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Topology and Dynamics of Complex Networks FRES1010 Complex Adaptive Systems Eileen Kraemer Fall 2005

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Based on … Strogatz (2001), Barabási & Bonabeau (2003), http://powerlaws.media.mit.edu/papers/barabasi03.pdf Wang, X. F. (2002)

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Topology and Dynamics of Complex Networks Introduction Three structural metrics Four structural models Structural case studies Node dynamics and self-organization Bibliography

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Introduction Examples of complex networks Elementary features Motivations

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Examples of complex networks: geometric, regular

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Examples of complex networks: semi-geometric, irregular

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Elementary features: node diversity and dynamics

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Elementary features: edge diversity and dynamics

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Elementary features: Network Evolution

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Motivations complex networks are the backbone of complex systems every complex system is a network of interaction among numerous smaller elements some networks are geometric or regular in 2-D or 3-D space other contain long-range connections or are not spatial at all understanding a complex system = break down into parts + reassemble network anatomy is important to characterize because structure affects function (and vice-versa) ex: structure of social networks prevent spread of diseases control spread of information (marketing, fads, rumors, etc.) ex: structure of power grid / Internet understand robustness and stability of power / data transmission

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Three structural metrics Average path length Degree distribution(connectivity) Clustering coefficient

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Structural metrics: Average path length

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Structural Metrics: Degree distribution(connectivity)

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Structural Metrics: Clustering coefficient

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Four structural models Regular networks Random networks Small-world networks Scale-free networks

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Regular networks – fully connected

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Regular networks – Lattice

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Regular networks – Lattice: ring world

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Random networks

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Random Networks

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Small-world networks

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Scale-free networks

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Case studies Internet World Wide Web Actors & scientists Neural networks Cellular metabolism

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The Internet

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The World Wide Web

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World Wide Web

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Actors

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Mathematicians & Computer Scientists

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Node dynamics and self- organization Node dynamics Attractors in full & lattice networks Synchronization in full networks Waves in lattice networks Epidemics in complex networks

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Node dynamics: individual node

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Node dynamics: coupled nodes

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Node dynamics and self-organization

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Node dynamics and self-organization: Epidemics in complex networks

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Bibliography Reviews Barabási, A.-L. (2002) Linked: The New Science of Networks.Perseus Books. Barabási, A.-L. and Bonabeau, E. (2003) Scale- free networks. Scientific American, 288: 60-69.Scale- free networks Strogatz, S. H. (2001) Exploring complex networks. Nature, 410(6825): 268-276.Exploring complex networks Wang, X. F. (2002) Complex networks: topology, dynamics and synchronization. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 12(5): 885- 916.

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Bibliography Studies Albert, R., Jeong, H. & Barabási, A.-L. (1999) Diameter of the World Wide Web. Nature401: 130-131. Albert, R., Jeong, H. & Barabási, A.-L. (2000) Attack and error tolerance in complex networks. Nature406: 387-482. Barabási, A.-L. and Albert, R. (1999) Emergence of scaling in random networks. Science, 286(5439): 509-512. Erdős, P. & Rényi, A. (1960) On the evolution of random graphs. Publ. Math. Inst. Hung. Acad. Sci.5: 17-60. Faloutsos, M., Faloutsos, P. & Faloutsos, C. (1999) On power-law relationships of the Internet topology. Comput. Commun. Rev.29: 251- 263. Pastor-Satorras, R. & Vespignani, A. (2001) Epidemic dynamics and endemic states in complex networks. Phys. Rev.E63(066117): 1-8. Watts, D. J. and Strogatz, S. H. (1998) Collective dynamics of "small- world" networks. Nature, 393(6684): 440-442.

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