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OUTLINE Introduction LHC Injector complex Conclusion R. Garoby.

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1 OUTLINE Introduction LHC Injector complex Conclusion R. Garoby

2 Many contributors outside and inside CERN in multiple working groups: On LHC itself: F. Ruggiero et al. mostly in the context of CARE – HHH network (with support of the EU-FP6) with contribution from US-LARP (with support of DOE). On the future of proton accelerators at CERN: POFPA and PAF On the injectors: design teams on Linac4, SPL, PS2, SPS improvements... and invaluable help by numerous enlightening discussions during workshops & conferences…

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4 TOPIC: Upgrades of proton (heavy ion) accelerators at CERN LHC status Lepton Hadron collider (LHeC) Higher Energy Collider (DLHC) Lepton-Lepton Collider (CLIC or ILC) QUESTIONS: Why upgrade? When? Which upgrades? R.G.4June 23-27, 2008

5 Hardware ageing Foreseeable luminosity evolution eed for a major luminosity upgrade in ~2017 (SLHC) Radiation damage limit Error halving time R.G.5June 23-27, 2008 J. Strait

6 Need for reliability: Accelerators are old [Linac2: 1978, PSB: 1975, PS: 1959, SPS: 1976] They operate far from their design parameters and close to hardware limits The infrastructure has suffered from the concentration of resources on LHC during the past 10 years Need for better beam characteristics R.G.6June 23-27, 2008

7 ~2017 Start of SLHC : ~2017 ~2012 start of construction (New IR hardware and new injectors): ~2012 mid-2011 Detailed project proposal (TDR + cost estimates): mid R & D for new IR hardware and new injectors: R.G.7June 23-27, 2008

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9 proton-proton collider c.m. energy 14 TeV (7x Tevatron) Design luminosity cm -2 s -1 (~100x Tevatron) Start of beam commissioning in 2008 LHC baseline luminosity was pushed in competition with SSC 9

10 Known limitations of LHC as built Collimation phase 1: Collimation phase 1: Limit at ~40% of nominal intensity Limit at ~40% of nominal intensity Initial IR triplets: Initial IR triplets: gradient : gradient : 205 T/m aperture: aperture: Coil 70 mm Coil 70 mm Beam screen 60 mm minimum * = 0.55 m Beam screen 60 mm minimum * = 0.55 m maximum L = cm -2 s -1 maximum L = cm -2 s -1 Power in triplet ~ 200 W at 1.9 K Power in triplet ~ 200 W at 1.9 K R.G.10June 23-27, 2008 Enabled by additional resources for New Initiatives + Support of EU-FP7 & US-LARP

11 Collimation phase 2 Goal: 10 better in cleaning efficiency / impedance / set-up time (accuracy?), much more robust against radiation and better for radiation handling. Goal: 10 better in cleaning efficiency / impedance / set-up time (accuracy?), much more robust against radiation and better for radiation handling. Means: Means: Cleaning efficiency: add. metallic collim. + cryogenics collim. inside sc dispersion suppressor + # material for primary collim. Cleaning efficiency: add. metallic collim. + cryogenics collim. inside sc dispersion suppressor + # material for primary collim. Impedance: investigate new ideas (!) + beam feedback + use less collimators + increased triplet aperture (IR upgrade phase 1) Impedance: investigate new ideas (!) + beam feedback + use less collimators + increased triplet aperture (IR upgrade phase 1) Set-up time (accuracy ?): BPM inside collimator jaws Set-up time (accuracy ?): BPM inside collimator jaws Planning: Planning: Conceptual design review by end 2008 Conceptual design review by end 2008 Hardware test with & without beam in 2009/2010 Hardware test with & without beam in 2009/2010 Operational in 2011/2012 Operational in 2011/2012 R.G.11June 23-27, 2008 Enabled by additional resources for New Initiatives + Support of EU-FP7 & US-LARP

