3I. Characteristics of Mollusks: 2nd largest animal phylum Arthropoda = largestfrom Latin molluscus, which means “soft.Many have soft bodiessome have a hard shell.
4Wide variety of organisms in this phylum: Feeding- Some are sedentary filter feeders while others are fast-moving predators.Nervous system: Some are simple some are intelligentCirculatory system: Gastropoda & Bivalves have open while Cephalopoda has a closed system.
5Have a body cavity completely lined by mesoderm tissue layer. Mollusks are true coelmates.Have a body cavity completely lined by mesoderm tissue layer.
71. Class GastropodaThe largest & most diverse class of mollusksMost have a single shell.including snails, abalones, limpets and conchs.Slugs have no shell.Open circulatory system in which a heart pumps hemolymph from gills or lungs into the hemocoel (body cavity)
8Mollusk Gastropod Body Plan Divided into 2 main parts:Visceral masswhich contains the heart and the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproductionHead-foot, which consists of:the head, contains the mouth with Radula-a tongue like feeding adaptation with tiny teeth that point backwards) and sensory structuresthe foot, a large, muscular organ for locomotionOther parts:Coelom -limited to space around heart.Mantle -a layer of epidermis that covers the visceral mass. (secretes the shell)
132. Class Bivalvia Aquatic mollusks (clams, oysters, & scallops) Shell is divided into two valves connected by a hinge.Most are sessile filter feeders.Bivalves lack a distinct head
14Clams Oysters attach to a hard surface The mantle cavity of a clam is sealed except for a pair of hollow, fleshy tubes called siphons.Water enters through the incurrent siphon.Water leaves through the excurrent siphon.Other BivalvesOysters attach to a hard surfaceScallops can move through the water by repeatedly opening their valves and snapping them shut.
153. Class Cephalopoda Means “head-foot.” Free-swimming predators Have tentacles & beaklike jaws on the head.Also- Have a closed circulatory system.
16Squids Octopuses Chambered Nautiluses 10 tentacles. Propels by pumping jets of water with the mantle through an excurrent siphon.Octopuses8 tentaclesThey often crawl along the ocean bottom or lie in wait for prey.Chambered NautilusesThe only existing cephalopod with external shell.Shell is coiled & divided into chambers.The body is confined to the outermost chamber.
17Caribbean reef squid (Venezuela) Displays an aggressive zebra pattern to ward off other malescompeting for nearby females. This vivid species can displayabout three dozen different color patterns. (National Geographic)
18In a cloud of greenish ink, a jumbo squid flees! National geographicIf all their dazzling color changes fail to deter a predator, squid use inkas a backup defense that helps them fade from view. Mexicanfishermen catch some 100,000 tons (90,000 metric tons) of jumbos a year
19Huge eye of the world's largest squid About 11 inchesacross, researchersbelieve the colossalsquid's eye is thebiggest animal eyeever found.The 10m-long (34ft)specimen has alsoturned out to be female.Very little is known about colossal squid; only about 10 have ever been caught and brought to shore.
20The giant squidremains largely a mystery to scientists despite being the biggest invertebrate on Earth.largest of these elusive giants ever found measured 59 feet (18 meters) in length and weighed nearly a ton (900 kg).
28The Chambered Nautilus: In which nature flawlessly executes constant mathematical form (It’s a physics thing)(Photo by John Lienhard)
29Very Intelligent invertebrates: Nervous system is very advanced.EXAMPLES:Dexterity, tool use and manipulation. Suction cups & arms are as efficient as human’s hand.Can learn through observation (choose colored balls)Can “Hide” & act like sea weed,Assess their prey.Complete & remember mazes & patterns,
30Many Cephalopods use pigments to hide & disguise themselves. Blue-ringed octopus (size of a plum) this beak packs adeadly poison that'll kill a human in about 15 minutes.
31Octopuses have blue “blood” Octopuses have three hearts.Its blood has copper-rich protein (blue) hemocyanin for transporting oxygen.Although less efficient under normal conditions than the iron-rich hemoglobin of vertebrates, in cold conditions with low oxygen pressure, hemocyanin oxygen transportation is more efficient than hemoglobin oxygen transportation.The hemocyanin is dissolved in the plasma instead of being bound in red blood cells and gives the blood a blue color.
