Presentation on theme: "CHELATED MINERALS IN ANIMAL NUTRITION"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHELATED MINERALS IN ANIMAL NUTRITION Rajendran, C.Kathirvelan and V.BalakrishnanMadras Veterinary CollegeChennai, INDIA
2 INTRODUCTION Role of Minerals: 7 macro minerals 9 micro mineral. Minerals fed to CattleRole as BufferFeed intakemilk productionEnhance milk compositionSustain health
3 “All Physiological Function” Mineral deficiency occurAll Livestock & PoultryMay be sufficient amount in dietInteraction between mineralsPresence of Anti nutritional factorsPhytateOxalateMimosineGossypol
4 Factor affecting absorption Extend of mineral absorption in ruminantCobalt7-10%Iron3-4%Manganese1-3%CopperExtent of absorption (%)Minerals25 %Non-ruminant little higher with mineralFactor affecting absorptionChemical form – Organic, InorganicOther dietary factor –pH, Solubility etc.,
5 How to increase absorption Complexing inorganic element with organic compound. This is called ‘Chelates’.Chelates :It is a cyclic compound which is formed between an organic molecule and a metallic ion. Held with in the organic molecule as if by a “claw”.Chelate -Greek word - ‘Claw’Naturally occurring chelates :Chlorophyll'sCytochromeHaemoglobinVitamin B12
6 Classification of organic minerals Metal (specific amino acid) ComplexMetal Aminoacid ComplexMetal Aminoacid ChelateMineral proteinnatesMineral polysaccharide complex
7 Complexation and Chelates Cu NH3 [Cu (NH3)2 + NH3(Lewis acid) (Lewis base)COMPLEX[Cu (NH3)2]Metalic ion + Ligand Complexcomplex may be as simple as only one bondOr complex contain many bond - ChelatesCuNH3Metal Complex
9 Classification of organic minerals Metal (specific amino acid) Complex – The product resulting from complexing a soluble metal salt with a specific amino acid. Minimum metal must be declared. When used as a commercial feed ingredient, it must be declared as a specific metal, i.e copper lysine complex, zinc lysine complex etc.Examples are:Copper lysine complexZinc lysine complexFerric methionine complexManganese methionine complexZinc methionine complex
10 Classification of organic minerals Metal Aminoacid Complex – Product resulting from complexing of a soluble metal salt (such as copper or manganese, etc) with an amino acid(s). Minimum metal content must declared. When used as a commercial feed ingredient.Examples are:Copper amino acid complexZinc amino acid complexMagnesium amino acid complexIron amino acid complexCalcium amino acid complexPotassium amino acid complexManganese amino acid complex
11 Classification of organic minerals Metal Aminoacid Chelate – The product resulting from the reaction of a metal ion from a soluble metal salt with amino acids, with a mole ratio of one mole of metal to one to three (preferably two) moles of amino acids to form coordinate covalent bonds.Amino acids molecular weight must be approximately 150 the chelate molecular weight must not exceed The minimum metal content must be declared. When used as a commercial feed ingredient,Magnesium amino acid chelateManganese amino acid chelateZinc amino acid chelateExamples are:Calcium amino acid chelateCobalt amino acid chelateCopper amino acid chelateIron amino acid chelate
12 Classification of organic minerals Metal proteinate is the product resulting from the chelation of a soluble salt with amino acids and/or partially hydrolyzed protein. It must be declared as a ingredient as the specific metal proteinate.Examples are:Copper proteinateZinc proteinateMagnesium proteinateIron proteinateCobalt proteinateManganese proteinateCalcium proteinate
13 Classification of organic minerals Metal Polysaccharide Complex – is the product resulting from complexing of a soluble salt with a polysaccharide solution declared as a ingredient as the specific metal complexExamples are:Copper polysaccharide complexIron polysaccharide complexZinc polysaccharide complexMagnesium polysaccharide complex
14 How to prepare a chelate By reactionmineral salt +enzymatically prepared Amino acid/ peptideControlled conditionLigand bind the metal atom at one or more pointForm Ring
15 Primary chelated mineral used in animal feeds are ZincIronManganeseCobaltCopperThese are “transitional” elementIt prefer to form co-ordinate covalent bond- a hybrid form of linkage – stable complexCa, Mg, k
16 Technology for preparation of chelated minerals Hydrolysis of ProteinSeparation by centrifugeand ultrafiltrationChelation processRemoval of unbound mineralDrying grinding and storageDinhh and Aruna Chhabra, 2003
17 Factors influencing stability Chelated minerals...Factors influencing stabilityCharge / radius :Neural binder – more polar – Higher tendency to coordinate metal ion.Alkaline binder – Stabilization by formation of covalent bondChelation effect :Mono dentate – less stableMulti dentate – more stableDimensions of Chelation :5 term6 termShape: Steric TensionHigh stability
18 Use of chelates in Animal Nutrition Main Objectives :Reduction of antagonism, interferences and competition among minerals.Improve the bioavailability of mineralsCounteract antinutritional factors, which affecting mineralsPerformance improvementHealth improvement (immune status, functional nutrition)over all animal welfareImprovement in animal produces quality (meat, milk, egg, wool etc.,)Reduce degenerative effect of trace minerals on vitamins in premixes and feed.Protect environment by reducing metal pollution.
19 Mode of action Stable in rumen environment & abomasum Delivered in small intestine as such.Absorbed through active transport (more blood level)It act as biological complex (more tissue level)Enter into different poolMetabolizable in differently(Neathery et al 1972) (Pharmaco-dyanamics nutrient) (using 65Zn)
21 Mineral Amino Acid complex Zinc methionineZinc lysineManganese methionineIron methionineCopper lysineZinc methionine has been studied greatest extend.Not much research on zinc lysine & iron methionine in ruminants.
22 Zinc mehionineNot degradedRemain intactBind with feed particle or micro organismSo no insoluble complexSperars 1989Semi purifical diet deficient in zinc ZM compared with zinc oxide.Absorption similarMetabolized differently, Zno. Excreted more through urine.
23 CONCLUSIONChelated minerals usually cost more, per unit of metal element, than the same metal in inorganic form.Historically the argument against chelates was that increased use of inorganics was more economic than feeding chelates.However, there is indication that in some situations, chelates can achieve biologic endpoints that inorganics cannot.
24 Chelated mineral can be used when more amount of antinutritional factor or interference affects mineral utilizationIt can be used as immuno-stimulant but more data is needed.