12 IR upgrade phase 1 Goal: Enable focusing of the beams to * =0.25 m in IP1 and IP5, and reliable operation of the LHC at Goal: Enable focusing of the beams to * =0.25 m in IP1 and IP5, and reliable operation of the LHC at cm -2 s -1. Scope: Scope: Upgrade of ATLAS and CMS IRs. Upgrade of ATLAS and CMS IRs. Replace present triplets with wide aperture quadrupoles based on LHC dipole cables (Nb-Ti) cooled at 1.9 K. Replace present triplets with wide aperture quadrupoles based on LHC dipole cables (Nb-Ti) cooled at 1.9 K. Upgrade D1 separation dipole, TAS and other beam-line equipment so as to be compatible with the inner triplet aperture. Upgrade D1 separation dipole, TAS and other beam-line equipment so as to be compatible with the inner triplet aperture. Modify matching sections (D2-Q4, Q5, Q6) to improve optics flexibility. Introduction of other equipment to the extent of available resources. Modify matching sections (D2-Q4, Q5, Q6) to improve optics flexibility. Introduction of other equipment to the extent of available resources. Planning: operational for physics in 2013 Planning: operational for physics in 2013 R.G.12June 23-27, 2008 Enabled by additional resources for New Initiatives + Support of EC-FP7 & US-LARP

13 For operation at the beam-beam limit with alternating planes of crossing at two IPs: where Q bb = total beam-beam tune shift with = Piwinski angle R.G.13June 23-27, 2008 /2 effective beam emittance

14 Main ingredients: Ultimate beam Ultimate beam D0 dipole close to IP bunches quasi-aligned at collision ( ~ 0) larger Q bb D0 dipole close to IP bunches quasi-aligned at collision ( ~ 0) larger Q bb Very small *(8 cm) Very small *(8 cm) Hour-glass effect Hour-glass effectTotal ultimate beam (1.7x10 11 protons/bunch, 25 spacing), * ~10 cm ultimate beam (1.7x10 11 protons/bunch, 25 spacing), * ~10 cm early-separation dipoles in side detectors, crab cavities early-separation dipoles in side detectors, crab cavities hardware inside ATLAS & CMS detectors, hardware inside ATLAS & CMS detectors, first hadron crab cavities; off- J.-P. Koutchouk Factor wrt ultimate R.G.14June 23-27, 2008

15 Main ingredients: Ultimate beam Ultimate beam Crab cavities bunches quasi-aligned at collision ( ~ 0) larger Q bb Crab cavities bunches quasi-aligned at collision ( ~ 0) larger Q bb Very small *(8 cm) Very small *(8 cm) Hour-glass effect Hour-glass effectTotal Factor wrt ultimate L. Evans, W. Scandale, F. Zimmermann ultimate LHC beam (1.7x10 11 protons/bunch, 25 spacing) ultimate LHC beam (1.7x10 11 protons/bunch, 25 spacing) * ~10 cm * ~10 cm crab cavities with 60% higher voltage crab cavities with 60% higher voltage first hadron crab cavities, off- -beat first hadron crab cavities, off- -beat R.G.15June 23-27, 2008

16 Main ingredients: Larger beam current Larger beam current Large Piwinski angle and 3 intensity per bunch( ~ 2) larger Q bb Large Piwinski angle and 3 intensity per bunch( ~ 2) larger Q bb Reduced *(25 cm) Reduced *(25 cm) Longit. profile Longit. profileTotal Factor wrt ultimate F. Ruggiero, W. Scandale. F. Zimmermann 50 ns spacing, longer & more intense bunches 50 ns spacing, longer & more intense bunches (5x10 11 protons/bunch) *~25 cm, no elements inside detectors *~25 cm, no elements inside detectors long-range beam-beam wire compensation long-range beam-beam wire compensation novel operating regime for hadron colliders novel operating regime for hadron colliders R.G.16June 23-27, 2008

17 ParameterSymbolNominalUltimateEAFCCLPA transverse emittance [ m] 3.75 protons per bunchN b [10 11 ] bunch spacing t [ns] beam currentI [A] longitudinal profile Gauss Flat rms bunch length z [cm] beta* at IP1&5 [m] full crossing angle c [ rad] Piwinski parameter c z /(2* x *) hourglass reduction peak luminosityL [10 34 cm -2 s -1 ] peak events per #ing initial lumi lifetime L [h] effective luminosity (T turnaround =10 h) L eff [10 34 cm -2 s -1 ] T run,opt [h] effective luminosity (T turnaround =5 h) L eff [10 34 cm -2 s -1 ] T run,opt [h] e-c heat SEY=1.4(1.3)P [W/m] 1.07 (0.44) 1.04 (0.59) 0.36 (0.1) SR heat load KP SR [W/m] image current heatP IC [W/m] F. Zimmermann

