2The Simple Sentence What is a sentence? A group of words with a subject, a verb and a complete idea.We expect to make a profit this year.What is a simple sentence?A sentence with one subject and one main verb.All of the employees and their husbands or wives enjoyed the annual dinner at the hotel.
3Simple Sentence Example Majed travels to Amsterdam every year in the summer time.This is a simple sentence. It contains one subject Majed and one verb travels.
4SIMPLE SENTENCE with compound subject Tom and Mary play tennis.
5SIMPLE SENTENCE with compound subject and compound predicate Tom and Mary play tennis and swim.
6Compound SentenceA compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses (or simple sentences) joined by coordinating conjunctions like "and," "but," and "or":SimpleCanada is a rich country.Still, it has many poor people.CompoundCanada is a rich country, but still it has many poor people.
7What is an independent clause? A subject, verb and complete idea– it can be a sentence on its own!Everyone was celebrating.
8Compound SentenceA compound sentence contains two independent clauses that are joined together.She works in the city, but she lives in the suburbs.Independent ClauseIndependent Clause
9Compound Sentence with Coordinating Conjunctions SUBJECTPREDICATEandSUBJECTPREDICATE
10COMPOUND SENTENCE: COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Hani swims, and Sami plays tennis.Clause Clause 2Independent Independent
15Complex & Compound-complex Sentences “We can do anything we want as long as we stick to it long enough.” Helen Keller
16The Complex SentenceA complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.Unlike a compound sentence, however, a complex sentence contains clauses which are not equal. Consider the following examples:SimpleMy friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.CompoundMy friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.ComplexAlthough my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go.
17The Complex SentenceIn the first example, there are two separate simple sentences: "My friend invited me to a party" and "I do not want to go."The second example joins them together into a single sentence with the coordinating conjunction "but," but both parts could still stand as independent sentences -- they are entirely equal, and the reader cannot tell which is most important.In the third example, however, the sentence has changed quite a bit: the first clause, "Although my friend invited me to a party," has become incomplete, or a dependent clause.
18The Complex SentenceA complex sentence is very different from a simple sentence or a compound sentence because it makes clear which ideas are most important. When you writeMy friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.or evenMy friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.The reader will have trouble knowing which piece of information is most important to you. When you write the subordinating conjunction "although" at the beginning of the first clause, however, you make it clear that the fact that your friend invited you is less important than, or subordinate, to the fact that you do not want to go.
19Are these sentences?When we went on a long journey through the woods on a sunny Friday morning.It was fine.Because he was not only tall but also one of the hardest workers in the area.Sing that song.(View answers on the next slide.)
20Answers!(Dependent clause)When we went on a long journey through the woods on a sunny Friday morning.(Sentence)It was fine.(Dependent Clause)Because he was not only tall but also one of the hardest workers in the area.(Sentence)Sing that song.
21What is a dependent clause? A group of words with a subject and verb, but not expressing a complete idea.Because the profits had been so great.Although it was late.Until the early hours of the morning.Whether they wanted to or not.Even if they’d rather be at home reading the newspaper.A dependent clause cannot stand on its own!
22A dependent clause…Cannot stand on its own because it does not express a complete thought because…It begins with a subordinating conjunction(because, although, until, whether, etc.) BUT…It can join an independent clause (simple sentence) to become a…Complex sentence!
23The Complex SentenceComplex sentences have a different structure from simple and compound sentences:Independent Clause + Dependent ClauseorDependent Clause + Comma + Independent Clause= Complex SentenceA complex sentence contains 1 independent clause and 1 or more dependent clauses. If a dependent clause begins the sentence, there normally is a comma (,) after it. If an independent clause begins a complex sentence there should not be a comma after it.
24Subordinating Conjunctions After how UntilAlthough if UnlessAs in as much as ifin order that When as long asAt least Whenever as much asnow that whereas soonwherever as though SinceWhile because so thatBefore even if Thateven though though
25Subordinating Conjunction Complex SentencesA complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause.John cannot set up his typewriterbecause the wall has no outlet.Independent ClauseSubordinating ConjunctionDependent Clause
26An example of Complex Sentences A complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause.She will go to school in the cityuntil she finds a job.Independent ClauseSubordinating ConjunctionDependent Clause
27Subordinating Conjunction Complex SentencesUse a comma after a dependent clause if it begins the sentence.When I first moved to the city,I was afraid to drive the steep and narrow streets.Use a comma if the dependent clause is the first part of the sentence.Subordinating ConjunctionIndependent Clause
28The COMPLEX SentenceA complex sentence contains an independent clause and at LEAST one dependent clause.Both clauses in the sentence are not equal. They can not both be dependent or independent.EXAMPLE:She planted the flowers that he enjoyed smelling.