32Octopuses: short life expectancy some live for as little as six months. Larger species, such as the North Pacific Giant Octopus, may live for up to five yearsHowever, reproduction is a cause of death:males can only live for a few months after matingfemales die shortly after their eggs hatch.They neglect to eat during the (roughly) one month period spent taking care of their unhatched eggs, but they don't die of starvation.Endocrine secretions from the two optic glands are the cause of genetically-programmed death
35Segmented worms: Annelids Annelids means little rings (many body segments).True coelom animals: have a body cavity that is divided into separate compartments by partitions.Other terms:Most have external bristles called setaeSome have fleshy protrusions called parapodia
36Class OligochaetaLive in the soil or in fresh waterMost familiar is the earthworm.Structure and MovementAn earthworm’s body has over 100 nearly-identical segments.Circular and longitudinal muscles line the interior body wall.Locomotion is made possible by segmentation.
38Earthworms Feeding /Digestion Ingest soil as they burrow through it.Soil is moved through these structures:mouthpharynxesophaguscropgizzardintestineanusEarthworms play an important role in the condition of soil.
39Closed circulatory system. Contractions of the aortic arches and the dorsal blood vessel force blood through the vessels of the bodyRespiration and ExcretionOxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse through moist skin,Cellular wastes and excess water are excreted through nephridia.Neural ControlConsists of a chain of ganglia connected by a ventral nerve cord.Sensory structures are found in all segments but are concentrated at the anterior end.
40ReproductionEarthworms are hermaphrodites, but an individual worm cannot fertilize its own eggs.During mating, earthworms press their ventral surfaces together.Held together by their setae and by a film of mucus secreted by each worm’s clitellum.Fertilization occurs inside the tube, which forms a protective case for the young worms.
45Class Polychaeta Leeches -have no setae or parapodia. “many bristles” “feather duster worms”Polychaetes differ from other annelids in that they have antennae & specialized mouthparts.Class HirudineaHirudinea is the smallest class, consisting of about 500 species of leeches.Leeches -have no setae or parapodia.Many leeches are carnivores but some are parasites that suck blood from other animals.
46Haemophagic LeechesAttach to their hosts & remain until they become full & they fall off to digest.Bodies are 34 segments.Have an anterior (oral) sucker formed from the first six segments of their body, used to connect to a host for feeding and releases an anaesthetic to remain unnoticed by the host.Use a combination of mucus and suction to stay attached and secrete an anti-clotting enzyme into the host's blood stream.
48Famous Film Moment for leeches: Humphrey Bogart in The African Queen
49How to Remove and Treat Leech Bites Find the skinny end [the head end]and use your finger or fingernail topush it sideways off the bite point." - Authority Mark Siddall in theNOVA Science Internet site.You should avoid "remedies" such as simply pulling the leech from its moorings; plying it with salt, insect repellent, shampoo or vinegar; or heating it with a smoldering match, grass stem or cigarette. These techniques might cause the leech to discharge the contents of its gut, including bacteria, into the bite. This might cause complications such as localized infection or even blood poisoning.
50Leeches and a History of Medicine www.leeches.biz/medicine-leech.htm For over 4000 years, the leech has been a familiar remedy, with Greek and Roman physicians praising the application of this clever invertebrate.
51In the 19th century leeches were enjoying a golden age.Millions were raised for medical use as their fame as a cure-all ensued.The mid 1800s saw their constant use for local bloodletting. Druggists administered thousands of leeches to patients with anything from gumboils to facial discoloration.They were also put inside the mouth.
52Leeches Today are bred in captivity in many institutions. Leeches have found new fame in microsurgery, where doctors require the precision of the leech to drain congested blood from wounded sites.Plastic surgeons are particularly grateful for the contribution made by the leech, due to their use in the treatment of difficult grafts and reconstructive surgery.
53III. Arthropods & Insects “The real rulers of the Earth”Sources used include textbook, (Holt Modern Biology)
54More than 83% of all animal species are arthropods. That's about 160 million insects for each person on Earth.Have evolved to fill a variety of ecological niches — from tiny internal parasite to giant bird-eating predator.
55Arthropods are a lot more than just delicious feasts and disgusting pests
57Segmented BodyEach segment repeats the same set of structures (ie, a pair of legs, a set of breathing organs, & a set of nerves),sets of segments are grouped into a larger unit, such as the abdomen & cephalothorax.
58Hard Exoskeleton Made of protein & Chitin (a polysaccharide) Must molt many times as growsEnzymes digest the layer of exoskeleton inside soften & then shed. It takes a few days for the newly excreted exoskeleton to harden.
