2 The Verbal Group: single and extended VGps revisited We have seen that VGps can be:- single/non-extended: those consisting of one element only (a lexical verb, as in runs, asked), or-extended: those consisting of one or more auxiliaries + a lexical verb (as in may have been running, has been running, was run over by a car, etc.)
3 Extended VGps: some characteristics Extended VGps can contain up to 4 auxiliaries in the following sequencing when they all occur:Modal + Aux of the Perfect tenses + Aux of the Progressive tenses + Aux of the Passive voice (He must have been being robbed at that very moment)The first auxiliary in chain of auxiliary or the only auxiliary in the VGp is called the operator (o). The operator is set apart from the other auxiliaries and marked (o) instead of (x), because it has a special status in the VGp. It is the Aux that can express modality, tense, number, person and that can express negative or positive polarity by combining or not with the negative particle “not”. It can also signal mood by the relative position it takes with respect to the S or its absence or presence.
4 Extended VGps: some characteristics Non-Finite VGps can also be single or extendedas shown in the following examples:“He passsed the subject by studying hard” Single“Having been invited to a party, she decided to go out and buy something nice to wear.” ExtendedExtended VGps in Non-Finite clauses can express Perfect time, Passive Voice, Polarity, but not progressive aspect, past, present or future tense, neither person nor number.
5 Introducing a second classification for VGps Simple versus complex VGps: Now, most of the verbal groups we have considered so far were made up of only one lexical verb. However there are VGps that have more than one lexical verb, like “have had to face” or “began to work” or “managed to pass”. This leads us to introduce a second classification of VGPs, according to which VGps can be simple or complex verbal groups.Simple VGps are made up of only one lexical verb and they can be non-extended or extended: “he fought in the war”; “he has fought in the war”; “he has been fighting in Afghanistan for two years”.Complex VGps are made up of two lexical verbs, the first of which can be finite or non-finite and the second of which is always non-finite. Again they can be non-extended or extended: “he managed to convince her”, “he has managed to convince her”, “He has been trying to convince her for some time now”
6 Introducing a second classification for VGps Simple versus complex VGps: We can now cross-classify VGps as single or extended and simultaneously as simple or complex, as shown in the following table:Simple (one lexical verb)Complex (two lexical verbs)Single/Non-extended (only made up of main verb)She convinced him.She managed to convince him.Extended (made up of main verb and auxiliaries)She has convinced him. She will convince him. She didn’t convince him.She has managed to convince him. She will manage to convince him. She didn’t try to convince him.
7 Complex VGps: Which of the two verbs is more central to the clause? In Complex Vgps like “he decided to leave”, “he decided to abandon her” and “he decided to give her a kiss” it’s the second verb that is more central to the clause. The reasosn for this is that the second verb makes more meaning (the first verb is lighter in meaning) and also determines the structure of the clause. The first of the clauses above has only one other element, a S, and this is determined bythe second verb, “leave”, which, as intransitive verb, does not take complements. Similarly the presence of a DO in the second clause and a DO and an IO in the third clause is determined by the verbs “abandon” and “give” respectively, which take one or two Complements depending on the verb. The first verb makes an additional meaning, wjich is called phase. Complex VGps can be subclassified into several according to the mening the first verb makes. This meaning is called “phase”.
8 Complex VGps Subclassification: Different phases Time phase (the first verb expresses initiation, development or conclusion of the process or action expressed by the second verb): They began fishing/to fish; they started fishing/to fish; they continued to fish/fishing; he went on talking for hours; carry on working, please; they stopped fishing; he will end up resigning. (When followed by “to infinitive” they draw attention to the beginning or end of the activity. When followed by “-ing” they draw attention to the durative nature of the event)Appearance/“becoming real” phase: The first verb expresses the notion of “appearance” or of “coming to be”: She seemed to know all the details; she appeared to understand; he turned out to be a thief; this proved to be very useful.
9 Complex VGps Subclassification: Different phases Conative phase The first verb expresses “effort to do/not to do sth.”, or “effort to achieve sth.”, as in He tried to/attempted to find an answer to the problem; He tried hard not to be drawn into the problem; He strove (strive, strove = try hard)/sought (seek, sought) to improve his relationship with his father; he avoided talking to him, or “success or lack of success in doing sth”, as in He managed to finish by 8; He succeeded in getting his degree; He failed to attain what he wanted.Manner/Attitude phase: he regretted to inform (with regret); he hesitated to ask (reluctantly); he hastened to reassure her (immediately); he pretends to be deaf (acting as if)Chance phase: She happened to notice (accidentally); She chanced to overhear (by chance)
10 Complex VGps: Different phases Obligation phase (he had to answer; he needed to finish early)Inclination phase (he wanted to go; he intended/meant to go; he decided to go; wished to go)
11 The complex VGp: recognition practice In this study we have attempted to show that the effluents from nearby factories are responsible for at least 40% of the chemicals found in water in the area of study. When we began to work on this research project, we hypothesized that a large percentage of the chemicals found in the water studied would be traceable to effluents from neighbouring factories, but the findings showed that the percentage was higher than initially anticipated. When confronted with these results, we hastened to confirm them by applying alternative tests. Such tests confirmed the initial findings. It must be accknowledged that, in many cases, it was not possible to collect effluents that could be clearly traced to the factories under study, and that we needed to devise means of collecting them in areas far from the factories where they come after traversing fields where they could have been contaminated with fertilizers. In such cases, special methods were used to separate chemicals that could be confidently attributed to use of fertilizers and we often managed to do this with a high degree of accuracy, though we do not pretend to have identified all such chemicals [Wastewater-management, 1999, issue 2, pp ].