30Complex ExampleAlthough she worked hard to gain recognition, many people did not know who she was.Although she worked hard to gain recognition is a dependent clause because it begins with the subordinating conjunction although. Many people did not know who she was would be an independent clause, therefore making the sentence a complex sentence.
31[You do not usually need a comma if the independent clause is first.] In a complex sentence, either the dependent or the independent clause can come first:Even though it was late, everyone was celebrating.Everyone was celebrating even though it was late.[You do not usually need a commaif the independent clause is first.]
32although, but, howeverAll of these words join clauses in sentences, but they are different parts of speech.This presentation explains the impact of the word choice on sentence pattern and punctuation.
33although, but, however Semantic similarity These three words are related semantically (in meaning):they all signal a contrast in the information that follows with the information that precedes.
34although, but, however Structural difference However, these words differ structurally: they are different parts of speech and affect sentence patterns in different ways.
36Review although, but, however Although makes a clause dependent and the sentence complex.But joins independent clauses in a compound sentence.However can join independent clauses but does not change their independence.
37The Compound-Complex Sentence The compound-complex sentence has the following structure:Independent clause + coordinating conjunction + independent clause+ dependent clause= compound-complex sentenceIt does not have to be in that order. A dependent clause can stand in between two independent clauses. The rule is there should be at least two independent and at least one dependent clause in a compound-complex sentence.
38Compound-Complex Sentences A compound-complex sentence is a sentence that has at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.The same subordinating conjunctions are used to introduce the dependent clauses.The same coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) are used for joining the independent clauses.
39Compound-Complex Example Although she worked hard to gain recognition, many people did not know who she was, and her friends did not even appreciate her work.Here, we added an extra clause to the complex sentence we used earlier – her friends did not even appreciate her work. Adding this independent clause with the coordinating conjunction and makes this a compound-complex sentence.
40Compound/ComplexThe kitty purred softly, and she bounced on the pillow as her master read a funny magazine.The soldiers did not think they would reach the bridge because the bridge was far away, and they were being eaten alive by hundreds of mosquitoes.This sentence is a combination of a complex sentence and a compound sentence.
41Sample Compound-Complex Sentences. After the two adversaries had spent years playing this “cat and mouse” game, they were joined by their children, and the fun continued.Even though it seems the two were bent on the other’s destruction, the cat and mouse were rather fond of one another, and neither wanted the other’s defeat.This game was begun thousands of years ago, and it will continue far into the future as other cats and mice revel in hide-and-seek.
42Compound-Complex Sentence Mikeis popularbecauseheis good looking,butheis not very happy.
43Compound-Complex Sentence Mikeis popularbecauseheis good looking,butheis not very happy.
44More practiceMost of the rotten eggs missed the actors, but one hit the orchestra.CompoundBecause the weather along the coast was cold and rainy, we spent the day in the desert.ComplexWhen he had finished the test, Ernie ate a gallon of chocolate ice cream, and Sandra drank a chocolate shake.Compound complexA lion, a tiger, and a bear appeared on stage.Simple
45Even more practice.Saul’s car started to fall apart after the mechanic adjusted the carburetor.ComplexWhen his computer crashed for the third time, Bill began to weep, and his mother tried to console him.Compound complexSylvia who is my sister’s best friend set out to find a red rose.The rum was aboard, and the harpoons were sharp, but Ahab hesitated.Compound
46The Four Types of Sentences SimpleWe drove from St. John’s to Corner Brook in one day.CompoundWe were exhausted, but we arrived in time for my mother’s birthday party.Complex( Although she is now 81 years old ), she still claims to be 75.Compound-complex( After it was all over ), my mother claimed she knew we were planning something, but we think she was really surprised.
47Review Mary went to the park, but John stayed at home. Tom wanted to exercise, so he went for a walk.The dog that ate my homework is sick.Mary likes reading; John likes television.Bill is the one who usually sits here.When the movie was over, we went to Moo Moos for ice cream, but my favourite flavour was all gone.John who sits behind me is on the basketball team.While we were away, the girl who was looking after our cat discovered that she had an allergy to them.You can study now or pray later.All that glitters is not gold.
48Answers Compound Mary went to the park, but John stayed at home. ComplexCompound-ComplexSimpleMary went to the park, but John stayed at home.Tom wanted to exercise, so he went for a walk.The dog that ate my homework is sick.Mary likes reading; John likes television.Bill is the one who usually sits here.When the movie was over, we went to Moo Moos for ice cream, but my favourite flavour was all gone.John who sits behind me is on the basketball team.While we were away, the girl who was looking after our cat discovered that she had an allergy to them.You can study now or pray later.All that glitters is not gold.