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Complex Ion An ion formed when a positive central element binds with multiple ions or polar molecules
Complex Ion The central element is almost always a positively charged metal
Describe or define a Complex Ion
Anion Negatively charged ion
Cation Positively charged ion
Metal Ion Examples Cu +2 Cu + Au + Ag + Zn +2 Ni +2 Pt +2 Co +2 Al +3
Ligands The negative ions or polar molecules bound by the central element in a complex ion
Ligand Examples Cl - F - H 2 O NH 3 CN - Br - NOO 2 OH -
Polydentate Ligands Ligands that can bind to more than one point
Bidentate Ligands Ligands that can bind to two points in a complex ion
Bidentate Examples H 2 N-CH 2 -CH 2 -NH 2 - O 2 C-CO 2 -
Tridentate Ligands Ligands that can bind to three points in a complex ion
Tridentate Examples H 2 -C-COO - HO-C-COO - H 2 -C-COO -
Chelates Polydentate ligands that bind to metal ions in solution
Coordination Number The number of points in which ligands bind to the central element in a complex ion
Coordinate Covalent Bond Covalent bonds in which both electrons involved are donated by one atom
Complex Ions The bonds formed in a complex ion are coordinate covalent bonds
Coordination Complex A complex ion and its counter ion
Complex Ions The bonds formed in a complex ion are coordinate covalent bonds
Complex Ion Because of the type bonding, they are sometimes called coordinate complexes
1) Name cations before anions
Naming Complexes 2) Name ligands before metal in the complex ion
2) Naming Ligands a) give neutral compds normal names except:
H 2 Oaqua NH 3 amine COcarbonyl NOnitrosyl
2) Naming Ligands b) change -ide endings to -o for all anions
2) Naming Ligands d) use geometric prefixes for monodentate ligands
2) Naming Ligands e) use bis- for 2 & tris- for 3 polydentate ligands
3) Naming Metal a) use the normal name if the complex ion is (+)
3) Naming Metal b) make the metal ending -ate if the complex ion is (-)
3) Naming Metal d) use Roman numerals in () to indicate metal ox #
Name the Following: [Pt(NH 3 ) 4 ]Cl 2 [Co(H 2 O) 2 Cl 4 ] -2 [Cu(H 2 O) 2 (en) 2 ]I 2
Predict # of isomers of each: [Pt(NH 3 ) 4 Cl 2 ] [Co(H 2 O) 3 Cl 3 ]
Complex Ion Shapes 2-linear 4-tetrahedral or sq pl 6-octahedral
Geometric Isomers Square planar vs tetrahedral cis vs trans
Geometric Isomers Bunched octa- T-shaped octa- bis: cis vs trans
Optical Isomers Tri-bis mirror images
Field Strength CN - > NO 2 - > en > NH 3 > NCS - > H 2 O > F - > Cl -
Field Strength CN - is strong field Cl - is weak field
Field Strength Determines d-level splitting or o ( splitting energy )
Field Strength Large o yields low spin or diamagnetic compds
Field Strength Small o yields high spin or paramagnetic compds
[Pt(NH 3 ) 2 I 4 ] -2 Determine: Name, shape, & possible isomerism
[Co(NH 3 ) 6 ] +3 yellow [Co(NH 3 ) 5 NCS] +2 orange [Co(NH 3 ) 5 H 2 O] +2 red [Co(NH 3 ) 5 Cl] +2 purple t-[Co(NH 3 ) 4 Cl 2 ] +1 green
Complex Ion Equilibria Cu NH 3 [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ] +2 [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ] +2 [Cu +2 ][NH 3 ] 4 K f =
Calculate the ratio of [Cu +2 ]/ [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ] +2 when Cu +2 is added to a 0.10 M NH 3 solution: K f = 2.0 x 10 12
Common Ion Equilibria The larger the K f, the more likely the complex will form
Common Ion Equilibria K f for [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] +1 = 1.7 x 10 7 K f for [Ag(CN) 2 ] -1 = 2.0 x 10 20
Common Ion Equilibria K f for [M(NH 3 ) 2 ] +2 = 1.7 x 10 7 K f for [M(CN) 4 ] -2 = 2.0 x 10 20
Common Ion Equilibria CN - will replace NH 3 in the complex with silver
Calculate: a) coordination # b) number of isomers c) oxidation # of metal [Zn(NH 3 ) 2 H 2 OF] +1 [Co(NH 3 ) 3 ClFI] -1
Drill: Determine the Ksp for Mn 2 S 3 when the solubility is 1 x
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