Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Enhancing Critical and Creative Thinking Skills

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Enhancing Critical and Creative Thinking Skills"— Presentation transcript:

1 Enhancing Critical and Creative Thinking Skills
Bhoendradatt Tewarie Director, Institute of Critical Thinking UWI St. Augustine

2 I Some basics to stimulate discussion
© Institute of Critical Thinking

3 “I think, therefore, I am”
René Descartes ( ) French philosopher, mathematician and physicist “Father of Modern Philosophy” In his Discourse on the Method (1637) he attempted to arrive at a fundamental set of principles that one could know as true without any doubt (a foundation of knowledge). To achieve this, he employed a method of systematic doubt, where he rejected any idea that could be doubted, i.e. everything he perceived through his senses. Descartes then arrived at the principle: “Je pense, donc je suis” or “I think, therefore I am” (Latin: cogito ergo sum) © Institute of Critical Thinking

4 © Institute of Critical Thinking
“I become what I think” © Institute of Critical Thinking

5 “High thinking and simple living” – Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
© Institute of Critical Thinking

6 © Institute of Critical Thinking
People, events, things, issues, ideas, concept – the mundane, material, the world around us, the meaning of things © Institute of Critical Thinking

7 The material, the philosophical, the spiritual
© Institute of Critical Thinking

8 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Is there any relationship between the focus of one’s thoughts and the quality of one’s existence, the quality of life? © Institute of Critical Thinking

9 II Logical thinking and lateral thinking
© Institute of Critical Thinking

10 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Logical thinking A process in which one uses reasoning consistently to come to a conclusion The ability to understand and to incorporate the rules of basic logical inference in everyday activities Cause and effect © Institute of Critical Thinking

11 Logical thinking examples
A doctor diagnosing a patient’s illness An engineer trying to determine why a machine is not working You have six pairs of black socks and six pairs of white socks in a drawer. In complete darkness, and without looking, what is the least number of socks must you take from the drawer in order to be sure you get a matching pair? A milkman has two empty jugs: a three gallon jug and a five gallon jug. How can he measure exactly one gallon of milk without wasting any? © Institute of Critical Thinking

12 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Lateral thinking “methods of thinking concerned with changing concepts and perception” - (Edward de Bono) It is about reasoning that is not immediately obvious and about ideas that may not be obtainable by using only traditional step-by-step logic Thinking “outside the box” © Institute of Critical Thinking

13 Lateral thinking examples
Connect the nine dots below using four straight lines without lifting your pen from the paper. How could a baby fall out of a twenty-storey building onto the ground and live? A man walks into a bar and asks for a drink of water. The bartender thinks for a minute, pulls out a gun and points it at him. The man says, "Thank you," and walks out. What happened? © Institute of Critical Thinking 13

14 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Deductive reasoning In deductive reasoning one arrives at a specific conclusion based on generalizations All apples are fruit. Some apples are red. Therefore some fruit are red. The houses in this area vary in size so that some houses may have more rooms or larger rooms than others. © Institute of Critical Thinking

15 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Inductive reasoning In inductive reasoning one makes generalizations based on individual instances All observed corbeaux are black. Therefore: All corbeaux are black. All known cases of human bleeding reveal that the colour of blood is red. Therefore the colour of human blood is red. © Institute of Critical Thinking

16 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Analysis – the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it Reason – to think in a connected, sensible, or logical manner; to find a rational motive for a belief or action Rationality – the state of having good sense and sound judgment Logic – the study of the principles of valid inference and argument Analysis → Reason → Rationality → Logic © Institute of Critical Thinking

17 III Strategic thinking
© Institute of Critical Thinking

18 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Strategy A long-term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal military strategy marketing strategy political campaign strategy game strategy © Institute of Critical Thinking

19 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Strategic thinking Focuses on finding and developing unique opportunities to create value facilitated by enabling a provocative and creative dialogue among people who can affect for example, a company’s direction solving a problem finding new ways of doing something Strategic thinking in an organization, involves synthesis, using intuition and creatively forming a shared vision of where the organization should be heading if it is to survive and prosper in the current and future market place. © Institute of Critical Thinking

20 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Strategic thinking Systems perspective – see the system as a whole and the linkages between the individual parts Intent focus – convey a sense of direction and discovery Hypothesis driven – embrace hypothesis generation and testing as core activities Think in time – able to connect the past with the present and link it to the future Intelligent opportunism – open to new experiences Jeanne Liedtka. (1998). Strategic thinking; can it be taught?, Long Range Planning, 31, (1), © Institute of Critical Thinking