59Jointed LegsAll arthropods (arthro = joint, pod = foot) have jointed limbs.How can an animal with a rigid body covering move its legs?The exoskeleton is hard, but at the joints it is softer & bendable, (allowing movement in same way a suit of armor does).
60Many pairs of limbsTagma- are specialized segments
61The five major subphyla of the phylum Arthropoda.
62Arthropods usually divided into 5 subphyla based on: differences in developmentin the structure of appendages, such as mouthparts.
631. TrilobitesExtinctMany body appendages with one pair of appendages per segmentTrilobites, living in shallow seas, flourished as swimmers, crawlers and burrowers for some 350 million years.Fossils found on all continents, entrapped in the hardened sediments of Ancient Seas.
642. Subphylum Myriapoda Means”many feet” Many body segments One pair of branched antennaeMany body segmentsIncludes classes:Diplopoda (millipedes)Up to 100 body segments2 pairs of legs on each segmentChilopoda (centipedes)In tropical regions can reach 12 inches longFrom 15 to 175 pairs of legs
653. Subphylum Crustacea Terrestrial & Marine about 38,000 known species.Terrestrial & Marineso diverse their single defining characteristic is having two pairs of antennae.Most also have:a pair of mandiblesa pair of appendages oneach body segmentsome branched appendages16 to 20 segments &several tagmata
66a. Terrestrial Crustaceans Sow bugs and pill bugs are terrestrial isopods.They lack adaptations for conserving water and live only in moist environments.They generally feed on decaying vegetation.Pill bugs roll into a ball when disturbed or threatened.
67b. Aquatic Crustaceans (many species) Copepods -important part of the ocean’s plankton.In freshwater, much of the plankton are water fleas such as Daphnia species.Barnacles are sessile as adults.Free-swimming barnacle larvae attach to surfaces and develop a shell that encloses the body.Barnacles use their cirri (singular, cirrus) to sweep food.
68Types of barnacles http://www. marinebio Balanus Barnacle with legs out,filter feeding on planktonGooseneck Barnacles
69More aquatic crustaceans Order Decapoda -means“10 feet”Decapods have five pairs of legsCrayfish, lobsters, crabs, and shrimp are decapodsRespiration through gills(see more about crayfish in handout & know parts for dissection lab)
704. Subphylum Chelicerata Defined by presence of cheliceraeThe first pair of appendagesModified into pincer or fangsClass Arachnid- spiders, scorpions, mites, ticksSome important Parts :Chelicerae ( in spiders = fangs to inject poison)Pedipalps (hold food)8 simple eyes at anterior of cephalothorax (NOT compound eyes!)Spinnerets- 3 pairs on tip of abdomen, for making silkBook lungs- like folds in a book= lots of surface area for gas exchange (some spiders use Tracheae for respiration instead)Malpighian Tubes- excretory tubes collect wastes, liquids. The liquid is reabsorbed (to conserve water) & waste is nearly solid.
71Spiders-A full facial view of any spider shows its killing ability. Two powerful chelicerae, protrude downEach chelicera bears a hinged fang.Both fangs have ducts that lead up to the venom glands within the head.Spiders fall into two groups, each being classified upon how they strike their prey.The fangs of Tarantulas are so hinged that they articulate in a front-to-back motion allowing them to strike their prey from above.Most other spiders have fangs that are hinged laterally, providing a left-to-right strike.
72Fangs, Chelicerae of Zebra Jumping Spider Salticus scenicus Spider CheliceraeFangs and Chelicerae of Tarantula Spiderling Brachypelma smithi (Mexican Red-Knee Tarantula)Fangs, Chelicerae of Zebra Jumping Spider Salticus scenicus
73Anatomy of a spider** Mites and ticks differ from spiders because theyhave a fused cephalothorax and abdomen.
74Life of a SpiderSpiders feed on insects and other small animals. Many species are adapted to capture certain prey.Spiders rarely harm humans, but two species in the United States are dangerous:the black widowthe brown recluseA male spider is usually smaller than the female.Females lay eggs in a silken case.
