Catastrophes Evénement = Systèmes Population Systèmes Services économiques, sociaux, politiques, législatifs Population Catastrophe
Complexity of impact. Magnitude of problems. New needs. Destruction of infra structures
Complexity of Immediate environment. Insecurity. Low socio economic level
Complexity of the root causes. armed conflicts and violence - ethnic background - …. natural disasters - poverty - ….
Definition of Complex Emergencie: OCHA What is a complex emergency? The official definition of a complex emergency is a humanitarian crisis in a country, region or society where there is total or considerable breakdown of authority resulting from internal or external conflict and which requires an international response that goes beyond the mandate or capacity of any single agency and/ or the ongoing United Nations country program. (IASC, December 1994). Such complex emergencies are typically characterized by: 1.extensive violence and loss of life; massive displacements of people; widespread damage to societies and economies 2.the need for large-scale, multi-faceted humanitarian assistance 3.the hindrance or prevention of humanitarian assistance by political and military constraints 4.significant security risks for humanitarian relief workers in some areas
Definition of Complex Emergencies: UNICEF "any situation in which the lives and well-being of children are at such risk that extraordinary action, i.e. urgently required action beyond that routinely provided, must be mobilized to ensure their survival, protection and well-being." (See E/ICEF/1997/7 and 15.) Emergencies as described in the previous paragraphs may be created by natural or technological disasters, epidemics or conflicts. A common feature of most definitions is that of a severe disruption of family life and community services that overwhelms the normal coping capacities of the affected people and society. UNICEF distinguishes three main types of emergencies, namely sudden disaster emergencies, slow onset emergencies and complex, conflict-related emergencies. The nature and duration of the problems that arise for children and families, and approaches to helping to address those problems, vary between these types of emergency, although there are also many common features.
Definition of Complex Emergencies A complex humanitarian emergency may be defined as a national crisis in which: Political authority and public services deteriorate or completely collapse Internal ethnic, tribal, or religious conflict occurs, with widespread atrocities against noncombatants Massive population movements take place, with people escaping violence or searching for food Widespread food insecurity appears, frequently deteriorating into starvation A public health emergency causes epidemics of communicable disease The chaos leads to macro-economic collapse with massive unemployment, devaluation of the currency, and negative GNP growth These conditions may result initially from natural or man-made causes, but their effects are often magnified by the politicization of the crisis.
Complex Emergencies 1.Massive impact of various levels of human security 2.Major difficulties for reconstruction