2Announcements Class Schedule: Wrap up theories today Introduce topic for next week: Globalization, Culture, Conflict.
3Theories General perspectives on the economy Sociological theories Adam SmithMarxKeynesianismSociological theoriesModernization theoryWorld Systems Theory (WST) / dependency theoryWorld polity theory (WPT) / institutional theoryPolitical ScienceRealismComplex InterdependenceBrawley refers to it as “Institutionalism”Constructivism.
4Review: Realism Basic assumptions of realism: Keohane and Nye, p. 20-11. States as coherent units are the dominant actors in world politicsStates are dominant – they are the most important entities in the international systemMulti-nationals, IGOs, and INGOs are unimportantWithout an army or nuclear weapons, you’re nothing!Also, states are unitary actors (on international issues).
5Review: Realism2. Military force (or threat of force) is the most effective means of wielding powerThe “strong” survive and prosper3. The politics of “security” is what matters“Security” = policies, plans, and preparations regarding war & national defenseStates use other policies, like economic sanctions or trade to get their way… but that is secondaryNote: This disagrees with World-System TheoryWST claims that economic power = most important.
6Complex Interdependence Keohane & Nye: Complex InterdependenceA critical response to realismCalled “Institutionalism” in the Brawley readingMajor claims:1. Societies are interconnected in many waysNot just leaders and militaries, as realism suggests2. States interact over many kinds of issuesWar and security isn’t the only issueEconomics, environmental issues, etc., are also addressed.
7Complex Interdependence 3. Military force is not central to inter-state relationsQuestion: If military force doesn’t matter, what does?Answer #1: International organizationsThey are the playing field of global politicsAnswer #2: “Soft Power”: “Getting others to want the outcomes you want” (Nye p. 5)“Soft power rests on the ability to shape the preferences of others
8Complex Interdependence 4. International organizations are the center of global politicsThey set agendas (e.g., trade, environmental issues)Within international organizations, states form coalitions and push for their interestsAll states have an equal vote in most IGOs… so they barter and haggle.Result: world politics is a lot like national politics.
9Complex Interdependence Claim: To study global politics, you have to study what goes on in international organizationsExample: WTO policyA World-system theorist would predict that the WTO would always support interests of capitalistsA Realist would ignore the WTO as irrelevantA Complex Interdependence scholar would examine coalitions, alliances, and votes to see what is going on.
10Complex Interdependence Claim: “International organizations are frequently congenial institutions for weak states”… Keohane and Nye, p. 31Nations have equal voting power in most IGOsThis allows small/weak nations to form powerful coalitionsEx: poor nations can sometimes block or influence WTO rulesMany IGOs support norms of equityExample: the UN uses money from wealthy countries to aid those in poverty.
11Complex Interdependence Both realism and WST predict that weak nations will be mercilessly exploited & dominatedComplex interdependence predicts otherwiseWeak countries will be able to use international organizations to improve their situationEx: Poor countries have negotiated for special treatment in many environmental treaties.
12Complex Interdependence Realism and WST argue that all nations will look out for themselves (or capitalist classes)Ex: They will cheat on environmental treaties; They will build weapons of mass destructionTreaties and IGOs are inherently fragile… Powerful nations will ignore or abolish them when the are no longer usefulComplex Interdependence: Through IGOs, countries can work for the collective goodComplex Interdependence predicts that nations can improve the environment, eradicate WMDEx: Non-proliferation treaty; Environmental treaties.
13Complex Interdependence Criticisms of Complex InterdependenceSummarized in article by Waltz1. “The world is less interdependent than is usually supposed”Levels of trade aren’t much higher than in 1914, just before WWI; most MNCs are still rooted in one country.2. Political/military power still mattersUS power holds up global institutions (IMF, World Bank)Ultimately, economics is subordinate to politics.
14ConstructivismSikkink, Kathryn “Transnational Politics, International Relations Theory, and Human Rights.”A criticism of realism; related to complex interdependenceCalls attention to global norms like “human rights”Argument: “Non-state actors” (e.g., INGOs) establish norms, which states feel pressure to abide bySimilar to “World Polity Theory”…
15Constructivism Sikkink, p. 520: “While states continue to be the primary actors in this system, their actions need to be understood not as self-help behavior in anarchy, but as the actions of members of an international society of states and non-state actors.”“…states may make changes in their behavior not only because of the economic costs of sanctions, but because leaders of countries care about what leaders of other countries think about them.”