18 Increased luminosity reduced life time Compensation measures increased total intensity: Compensation measures increased total intensity: either more bunches ( n b : abandoned because of heat load to the beam screen and electron clouds effects either more bunches ( n b : abandoned because of heat load to the beam screen and electron clouds effects or higher intensity per bunch ( N b ): soft limit used in the LPA scheme or higher intensity per bunch ( N b ): soft limit used in the LPA scheme Possible additional action: luminosity leveling Possible additional action: luminosity leveling R.G.18June 23-27, 2008

19 ES/FCC LPA Initial peak luminosity may not be useful for physics Luminosity decays faster with ES/FCC schemes Luminosity decays faster with ES/FCC schemes But LPA always gives more events per crossing… But LPA always gives more events per crossing… ES/FCC LPA R.G.19June 23-27, 2008

20 Experiments prefer more constant luminosity, with less pile up at the start of the run and higher luminosity at the end. Interest for luminosity leveling Interest for luminosity levelingHow? ES/FCC schemes: variable * and/or (either the effective crossing angle at the IP or the field in the crab cavities) ES/FCC schemes: variable * and/or (either the effective crossing angle at the IP or the field in the crab cavities) LPA scheme: variable * and/or LPA scheme: variable * and/or Z R.G.20June 23-27, 2008

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22 Main performance limitation : Incoherent space charge tune spreads Q SC at injection in thePSB (50 MeV) and PS (1.4 GeV) because of the required beam brightness N/ *. need to increase the injection energy in the synchrotrons need to increase the injection energy in the synchrotrons Increase injection energy in the PSB from 50 to 160 MeV kinetic Increase injection energy in the SPS from 25 to 50 GeV kinetic Design the PS successor (PS2) with an acceptable space charge effect for the maximum beam envisaged for SLHC: => injection energy of 4 GeV R.G.22June 23-27, 2008

23 PSB SPS SPS+ Linac4 (LP)SPL PS LHC / SLHC DLHC Output energy 160 MeV 1.4 GeV 4 GeV 26 GeV 50 GeV 450 GeV 1 TeV 7 TeV ~ 14 TeV Linac2 50 MeV (LP)SPL: (Low Power) Superconducting Proton Linac (4-5 GeV) PS2: High Energy PS (~ 5 to 50 GeV – 0.3 Hz) SPS+: Superconducting SPS (50 to1000 GeV) SLHC: Superluminosity LHC (up to cm -2 s -1 ) DLHC: Double energy LHC (1 to ~14 TeV) Proton flux / Beam power PS2 R.G.23June 23-27, 2008

24 SPS PS2 SPL Linac4 PS ISOLDE R.G.24June 23-27, 2008

25 R.G.25June 23-27, 2008

26 Ion speciesH-H- Output kinetic energy160 MeV Bunch frequency352.2 MHz Max. repetition rate1.1 (2) Hz Beam pulse duration0.4 (1.2) ms Chopping factor (beam on)62% Source current80 mA RFQ output current70 mA Linac current64 mA Average current during beam pulse40 mA Beam power5.1 kW Particles / pulse Transverse emittance (source)0.2 mm mrad Transverse emittance (linac)0.4 mm mrad Linac4 beam characteristics H - source RFQ chopper DTL CCDTLPIMS 3 MeV 50 MeV 102 MeV MHz 160 MeV R.G.26June 23-27, 2008

27 Milestones Milestones End CE works: December 2010 End CE works: December 2010 Installation: 2011 Installation: 2011 Linac commissioning: 2012 Linac commissioning: 2012 Modifications PSB: shut-down 2012/13 (6 months) Modifications PSB: shut-down 2012/13 (6 months) Beam from PSB: 1rst of May 2013 Beam from PSB: 1rst of May 2013 R.G.27June 23-27, 2008

