4What are complex sentences? Hey guys, do you know what complex sentences are?
5What are complex sentences? Worksheet One which accompanies this slide, provides students with a record of the above activity.
6Complex sentences Complex sentences need not be complex to understand. They are sentences that contain a main clause and at least one subordinate clause.For example:After waking up late, Tom missed his bus.The subordinate clauses tell us more about the idea in the main clause.Complex sentences are punctuated in different ways depending on where the subordinate clause is positioned.
9Joining clausesWorksheet Two accompanies this slide which provides students with a record of the above activity.Possible answers:1. I hate school uniform although/because it is very practical.2. I used to like it until/although/because I became fashion conscious.3. I have to wear it while/because/when I am at this school.4. I only wear it because if I don’t I’ll get done.5. I won’t wear it when/until I leave.6. Then I’ll go to college where/because you don’t have to wear one.
11Adverbial clauses are a specific type of subordinate clause. Verbs tell us about actions, e.g. He closed the door.Adverbs tell us how actions are done, e.g. He closed the door quickly.Sometimes we write a group of words to tell us more about the verb, e.g. He closed the door quickly because he was afraid the rain would get into the house.These groups of words are called adverbial clauses.They help us to understand more about an action.They explain about… where, when, why, how, how much.They make our writing more precise and informative.Adverbial clauses are a specific type of subordinate clause.
12Adverbial clausesTom could improve his descriptive writing by using complex sentences which include adverbial clauses. They are often introduced by these words called connectives:althoughbeforewhilewhenbecauseforwhereuntilafterasunless
13Adverbial clausesTom has written a paragraph describing his most recent football match.Rewrite his paragraph and add some adverbial clauses to make the paragraph more descriptive and exciting to read.The referee blew his whistle. The opposition took possession of the ball and ran towards our goal. My team’s defender tackled the opposition and kicked the ball to me. I ran towards their goal and then I passed the ball to my friend. The ball was kicked above their goal box. I headed the ball into the goal – I scored!Worksheet Three accompanies this slide and provides students with a copy of Tom’s paragraph and a space for them to rewrite it with adverbial clauses. Weaker ability students could start the exercise by underlining all of the verbs, enabling them to see where they can add more description.
15Adding commasWhen a connective begins the sentence, a comma should be placed before the clause it introduces.For example:Although he was exhausted, Maxwas determined to finish his revision.
16Did you put them in these places? Adding a commaDecide where a comma is needed in these sentences:,If you are tired you should have a rest.Before you can watch TV you must do your chores.Unless you practise you won’t pass your music exam.Because she was ill Sally couldn’t play outside.,,Worksheet Four accompanies this slide and requires students to fill in the missing commas in some complex sentences.,Did you put them in these places?
17Adding pairs of commasAs you become more skilled at English, you will experiment with different ways of forming sentences.You may decide to put an adverbial clause in the middle of the sentence. You will then need two commas.For example:Her mother insisted that, before she could go out, Megan had to do her homework.Max said that, if he had time, he would mow the grass.Lei knew that, unless she stopped talking, the teacher would give her a detention.
18When not to add commasYou don’t need to add any commas if you end a sentence with a subordinate clause which is introduced by a connective, e.g.Lei was happy after buying her new dress.Tom was mad because his football match was cancelled.Max liked reading late at night until he had to wear glasses.Megan loves eating hamburgers although they are unhealthy.
19When to add a commaHowever, you do need to add a comma if you end a sentence with a subordinate clause which is not introduced by a connective, e.g.Tom loves to play football, especially when it’s sunny.We have a slight problem, to put it mildly.My house was burning before my eyes, blazing red fire.The whistle blew and the runners began to move, sprinting forwards as a group.
20How many commas are needed? Worksheet Five accompanies this slide and provides students with a record of the above activity.
21Commas revision Now rewrite them with the correct punctuation. The activity requires students to decide on the number of commas that each complex sentence requires by dragging in the correct answer.Worksheet Six accompanies this slide which gives students a record of the above activity, and it provides spaces for them to rewrite the sentences correctly.Now rewrite them with the correct punctuation.
23Write five sentences with colons in them. Colons and semicolonsColons and semicolons are useful forms of punctuation because they can make your sentences sound precise.A colon (:) introduces an explanation, detail or example about the sentence preceding it, e.g.The weather was awful: wet, windy and cold.The colon is placed directly after the final word of the main clause and is followed by a space. It may introduce one word or a phrase.Write five sentences with colons in them.
24Write five sentences with semicolons in them. Semicolons are used to join two complete sentences together when they are too similar to be written individually – they can replace connectives (and, but, because, however etc.), e.g.Megan was sad; Mogg was ill.Max likes reading; Tom likes football.Lei loves boy bands; Lei hates metal.The semicolons are placed directly after the last word of the first sentence and are followed by one space.They link the two sentences into one sentence, instead of using a connective, to sound concise.Write five sentences with semicolons in them.
25Colons and semicolonsColons and semicolons should not be confused because they create different meanings from the same words, e.g.Some people are rich; Some people are poor.Some people are rich: Some people are poor.Some people are rich. Some people are poor.A full stop states that the sentences above are two unrelated events: some people are rich and some people are poor.A colon turns the two events into the same event: some people are rich because some people are poor.A semicolon links the two events but not precisely: some people are rich because/and/however etc. some people are poor. The semicolon works like a connective but it leaves it to the reader to decide what the sentence means.Write two sentences then link them with a colon and then a semicolon. Do the meanings change?
26Punctuating complex sentences activity Worksheet Seven accompanies this slide and provides students with a record of the above activity.
28Writing descriptively Write five sentences about the haunted house below including an adverbial clause in the middle. Then rewrite them with the adverbial clause at the beginning and at the end.Do you need to make any changes to the punctuation?
29Writing to debateWrite a paragraph giving your opinions on one of the following topics:Animal testingNuclear powerUFOsWarUse connectives to link your main clauses to your additional information (subordinate clauses) and try to include some colons and semicolons for style.Pupils may need support with suitable verbs for some of their main clauses, e.g. believe, feel, think, suspect. This activity enables students to practise what they have learnt in this presentation.Adverbial clauses are good to use in creative writing to provide more detail about what somebody is doing.They are also useful in formal writing, when you are giving your opinions or exploring an issue.