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Complex Ions. Complex Ion An ion formed when a positive central element binds with multiple ions or polar molecules.

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Presentation on theme: "Complex Ions. Complex Ion An ion formed when a positive central element binds with multiple ions or polar molecules."— Presentation transcript:

1 Complex Ions

2 Complex Ion An ion formed when a positive central element binds with multiple ions or polar molecules

3 Complex Ion The central element is almost always a positively charged metal

4 Describe or define a Complex Ion

5 Anion Negatively charged ion

6 Cation Positively charged ion

7 Metal Ion Examples Cu +2 Cu + Au + Ag + Zn +2 Ni +2 Pt +2 Co +2 Al +3

8 Ligands The negative ions or polar molecules bound by the central element in a complex ion

9 Ligand Examples Cl - F - H 2 O NH 3 CN - Br - NOO 2 OH -

10 Polydentate Ligands Ligands that can bind to more than one point

11 Bidentate Ligands Ligands that can bind to two points in a complex ion

12 Bidentate Examples H 2 N-CH 2 -CH 2 -NH 2 - O 2 C-CO 2 -

13 Tridentate Ligands Ligands that can bind to three points in a complex ion

14 Tridentate Examples H 2 -C-COO - HO-C-COO - H 2 -C-COO -

15 Chelates Polydentate ligands that bind to metal ions in solution

16 Coordination Number The number of points in which ligands bind to the central element in a complex ion

17 Coordinate Covalent Bond Covalent bonds in which both electrons involved are donated by one atom

18 Complex Ions The bonds formed in a complex ion are coordinate covalent bonds

19 Coordination Complex A complex ion and its counter ion

20 Complex Ions The bonds formed in a complex ion are coordinate covalent bonds

21 Complex Ion Because of the type bonding, they are sometimes called coordinate complexes

22 1) Name cations before anions

23 Naming Complexes 2) Name ligands before metal in the complex ion

24 2) Naming Ligands a) give neutral compds normal names except:

25 H 2 Oaqua NH 3 amine COcarbonyl NOnitrosyl

26 2) Naming Ligands b) change -ide endings to -o for all anions

27 2) Naming Ligands d) use geometric prefixes for monodentate ligands

28 2) Naming Ligands e) use bis- for 2 & tris- for 3 polydentate ligands

29 3) Naming Metal a) use the normal name if the complex ion is (+)

30 3) Naming Metal b) make the metal ending -ate if the complex ion is (-)

31 3) Naming Metal d) use Roman numerals in () to indicate metal ox #

32 Name the Following: [Pt(NH 3 ) 4 ]Cl 2 [Co(H 2 O) 2 Cl 4 ] -2 [Cu(H 2 O) 2 (en) 2 ]I 2

33 Predict # of isomers of each: [Pt(NH 3 ) 4 Cl 2 ] [Co(H 2 O) 3 Cl 3 ]

34 Complex Ion Shapes 2-linear 4-tetrahedral or sq pl 6-octahedral

35 Geometric Isomers Square planar vs tetrahedral cis vs trans

36 Geometric Isomers Bunched octa- T-shaped octa- bis: cis vs trans

37 Optical Isomers Tri-bis mirror images

38 Field Strength CN - > NO 2 - > en > NH 3 > NCS - > H 2 O > F - > Cl -

39 Field Strength CN - is strong field Cl - is weak field

40 Field Strength Determines d-level splitting or o ( splitting energy )

41 Field Strength Large o yields low spin or diamagnetic compds

42 Field Strength Small o yields high spin or paramagnetic compds

43 [Pt(NH 3 ) 2 I 4 ] -2 Determine: Name, shape, & possible isomerism

44 [Co(NH 3 ) 6 ] +3 yellow [Co(NH 3 ) 5 NCS] +2 orange [Co(NH 3 ) 5 H 2 O] +2 red [Co(NH 3 ) 5 Cl] +2 purple t-[Co(NH 3 ) 4 Cl 2 ] +1 green

45 Complex Ion Equilibria Cu NH 3 [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ] +2 [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ] +2 [Cu +2 ][NH 3 ] 4 K f =

46 Calculate the ratio of [Cu +2 ]/ [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ] +2 when Cu +2 is added to a 0.10 M NH 3 solution: K f = 2.0 x 10 12

47 Common Ion Equilibria The larger the K f, the more likely the complex will form

48 Common Ion Equilibria K f for [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] +1 = 1.7 x 10 7 K f for [Ag(CN) 2 ] -1 = 2.0 x 10 20

49 Common Ion Equilibria K f for [M(NH 3 ) 2 ] +2 = 1.7 x 10 7 K f for [M(CN) 4 ] -2 = 2.0 x 10 20

50 Common Ion Equilibria CN - will replace NH 3 in the complex with silver

51 Calculate: a) coordination # b) number of isomers c) oxidation # of metal [Zn(NH 3 ) 2 H 2 OF] +1 [Co(NH 3 ) 3 ClFI] -1


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