21 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Strategic thinking “Taken together, these five elements describe a strategic thinker with a broad field view that sees the whole and the connections between its pieces”. (Liedtka 1998) © Institute of Critical Thinking

22 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Analytical thinking In analytical thinking, one uses a methodical step-by-step approach to break down complex problems or processes into their constituent parts, identifies cause and effect patterns and analyzes problems to arrive to an appropriate solution © Institute of Critical Thinking

23 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Strategic planning Strategic planning is about analysis (breaking down a goal into steps, determining how the steps could be implemented, and identifying the possible consequences of each step) An organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people © Institute of Critical Thinking

24 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Strategic implementation and the achievement of outcomes © Institute of Critical Thinking

25 © Institute of Critical Thinking
IV Creative thinking © Institute of Critical Thinking

26 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Creative thinking Creative thinking – generating new ideas by combining, changing, or re-applying existing ideas Schumpeter ( ) described an entrepreneur as an individual who carries out “new combinations” such as: Introducing a new good Introducing a new method of production Opening a new market Identifying a new source of supply of raw materials Forming a new organization of any industry Joseph Schumpeter (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press © Institute of Critical Thinking

27 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Creativity Creativity – a mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts, or new associations between existing ideas or concepts © Institute of Critical Thinking

28 © Institute of Critical Thinking
The creative process One of the earliest models of the creative process is attributed to Graham Wallas (1926) who proposed that creative thinking proceeds through four phases: Preparation (definition of issue, observation, study, information gathering) Incubation (laying the issue aside for some time) Illumination (emerging of the new idea) Verification (checking it out) © Institute of Critical Thinking

29 © Institute of Critical Thinking
The creative process Several other models have been proposed, but one common theme is that the creative process involves: Analysis (breaking down the problem/issue into smaller more easily understandable parts) Evaluation (determining whether an item or activity meets specified criteria) Imagination (forming images and ideas in the mind) Synthesis (combining existing ideas/concepts into something new) © Institute of Critical Thinking

30 The creative process at work
Music Art Dance Inventions – airplane, telephone Innovations – Apple iPhone, Gateway (Dell personal computers) Creative problem solving – using a knife/letter opener to tighten a screw when a screwdriver is not available © Institute of Critical Thinking

31 © Institute of Critical Thinking
V Critical thinking © Institute of Critical Thinking

32 © Institute of Critical Thinking
“the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action” (Scriven & Paul, 1992) “reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do” (Ennis, 1992). © Institute of Critical Thinking

33 Bloom’s taxonomy of the cognitive domain
Bloom, B., Englehart, M. Furst, E., Hill, W., & Krathwohl, D. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York, Toronto: Longmans, Green © Institute of Critical Thinking

34 Critical thinking, creativity and the critical/creative process
Both creative and critical thinking involve the use of high order thinking skills In the creative process one uses: creative thinking skills (synthesis and imagination) in the preparation and verification phases critical thinking skills (analysis and evaluation) in the incubation and illumination phases © Institute of Critical Thinking

35 Creative vs critical thinking
Creative thinking is described as: making and communicating connections to think of many possibilities; think and experience in various ways and use different points of view; think of new and unusual possibilities; and guide in generating and selecting alternatives. Critical thinking is described as: analyzing and developing possibilities to compare and contrast many ideas improve and refine ideas make effective decisions and judgments, and provide a sound foundation for effective action. (Isaksen and Treffinger (1985), Creative Problem Solving: The Basic Course) © Institute of Critical Thinking

36 Creative vs critical thinking
Creative thinking Divergent Right brain (global, parallel, emotional, subjective) Synthesis Critical thinking Convergent Left brain (analytic, serial, logical, objective) Evaluation © Institute of Critical Thinking 36

37 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Scientific thinking – using the scientific method (1. Identify a problem you would like to solve; 2. Formulate a hypothesis; 3. Test the hypothesis; 4. Collect and analyze the data; 5. Make conclusions) to study or investigate nature or the universe Innovative/adaptive thinking – the ability to react to unexpected changes Problem-solving – the ability to analyze information related to a given situation and generate appropriate response options Judgment – the formation of an opinion after consideration or deliberation Decision-making – the process of choosing between alternative courses of action © Institute of Critical Thinking

