas. oI wanted to cash my check; unfortunately, the bank was closed. oA transitional expression is a phrase that shows that relationship. oI could use a job; on the other hand, I like having free time.
Examples of Compound Sentences oA comma and a coordinating conjunction: I like to study grammar, and I love this class. oA semicolon: I like to study grammar; I love this class. oA semicolon and a conjunctive adverb or transitional expression: I like to study grammar; therefore, I love this class.
The Complex Sentence oA complex sentence is a complete thought (independent clause) to which an incomplete thought (dependent clause) has been added. o A coordinating conjunction joins the dependent clause to the independent clause. oBecause I like to study grammar, I love this class. oI love this class because I like to study grammar.
The dependent clause needs the rest of the sentence for support. Because you love me, I love you. Dependent clause Independent clause Complex Sentence
A dependent clause contains a subject and verb. It does not express a complete thought because it begins with a subordinating conjunction. A dependent clause is also called a subordinate clause. Dependent clauses, like babies, cannot stand alone. Because you love me. Fragment! Dependent Clause
Punctuation for Complex Sentences Commas are used to join a dependent clause to an independent clause if the dependent clause comes first in the sentence. The comma must follow the dependent clause. As I walked down the hallway, I could hear the echo of my footsteps.
Punctuation for Complex Sentences No comma is used when the dependent clause comes after the independent clause. Then, the clauses are joined without any punctuation. I could hear the echo of my footsteps as I walked down the hallway.
Punctuation for Complex Sentences Since dependent clauses are only part of a sentence, you can never use a semicolon to connect them to another sentence. Semicolons are only used between complete sentences. oI have loved you for years ; although I never admitted it. oI have loved you for years although I never admitted it. OK No!
Common Subordinating (Dependent) Conjunctions See Foundations First, p. 187 aftereven ifnow thatthatwhere althougheven though oncethoughwhereas asifrather thanunlesswherever as ifwheneversinceuntilwhether becausein order that so thatwhenwhich beforethanin casewhile
The Compound-Complex Sentence oA compound-complex sentence is the last and most complicated type of sentence. oIt contains at least one dependent clause and at least two independent clauses.
A dependent clause added to two or more independent clauses. Because we are a family, I love you, and you love me. Independent clauses Dependent clause Compound-Complex Sentence
SimpleCompound Complex Compound- complex Since every sentence in English fits into one of these four categories,
You now know everything you need to know oto write anything you want to write, oany way you want to write it, oand still get the punctuation right each time!