2Independent and Dependent Clauses An independent clause contains a subject, verb, and makes sense when it stands by itself.The child’s endless crying is very disturbing to her parents.Colds, flu, and other respiratory infections happen frequently in the winter and cause absences from work.James got a cup of coffee and turned on his computer.
3Independent and Dependent Clauses A dependent clause contains a subject(s) andverb(s), but it does not make sense when itstands by itself because it begins with a subordinating conjunction that is supposed to joinit to an independent clause.Because she has had a terrible cold all weekWhen I got to the office and checked my this morningAfter Maria and Hector waited for an hour in the doctor’s office
4The Simple Sentence A simple sentence is one independent clause. An independent clause ends with a period or semicolon.
5The Compound Sentence A compound sentence is made up of two or more simple sentences joined by one of thefollowing:A comma and a coordinating conjunctionA semicolonA semicolon and a conjunctive adverb or transitional expression
6Coordinating Conjunctions Remember the coordinating conjunctions by theacronym:FANBOYSF forA andN norB butO orY yetS so
7Conjunctive Adverbs and Transitional Expressions A conjunctive adverb is a word that connects two independent clauses and shows the relationship between the ideas.I wanted to cash my check; unfortunately, the bank was closed.A transitional expression is a phrase that shows that relationship.I could use a job; on the other hand, I like having free time.
8Examples of Compound Sentences A comma and a coordinating conjunction:I like to study grammar, and I love this class.A semicolon:I like to study grammar; I love this class.A semicolon and a conjunctive adverb or transitional expression:I like to study grammar; therefore, I love this class.
9The Complex SentenceA complex sentence is a complete thought (independent clause) to which an incomplete thought (dependent clause) has been added.A coordinating conjunction joins the dependent clause to the independent clause.Because I like to study grammar, I love this class.I love this class because I like to study grammar.
10Complex Sentence Because you love me, I love you. Dependent clause Independent clauseThe dependent clause needs the rest of the sentence for support.
11Dependent Clause Fragment! Because you love me. A dependent clause contains a subject and verb.It does not express a complete thought because it begins with a subordinating conjunction.A dependent clause is also called a subordinate clause.Dependent clauses, like babies, cannot stand alone.
12Punctuation for Complex Sentences Commas are used to join a dependent clause toan independent clause if the dependent clausecomes first in the sentence. The comma mustfollow the dependent clause.As I walked down the hallway , I could hear the echo of my footsteps.
13Punctuation for Complex Sentences No comma is used when the dependent clausecomes after the independent clause. Then, theclauses are joined without any punctuation.I could hear the echo of my footsteps as I walked down the hallway.
14Punctuation for Complex Sentences Since dependent clauses are only part of a sentence, you can never use a semicolon to connect them to another sentence. Semicolons are only used between complete sentences.I have loved you for years ; although I never admitted it.I have loved you for years although I never admitted it.No!OK
15Common Subordinating (Dependent) Conjunctions See Foundations First, p aftereven ifnow thatthatwherealthougheven thoughoncethoughwhereasasifrather thanunlesswhereveras ifwheneversinceuntilwhetherbecausein orderso thatwhenwhichbeforethanin casewhile
16The Compound-Complex Sentence A compound-complex sentence is the last and most complicated type of sentence.It contains at least one dependent clause and at least two independent clauses.
17Compound-Complex Sentence Dependent clauseBecause we are a family,I love you, and you love me.Independent clausesA dependent clause added to two or more independent clauses.
18Simple Compound Complex Since every sentence in English fits into one of these four categories,SimpleCompoundComplexCompound-complex
19You now know everything you need to know to write anything you want to write,any way you want to write it,and still get the punctuation right each time!