38 Summary of elements of critical thinking
Critical thinking involves using the following skills to make a decision, come to a conclusion or solve a problem. Conceptualization: forming ideas Application: using information in new situations Analysis: breaking down problems/issues into smaller more easily understandable parts Synthesis: combining existing ideas/concepts into something new Evaluation: determining whether an item or activity meets specified criteria © Institute of Critical Thinking

39 12 pillars of economic competitiveness
Institutions Labour market efficiency Infrastructure Financial market sophistication Macroeconomic stability Technological readiness Health and primary education Market size Higher education & training Business sophistication Innovation Goods market efficiency © Institute of Critical Thinking

40 Global Competitiveness Index (Ranks 1-20)
Country/Economy GCI rank Switzerland 1 Hong Kong SAR 11 United States 2 Taiwan, China 12 Singapore 3 United Kingdom 13 Sweden 4 Norway 14 Denmark 5 Australia 15 Finland 6 France 16 Germany 7 Austria 17 Japan 8 Belgium 18 Canada 9 Korea, Rep. 19 Netherlands 10 New Zealand 20 © Institute of Critical Thinking

41 Global Competitiveness Index (Ranks 21-40)
Country/Economy GCI rank Luxembourg 21 Czech Republic 31 Qatar 22 Brunei Darussalam 32 United Arab Emirates 23 Spain 33 Malaysia 24 Cyprus 34 Ireland 25 Estonia 35 Iceland 26 Thailand 36 Israel 27 Slovenia 37 Saudi Arabia 28 Bahrain 38 China 29 Kuwait 39 Chile 30 Tunisia 40 © Institute of Critical Thinking

42 Global Competitiveness Index ranks in Latin America and the Caribbean
Country GCI Rank Chile 30 Argentina 85 Puerto Rico 42 Trinidad & Tobago 86 Barbados 44 Honduras 89 Costa Rica 55 Jamaica 91 Brazil 56 Dominican Republic 95 Panama 59 Suriname 102 Mexico 60 Guyana 104 Uruguay 65 Ecuador 105 Colombia 69 Venezuela 113 El Salvador 77 Nicaragua 115 Peru 78 Bolivia 120 Guatemala 80 Paraguay 124 © Institute of Critical Thinking

43 Global Competitiveness Index ranks in some small states
Country GCI Rank Population (in millions) Denmark 5 5.52 Botswana 66 1.95 Finland 6 5.34 Estonia 35 1.34 Singapore 3 4.84 Trinidad & Tobago 86 Norway 14 4.83 Mauritius 57 1.29 United Arab Emirates 23 4.60 Cyprus 34 0.80 Ireland 25 4.42 Guyana 104 0.76 Puerto Rico 42 3.98 Suriname 102 0.52 Panama 59 3.45 Luxembourg 21 0.49 Uruguay 65 3.36 Iceland 26 0.32 Jamaica 91 2.72 Barbados 44 0.26 © Institute of Critical Thinking

44 T&T Global Competitiveness Index ranks from 2001 to 2009
Year GCI rank 2009 86 2008 92 2007 84 2006 67 2005 60 2004 51 2003 49 2002 37 2001 38 © Institute of Critical Thinking

45 Trinidad & Tobago economy
GDP (ppp): $24.2 billion GDP per capita (ppp): $18,087 [source: ECLAC (2008 preliminary figures)] © Institute of Critical Thinking

46 © Institute of Critical Thinking
T&T – Share of GDP Sector Share of GDP (at current prices, 2008) Manufacturing 19.8% Oil & Asphalt including Mining & Refining 27.8% Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing 0.3% VAT 3.6% Electricity, Water and Construction 10.0% Distribution and Restaurants & Hotels 14.0% Transport, Storage and Communication 4.7% Other activities including Government [source: CSO Pocket Digest 2008] © Institute of Critical Thinking

47 Economically active population (2008)
T&T – Labour force Age Population (2008) Economically active population (2008) (thousands) (% of total pop.) 0-14 282 21.1 15-19 120 9.0 31 2.3 20-24 144 10.8 113 8.4 25-39 330 24.7 283 21.2 40-54 267 20.0 212 15.8 55-64 103 7.7 52 3.9 65+ 91 6.8 8 0.6 Total 1,338 100 701 52.2 [source: LABORSTA (ILO database on labour statistics) <http://laborsta.ilo.org/>] (2008 projections) © Institute of Critical Thinking