77“Daddy long legs” Harvestmen are different from spiders: Pholcus phalangioides – a real “spider” Harvestmen (Phalangium opili)Harvestmen are different from spiders:- in harvestmen the two main body sections (the abdomen with ten segments and cephalothorax) are nearly joined, so that they appear to be one oval structure;they also have no venom or silk glands.Mouth is different so that ingestion is not restricted to liquid, but chunks of food can be taken in.They have a single pair of eyes in the middle of their heads
78Daddy long legs urban legend Claims are that the harvestman is the most venomous animal in the world, but its fangs are too small to bite a human and therefore is not dangerous.This is untrue on several counts.None of the known species have venom glands or fangsThe size of its mouth varies by species, but even those with relatively large jaws hardly ever bite humans or other large creatures, even in self-defense.The few known cases of actual bites did not involve envenomation, and had no lasting effect
79Giant sea spider- new finds in Antarctica Video link:
80Camel spider “Urban legend” Comments: NOT TRUE!!This scary-looking creature (actually, it's a pair of scary-looking creatures dangling end-to-end) is indeed commonly called a camel spider, but in fact it is neither a spider, strictly speaking (entomologists call it a solifugid), nor is it found only in the Middle East. Camel spiders reside in arid locales all over the world, including the southwestern United States.A typical specimen can grow to about the size of a child's hand, but, though they are known for being vicious predators, camel spiders are neither venomous nor a threat to human beings.For the record, they don't eat camels, either.
81Common house spiders Excellent site to look up spiders!!
825. Subphylum Hexapoda Class Insecta By many standards- the most successful group of animals on earth.Entomology- the study of insects & terrestrial arthropods.Body of an insect is divided into tagmata:HeadThoraxAbdomen
83“bugs”Because they dominate all terrestrial environments that support human life, insects are usually our most important competitors for food, fiber, and other natural resources.
84GrasshopperExample organismPlease note parts for dissection lab,.
85The crayfish- next 4 pages are notes for dissection lab an abundant freshwater crustacean that is structurally similar to lobsters, which are marine crustaceans.Crayfish, lobsters, crabs, and shrimp are decapods, or members of the order Decapoda. Decapoda means “10 feet.”Decapods have five pairs of legs that are used for locomotion.
86External Structure The crayfish’s body is divided into the cephalothorax, which is covered by the carapace and is divided intothe head, which has five segmentsthe thorax, which has eight segmentsthe abdomen, which is is divided into six segmentsA pair of appendages is attached to each segment of the crayfish. Several pairs have specialized functions.These appendages include:AntennaeAntennulesMandiblesMaxillaeMaxillipedsChelipedsWalking legsSwimmerets
88ExcretionGreen glands assist in excretion of excess water that enters the body by osmosis.DigestionDigestive gland near the stomach secretes enzymes for digestion.Respirationgills.Circulationopen.Nervous & Sensory OrgansMany small sensory hairs. (sense water vibrations & chemicals) Compound eyes are set on two stalks.
89Insects Factors responsible for their success include: Entomologists classify insects into more than 25 orders based on characteristics such as:structure of mouthpartsnumber of wingstype of developmentFactors responsible for their success include:ability to fly -exoskeletonjointed appendages -small sizelarge numbers offspring -short life span
93Insects as FoodInsects are an important source of nutrition in many parts of the worldIn Mexico, dried grasshoppers are sold in village markets. High in protein and low in fat, they may be fried or ground into meal and mixed with flour to make tortillas. Sago grubs, the larvae of a wood-boring beetle, are considered a delicacy in Papua New Guinea. The islanders boil the larvae or roast them over an open fire. Ants, bees, termites, caterpillars, water bugs, beetle larvae, flies, crickets, katydids, cicadas, and dragonfly nymphs are among a long list of edible insects that provide nutrition for the people of Australia, Africa, South America, the Middle East, and China. Americans and western Europeansappear to be unique in having a strongcultural taboo against insects as food.Silkworm pupae for human food in Thailand
94A Recipe for Maggot Crispies 1/4 cup margarine 4 cups small marshmallows 3 cups crispy cereal 3 cups dry roasted maggots or mealworms In a saucepan, melt margarine and marshmallows. Remove from heat and stir in cereal and maggots. Spread mixture in a 9x13 greased pan and allow to cool.
95Insect body – is divided into three tagmata: Head -has mandibles and one pair of unbranched antennae.Thorax -has three pairs of jointed legs and, in many species, one or two pairs of wings.Abdomen -has 9 to 11 segments but neither wings nor legs in adults.
