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Sigma Complex Intermediate is more stable if nitration occurs at the ortho or para position. =>

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Presentation on theme: "Sigma Complex Intermediate is more stable if nitration occurs at the ortho or para position. =>"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sigma Complex Intermediate is more stable if nitration occurs at the ortho or para position. =>

2 Energy Diagram =>

3 Activating, O-, P- Directing Substituents Alkyl groups stabilize the sigma complex by induction, donating electron density through the sigma bond. Substituents with a lone pair of electrons stabilize the sigma complex by resonance. =>

4 Nitration of Anisole Ortho attack Meta attack Para attack =>

5 The Amino Group Aniline reacts with bromine water (without a catalyst) to yield the tribromide. Sodium bicarbonate is added to neutralize the HBr thats also formed. =>

6 Summary of Activators =>

7 Deactivating Meta- Directing Substituents Electrophilic substitution reactions for nitrobenzene are 100,000 times slower than for benzene. The product mix contains mostly the meta isomer, only small amounts of the ortho and para isomers. Meta-directors deactivate all positions on the ring, but the meta position is less deactivated. =>

8 Ortho Substitution on Nitrobenzene =>

9 Para Substitution on Nitrobenzene =>

10 Meta Substitution on Nitrobenzene =>


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