28 R.G.28June 23-27, 2008 Stop of Linac2: End of recurrent problems with Linac2 (vacuum leaks, etc.) End of recurrent problems with Linac2 (vacuum leaks, etc.) End of use of obsolete RF triodes (hard to get + expensive) End of use of obsolete RF triodes (hard to get + expensive) Higher performance for the PSB: Space charge decreased by a factor of 2 in the PSB Space charge decreased by a factor of 2 in the PSB potential to double the beam brightness and fill the PS with the LHC beam in a single pulse: no more long flat bottom at PS injection + shorter flat bottom at SPS injection: easier/ more reliable operation / potential for ultimate beam from the PS potential to double the beam brightness and fill the PS with the LHC beam in a single pulse: no more long flat bottom at PS injection + shorter flat bottom at SPS injection: easier/ more reliable operation / potential for ultimate beam from the PS easier handling of high intensity. easier handling of high intensity. Low loss injection process (Charge exchange instead of betatron stacking) Low loss injection process (Charge exchange instead of betatron stacking) High flexibility for painting in the transverse and longitudinal planes (high speed chopper at 3 MeV in Linac4) High flexibility for painting in the transverse and longitudinal planes (high speed chopper at 3 MeV in Linac4) More intensity per pulse available for PSB beam users (ISOLDE) – up to 2 More intensity per pulse available for PSB beam users (ISOLDE) – up to 2 More PSB cycles available for other uses than LHC More PSB cycles available for other uses than LHC First step towards the SPL: Linac4 will provide beam for commissioning LPSPL + PS2 without disturbing physics Linac4 will provide beam for commissioning LPSPL + PS2 without disturbing physics

29 H - source RFQ chopper DTL CCDTLPIMS 3 MeV 50 MeV 102 MeV MHz β=0.65β= MeV 4 GeV MHz 180 MeV Linac4 (160 MeV)SC-linac (4 GeV) Kinetic energy (GeV)4 Beam power at 4 GeV (MW)0.16 Rep. period (s)0.6 Protons/pulse (x )1.5 Average pulse current (mA)20 Pulse duration (ms)1.2 LP-SPL beam characteristics Length: 460 m R.G.29June 23-27, 2008

30 PS2 PS Injection energy kinetic (GeV) Extraction energy kinetic (GeV)~ 5013/25 Circumference (m) Maximum intensity LHC (25ns) (p/b)4.0 x ~1.7 x Maximum intensity for fixed target physics (p/p)1.2 x x Maximum energy per beam pulse (kJ) Max ramp rate (T/s) Cycle time at 50 GeV (s)2.41.2/2.4 Max. effective beam power (kW) R.G.30June 23-27, 2008 PS2 main characteristics compared to the present PS

31 Construction of LP-SPL and PS2 will not interfere with the regular operation of Linac4 + PSB for physics. Similarly, beam commissioning of LP-SPL and PS2 will take place without interference with physics. Milestones Milestones Project proposal: June 2011 Project proposal: June 2011 Project start: January 2012 Project start: January 2012 LP-SPL commissioning: mid-2015 LP-SPL commissioning: mid-2015 PS2 commissioning:mid-2016 PS2 commissioning:mid-2016 SPS commissioning: May 2017 SPS commissioning: May 2017 Beam for physics: July 2017 Beam for physics: July 2017 R.G.31June 23-27, 2008