48 T&T – Employment by economic activity
Agriculture: 3.8% Mining and quarrying (incl. petr. & gas extraction): 3.5% Manufacturing: 9.2% Construction and utilities: 19.5% Services and other: 64.0% Public sector: 26.5% General government sector:23.1% Publicly owned enterprises: 3.4% Private sector: 73.5% [source: LABORSTA (ILO database on labour statistics) (2008 figures) © Institute of Critical Thinking

49 © Institute of Critical Thinking
T&T Exports Exports: $15.9 billion Oil and gas account for 80% of exports [source: World Factbook (2008 estimates)] © Institute of Critical Thinking

50 Unemployment Relief Programme (URP)
Main objective is to provide short term employment relief while enhancing the skills of individuals in the community Work is provided on a rotation basis, every two to three fortnights (four to six weeks)  URP workers are not entitled to any employment benefits or vacation leave Labourers are paid a stipend of about $650 a fortnight (about $1,300 per month) URP employs 50,000-60,000 people © Institute of Critical Thinking

51 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Community Based Environmental Protection and Enhancement Programme (CEPEP) Designed to facilitate social transformation in the national community through empowering communities to improve their living standards by increasing employment opportunities; enhancing and improving the environment; and developing a cadre of entrepreneurs CEPEP has over 100 contractors who employ over 5,000 contract workers In 2008/2009 national budget, TT$300 million allocated to CEPEP © Institute of Critical Thinking

52 CEPEP – For $300m shared among 100 contractors and 5,000 workers
$100m to contractors, $200m to workers $100m/100 = $1m per contractor $200m/5,000 = $40,000 per worker $200m to contractors, $100m to workers $200m/100 = $2m per contractor $100m/5,000 = $20,000 per worker $300m shared equally $58,824 per contractor $58,824 per worker © Institute of Critical Thinking

53 T&T – Tertiary education
Gross Enrolment Ratio (tertiary)*: 11% Total tertiary enrolment*: 17,000 Enrolment in science and technology**: Science: 13.7% Engineering, manufacturing and construction: 22.6% [source: UNESCO Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2009] *2005 data; **2004 data © Institute of Critical Thinking

54 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Productivity © Institute of Critical Thinking

55 VI Non-critical thinking
DAY 2 VI Non-critical thinking © Institute of Critical Thinking

56 Non-critical thinking
Prejudicial thinking – gathering evidence to support a particular position without questioning the position itself Habitual thinking – thinking based on past practices without considering current data Group thinking (groupthink) – “A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action” (Janis, 1972) © Institute of Critical Thinking

57 VII The Art of Deception and the Role of Critical Thinking
© Institute of Critical Thinking

58 How to gain audience sympathy
Appeal to pity, appeal to emotions Appeal to authority, experts Appeal to tradition – ideals, accepted norms Appeal to precedent © Institute of Critical Thinking

59 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Presenting facts Use of statistics Is the source reliable? What is and isn’t being said? e.g. “More people choose brand X than Y” How much is “more”? How is the data being interpreted/represented? Don’t be fooled by large numbers, don’t overlook small numbers Organizing/classifying information – use of “all” or “some”, or implicit use of “all” Definition of terms © Institute of Critical Thinking

60 The role of critical thinking
Critical thinking can be used to help make more well thought-out evaluations and judgements in tasks such as reading reports, listening to interviewee responses and mediating conflicts. © Institute of Critical Thinking

61 Critical reading skills
What is the problem? How is the problem formulated? Why is this problem important? What is the history of this problem? Which prominent personalities have been interested in this problem? © Institute of Critical Thinking

62 Critical reading skills
What solutions to the problem are there? What are the conclusions reached? By what argument(s) is the conclusion reached? What facts or assumptions serve as premises? When a prominent personality offers a solution, does he also argue for or against other prominent personalities? Does he raise objections to alternative solutions? Does he consider objections to his own solutions? © Institute of Critical Thinking

63 Critical reading skills
Evaluation What are the advantages and disadvantages of the alternative formulations to the problem? Has the importance or history of the problem ever been misrepresented? Are the solutions logically related to the premises? Are the facts true? Are the assumptions acceptable? Are the objections answerable? © Institute of Critical Thinking

64 VIII Some important things to appreciate
© Institute of Critical Thinking

65 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Brain – the portion of the vertebrate central nervous system enclosed in the skull Intellect – capacity for knowledge Mind – the element or complex of elements in an individual that feels, perceives, thinks, wills, and especially reasons Imagination – the act or power of forming a mental image of something not present to the senses or never before wholly perceived in reality; a creation of the mind © Institute of Critical Thinking