96Humans & insects: Used for consumer products too: Example: cochineal “Today, the textile industry has largely replaced cochineal with less expensive aniline dyes, but it is still used as a coloring agent in foods, beverages, cosmetics (especially lipsticks), and art products.”
97Got Bugs? http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,479233,00.htmlm GOT WAFFLES, LIPSTICK, YOGURT OR STRAWBERRY MILK? HOW ABOUT CANDY, SHAMPOO AND NAIL POLISH?THE FDA SAYS SCATTERED ALLERGIC REACTIONS ARE THE BASIS FOR THE RULE CONCERNING DYE DERIVED FROM THE CRUSHED COCHINEAL BUG.UNKNOWN AND UNNOTICED BY MOST CONSUMERS, THE JUICE OF A TINY BEETLE FIRST USED BY 16TH CENTURY SPANISH EXPLORERS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR RED, PINK, ORANGE AND PURPLE COLORING IN HUNDREDS OF U.S. PRODUCTS.NOW, THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HAS DECIDED TO MAKE FOOD AND COSMETIC MANUFACTURERS IDENTIFY THE BUGGY SOURCE OF CARMINE OR COCHINEAL EXTRACT, WHICH MAY BE IDENTIFIED ONLY AS "COLOR ADDED" IN A PRODUCT'S LIST OF INGREDIENTS.
98Insects and People Insects negatively affect humans by: competing for foodtransmitting diseasesdestroying buildings & other manufactured productsInsects benefit humans by:serving as food for other animalspollinating flowersmaking valuable products such as honeyrecycling nutrients in ecosystems
101Grasshopper body- three tagmata: The headmouthparts -labrum & labium are mouthparts that function like upper and lower lips, respectively.a pair of unbranched antennaepairs of simple and compound eyes.The thorax is composed of:ProthoraxMesothoraxMetathoraxThe abdomen has upper and lower plates
103Circulation, Respiration, & Excretion Insects have an open circulatory system that transports nutrients through the body.Gas exchange occurs by means of air-filled tracheae that reach deep into the body.Malpighian tubules remove cellular wastes from the hemolymph while conserving water.
104Nervous system simple and compound eyes The grasshopper’s central nervous system consists of a brain and a ventral nerve cord with ganglia located in each body segment.Nerves extend from the brain to sensory structures.Insect sensory structures include :simple and compound eyessensory hairs on antennae and other body partsin some species, a sound-sensing tympanum
105Reproduction Grasshoppers have separate sexes, as do all insects.During mating, the male deposits sperm into the female’s seminal receptacle, where the eggs are fertilized internally.The last segment of the female’s abdomen forms the ovipositor, which she uses to lay fertilized eggs.
106Most insects go through metamorphosis. In incomplete metamorphosis, a nymph hatches from an egg and resembles the adult but has undeveloped reproductive organs and no wings. The nymph molts several times to become an adult.In complete metamorphosis, a wormlike larva called a caterpillar hatches from an egg and molts several times before becoming a pupa. The pupa molts to produce the adult, which resembles neither the larva nor the pupa.
107Incomplete vs. Complete metamorphosis -allows larvae and adults of the same species to avoid competingfor space and food.-allows survival in periods of harsh weather or scant resources.
108(Last phyla of invertebrates) IV. Echinoderms(Last phyla of invertebrates)StarfishSand Dollarssea urchinssea starsBrittle starsSea cucumbers
109Echinoderms are all benthic (bottom-dwellers) endoskeleton of interlocking calcium carbonate plates and spinesAll true coelomatesNervous systems are poorly developedlack respiratory systems & circulatory systems (the water-vascular system takes over some of the functions of these systems)
110Echinodermswater-vascular system of special structures that protrude & help the echinoderm breath, move, and defend itself.tube feetpedicellariagillsAll echinoderms have a, a set of water-filled canals branching from a ring canal that encircles the gut. The canals lead to podia, or tube feet, which are sucker-like appendages that the echinoderm can use to move, grip the substrate, or manipulate objects. These tube feet are extended and retracted by hydraulic pressure in the water-vascular system.
111Feeding: Some, like many starfish, are predators sand dollars often feed on detrituscrinoids are filter-feederssea urchins scrape algae from rocks
112ReproductionExternal fertilization; eggs and sperm are freely discharged into the water.A few sea urchins brood their eggs in special pouches, but most provide no parental care.Most echinoderms go through several planktonic larval stages before settling down