32 Stop of PSB and PS: End of recurrent problems (damaged magnets in the PS, etc.) End of recurrent problems (damaged magnets in the PS, etc.) End of operation of old accelerators at their maximum capability End of operation of old accelerators at their maximum capability Safer operation at higher proton flux (adequate shielding and collimation) Safer operation at higher proton flux (adequate shielding and collimation) Higher performance: Capability to deliver 2.2 the ultimate beam for LHC to the SPS Capability to deliver 2.2 the ultimate beam for LHC to the SPS potential to prepare the SPS for supplying the beam required for the SLHC, potential to prepare the SPS for supplying the beam required for the SLHC, Higher injection energy in the SPS + higher intensity and brightness Higher injection energy in the SPS + higher intensity and brightness easier handling of high intensity. Potential to increase the intensity per pulse. easier handling of high intensity. Potential to increase the intensity per pulse. Benefits for users of the LPSPL and PS2 Benefits for users of the LPSPL and PS2 More than 50 % of the LPSPL pulses will be available (not needed by PS2) More than 50 % of the LPSPL pulses will be available (not needed by PS2) New nuclear physics experiments – extension of ISOLDE (if no EURISOL)… New nuclear physics experiments – extension of ISOLDE (if no EURISOL)… Upgraded characteristics of the PS2 beam wrt the PS (energy and flux) Upgraded characteristics of the PS2 beam wrt the PS (energy and flux) Potential for a higher proton flux from the SPS Potential for a higher proton flux from the SPS R.G.32June 23-27, 2008

33 Option 1Option 2 Energy (GeV)2.5 or 52.5 and 5 Beam power (MW)3 MW (2.5 GeV) or 6 MW (5 GeV) 4 MW (2.5 GeV) and 4 MW (5 GeV) Rep. frequency (Hz)50 Protons/pulse (x )1.52 (2.5 GeV) + 1 (5 GeV) Av. Pulse current (mA)2040 Pulse duration (ms) (2.5 GeV) (5 GeV) HP-SPL beam characteristics H - source RFQ chopper DTL CCDTLPIMS 3 MeV 50 MeV 102 MeV MHz β=0.65β= MeV 5 GeV MHz 180 MeV Linac4 (160 MeV)SC-linac (5 GeV) Length: 540 m R.G.33June 23-27, 2008

34 Possibility of (a) new experimental facilities(y) using a very high beam power: For neutrinos (e.g. Neutrino Factory), adding an accumulator and a compressor ring (300 circumference) + muon facility with storage ring(s) at GeV For neutrinos (e.g. Neutrino Factory), adding an accumulator and a compressor ring (300 circumference) + muon facility with storage ring(s) at GeV For Radioactive Ion Beams (ISOL-like), adding beam switchyard with targets and experimental hall For Radioactive Ion Beams (ISOL-like), adding beam switchyard with targets and experimental hall R.G.34June 23-27, 2008

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36 R.G.36June 23-27, LHC operation R & D on SPL/PS2/SPS/LHC IRs LHC luminosity (arb. units…) Construction of LPSPL + PS2 + new LHC IRs IR upgrade phase 1 + Linac4 Collimation phase 2

37 R.G.37June 23-27, Proton beam power (arb. units…) LPSPL + PS2 + SPS improvements Linac4 ~10 kW to ISOLDE ~40 kW to ISOLDE ~70 kW to RIB facility > GeV Multi 2.5 – 5 GeV

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40 Linac4 accelerates H- ions up to 160 MeV energy: in about 80 m length using 4 different accelerating structures, all at 352 MHz the Radio-Frequency power is produced by 19 klystrons focusing of the beam is provided by 111 Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles and 33 Electromagnetic Quadrupoles PIMS A 70 m long transfer line connects to the existing line Linac2 - PS Booster R.G.June 23-27, 2008

41 Linac4 tunnel Linac4-Linac2 transfer line Equipment building Access building Low-energy injector ground level R.G.June 23-27, 2008

42 False floor 500mm (all along equipment hall) R.G.June 23-27, 2008

43 Final position of cable trays: R.G.June 23-27, 2008

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45 R.G.June 23-27, 2008R.G.June 23-27, 2008

46 R.G.June 23-27, 2008R.G.June 23-27, 2008

47 R.G.June 23-27, 2008

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49 MUON PRODUCTION TARGET MUON ACCELERATORS MUON STORAGE RING SPL ACCUMULATOR & COMPRESSOR R.G.June 23-27, 2008

50 TARGETS RADIOACTIVE IONS LINAC EURISOL EXPERIMENTAL HALLS ISOLDE OR EURISOL HIGH ENERGY EXPERIMENTAL HALL TRANSFER LINES SPL to EURISOL TRANSFER LINE SPL to ISOLDE R.G.June 23-27, 2008


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