66 © Institute of Critical Thinking

67 © Institute of Critical Thinking

68 © Institute of Critical Thinking
The creative process at work Models of creativity © Institute of Critical Thinking

69 IX Developing your thinking skills, your creativity and your mind
© Institute of Critical Thinking

70 © Institute of Critical Thinking
CREATE © Institute of Critical Thinking

71 Multiply vs divide – striking the balance
© Institute of Critical Thinking

72 Body, mind, spirit – Harmony
© Institute of Critical Thinking

73 © Institute of Critical Thinking
A sunny virtual space for self immersion © Institute of Critical Thinking

74 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Using humor to undermine fear Transforming fear into directed energy © Institute of Critical Thinking

75 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Triumph over cynicism © Institute of Critical Thinking

76 Learn to live free by breaking free and persisting
© Institute of Critical Thinking

77 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Take control of your life Make the obvious more obvious Jump steps to success Travel the clear-unclear road to happiness Get unstuck Relax the big squeeze of life © Institute of Critical Thinking

78 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Maintain the essential tension Resist the slides of boredom and indifference Never pass on your passion Call it like you see it, honestly Remake your self-image Take your time … and your space © Institute of Critical Thinking

79 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Hmmm…find new ideas in the paradox “Simplexity”: See the simple in the complex Cut the stress lines Hunt for satisfying work Remove the walls of your mind Envision your creative process © Institute of Critical Thinking

80 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Fish for the bigger meaning Add to invention Shift your social solar systems © Institute of Critical Thinking

81 © Institute of Critical Thinking
See the whole of your creativity © Institute of Critical Thinking

82 © Institute of Critical Thinking
X Complex thinking © Institute of Critical Thinking

83 © Institute of Critical Thinking
Complex thinking Complex thinking combines the basic learning and recall of accepted information, critical thinking, and creative thinking into larger, action-oriented processes. Cohen (1971) and Presseisen (2001) described four specific complex thinking processes: problem solving (resolve a known difficulty) decision making (choose the best alternative) critical thinking (understand particular meaning) creative thinking (create novel or aesthetic ideas or products). © Institute of Critical Thinking

84 Complex thinking for public sector leaders
Although different in many aspects, public and private sector leaders focus on value for their customers/clients The customers of the public sector are the citizens to whom services are provided © Institute of Critical Thinking

85 Complex thinking for public sector leaders
Complex thinking can be used to: Systematically solve problems by sensing, researching information, scanning the global environment, formulating the problem, finding alternatives, choosing a solution and building acceptance © Institute of Critical Thinking

86 Complex thinking for public sector leaders
Complex thinking can be used to: Produce new ideas by designing, imagining and formulating goals Invent, assess and revise a product © Institute of Critical Thinking

87 Complex thinking for public sector leaders
Complex thinking can be used to: Make decisions Systematically selecting between alternatives by identifying issues, generating alternatives, making choices and evaluating © Institute of Critical Thinking

88 © Institute of Critical Thinking
XI Learning Community © Institute of Critical Thinking

89 Communication for a learning community
“The defining quality of a learning community is that there is a culture of learning in which everyone is involved in a collective effort of understanding.” Chris Dede, Technical Horizons in Education (2004) © Institute of Critical Thinking

90 Communication for a learning community
The use of technology enhances the capability of complex thinkers to solve problems, formulate new ideas and make sound decisions Learning communities in the educational environment are exposed to knowledge sources embedded in real world settings © Institute of Critical Thinking

91 Communication for a learning community
The University of the West Indies is presently utilising Moodle as a communications tool to expand the University’s learning community with on-site academics and students as well as with international scholars. © Institute of Critical Thinking

92 Communication for a learning community
Facilitates the transfer from the traditional behaviourist model of learning to broader more action-oriented learning Allows the learner to actively participate in the analysis and synthesis of data → information, information → knowledge and knowledge → power © Institute of Critical Thinking

93 Communication for a learning community
Members of the learning community are masters and creators of their knowledge The transfer of knowledge is creative and assists in the formulation of innovative ideas Technology can be used easily to create, communicate and innovate © Institute of Critical Thinking

94 Communication for a learning community
The learning community, through the exchange of ideas becomes a tool for development © Institute of Critical Thinking

95 XII Motivation, inspiration and team achievement
© Institute of Critical Thinking

96 XIII Where do we go from here?
© Institute of Critical Thinking


Download ppt "Enhancing Critical and Creative Thinking Skills"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google