16Theory: RemarksThe explosion of global governance, apparent influence of “norms” was a surprise to existing theoriesEsp., Realism & World-system theoryNow scholars are trying to make sense of thingsKeohane&Nye and Sikkink are political sciences responses…Point out the way that “social actors” are interconnected; influenced by normsStates are actors… but less “unitary”, more constrained than realism suggests.
17Theory: RemarksWorld Polity Theory is a more radical view than even constructivismArgues for the primacy of culture…“Social actors” are not the starting point of the analysis… culture isSocial actors are fundamentally constructed by cultureOr, as John Meyer points out… they are more like “actors” like those on the stage or in moviesStates play the part of “being a state”…
18Theory: Remarks What I want you to know: 1. Be able to briefly summarize theories2. Know (or be able to think up) examples that support or contradict particular theoriesWhat does the theory predict?What information or evidence would convince you that WST was absolutely right? Or totally wrong?3. Hopefully start to be able to apply these theories to new topicsHow would a WST scholar think about international organizations?What does a Realist think about culture?
19Cultural Globalization A chance to apply theories to a new topic…First: “Culture” refers to many things:1. Popular culture: movies, music, clothing2. World Polity Theory: Culture = common norms, cognitive models, scripts.3. Group culture/identity: Shared beliefs, traditions, world-views, way of lifeExample: An indigenous that shares a particular religion, language, cuisine, etc.Example: National groups (e.g., the French)
20Cultural Globalization Question: Is there such a Orange County culture?If so, what are some of its distinctive features?Food? Language? Accent? Worldview?
21Globalization and Culture One obvious trend:Western (often American) culture is increasingly dominantEx: English is becoming the global languageAnd, many local languages are dying outEx: Western music, clothing are popular everywhereOther examples from readings? Personal experiences?
22Perspectives: Globalization & Culture 1. Modernization theoryDominant view in 1950s and 1960s, now criticizedObservation: People in colonies & non-Western countries were adopting “modern”/Western viewsPrediction: Traditional “cultures” would die out, as everyone became “modern” and “rational”People thought this was a good thing“Primitive” cultures were replaced by “advanced” onesLocal identities were replaced by modern social & political identities“Superstition” replaced by rationality, science, “enlightenment”.
23Perspectives: Globalization & Culture 2. Marxism / World-System TheoryArgues that power & culture are intertwinedMarx: Ideas of a society are the ideas of the ruling classWestern economic domination is accompanied by cultural dominationOften called “Cultural Imperialism”Westerners can effectively spread their culture via colonialism (and later via media, advertising)Some argue that this helps maintain economic dominanceNon-Western people may reject their own culture, prefer to wear Western clothes, listen to Brittany Spears, and eat at McDonalds.
24Perspectives: Globalization & Culture 3. World Polity TheoryArgues that a key facet of globalization is the emergence of a “world cultureEmbodied, in part, in international associationsGlobal culture provides norms, scripts, and models that shape the behavior of governmentsConsequence: Governments, laws, societies are becoming increasingly “isomorphic”Contrast w/ WST: World culture may relate to historical dominance of West….But, culture is not principally a mechanism of furthering the dominance of the WestRather, it now evolves somewhat independently of the interests of powerful countriesEx: Environmentalism, human rights…
25Perspectives: Globalization & Culture 4. Hybridization: A view from anthropologyReading: Hannerz: Scenarios for Peripheral CulturesContrasts two views on cultureA. Homogenization (also called “saturation”)Similar to predictions of Modernization TheoryThe idea: that globalization erodes local cultures, makes the whole world homogeneous“As transnational cultural influences unendingly pound on the sensibilities of people of the periphery, peripheral culture will step by step assimilate more and more of the imported meanings and forms, becoming gradually indistinguishable from the center.”
26Perspectives: Globalization & Culture Hannerz: Scenarios for Peripheral Cultures.B. Hybridization (also: creolization, maturation)Claim: Much local culture is embedded in daily lifeLocals are influenced by global culture, but also re-interpret it and adapt it to their lives“Local cultural entrepreneurs have gradually mastered the alien forms which reach them through the transnational commodity flows and in other ways, taking them apart, tampering and tinkering with them in such a way that the resulting new forms are more responsive to, and at the same time in part outgrowths of, local everyday life…Can anyone think of examples?
27Readings Readings for week 9 also address the “Clash of civilizations” Are there large cultural groups – “civilizations” – that will inevitably come into conflict?Huntington reading argues YESBowen reading argues NOAlso, optional reading by Hironaka.