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© Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 291 of 15 Icons key: For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation Teachers notes included in the Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "© Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 291 of 15 Icons key: For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation Teachers notes included in the Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Boardworks Ltd of 291 of 15 Icons key: For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation Teachers notes included in the Notes Page Accompanying worksheet Flash activity. These activities are not editable. Web addressesExtension activities 1 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 Complex Sentences Year 8 Sentence Starters

2 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Contents 2 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 Introduction to complex sentences Joining clauses Adverbial clauses Adding punctuation Colons and semicolons Writing complex sentences

3 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Complex sentences – Introduction to complex sentences Introduction to complex sentences 3 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

4 4 of 29 What are complex sentences? Hey guys, do you know what complex sentences are?

5 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 What are complex sentences?

6 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 The subordinate clauses tell us more about the idea in the main clause. Complex sentences are punctuated in different ways depending on where the subordinate clause is positioned. They are sentences that contain a main clause and at least one subordinate clause. Complex sentences need not be complex to understand. For example: After waking up late, Tom missed his bus. Complex sentences

7 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Complex sentences – Joining clauses 7 of 29© Boardworks Ltd 2006 Joining clauses

8 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 when if afterunless before although untilthough because whilesince To combine one clause with another, a linking word is used to introduce the new clause. These linking words are called connectives. These words are useful when you are combining clauses to make complex sentences: Joining clauses

9 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Joining clauses

10 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Complex sentences – Adverbial clauses Adverbial clauses 10 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

11 11 of 29 Verbs tell us about actions, e.g. He closed the door. Adverbs tell us how actions are done, e.g. He closed the door quickly. Sometimes we write a group of words to tell us more about the verb, e.g. He closed the door quickly because he was afraid the rain would get into the house. These groups of words are called adverbial clauses. They help us to understand more about an action. They explain about… where, when, why, how, how much. They make our writing more precise and informative. Adverbial clauses Adverbial clauses are a specific type of subordinate clause.

12 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 after although as because before for unless until when where while Tom could improve his descriptive writing by using complex sentences which include adverbial clauses. They are often introduced by these words called connectives: Adverbial clauses

13 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Adverbial clauses Tom has written a paragraph describing his most recent football match. The referee blew his whistle. The opposition took possession of the ball and ran towards our goal. My teams defender tackled the opposition and kicked the ball to me. I ran towards their goal and then I passed the ball to my friend. The ball was kicked above their goal box. I headed the ball into the goal – I scored! Rewrite his paragraph and add some adverbial clauses to make the paragraph more descriptive and exciting to read.

14 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Complex sentences – Adding punctuation Adding punctuation 14 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

15 15 of 29 Adding commas When a connective begins the sentence, a comma should be placed before the clause it introduces. For example: Although he was exhausted, Max was determined to finish his revision.

16 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 If you are tired you should have a rest. Before you can watch TV you must do your chores. Unless you practise you wont pass your music exam. Because she was ill Sally couldnt play outside. Decide where a comma is needed in these sentences:,,,, Adding a comma Did you put them in these places?

17 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 As you become more skilled at English, you will experiment with different ways of forming sentences. You may decide to put an adverbial clause in the middle of the sentence. You will then need two commas. For example: Her mother insisted that, before she could go out, Megan had to do her homework. Max said that, if he had time, he would mow the grass. Lei knew that, unless she stopped talking, the teacher would give her a detention. Adding pairs of commas

18 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Lei was happy after buying her new dress. Tom was mad because his football match was cancelled. Max liked reading late at night until he had to wear glasses. Megan loves eating hamburgers although they are unhealthy. You dont need to add any commas if you end a sentence with a subordinate clause which is introduced by a connective, e.g. When not to add commas

19 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 When to add a comma However, you do need to add a comma if you end a sentence with a subordinate clause which is not introduced by a connective, e.g. Tom loves to play football, especially when its sunny. We have a slight problem, to put it mildly. My house was burning before my eyes, blazing red fire. The whistle blew and the runners began to move, sprinting forwards as a group.

20 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 How many commas are needed?

21 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Commas revision Now rewrite them with the correct punctuation.

22 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Colons and semicolons 22 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

23 23 of 29 Colons and semicolons Colons and semicolons are useful forms of punctuation because they can make your sentences sound precise. A colon (:) introduces an explanation, detail or example about the sentence preceding it, e.g. The weather was awful: wet, windy and cold. The colon is placed directly after the final word of the main clause and is followed by a space. It may introduce one word or a phrase. Write five sentences with colons in them.

24 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Semicolons Semicolons are used to join two complete sentences together when they are too similar to be written individually – they can replace connectives (and, but, because, however etc.), e.g. Megan was sad; Mogg was ill. Max likes reading; Tom likes football. Lei loves boy bands; Lei hates metal. The semicolons are placed directly after the last word of the first sentence and are followed by one space. They link the two sentences into one sentence, instead of using a connective, to sound concise. Write five sentences with semicolons in them.

25 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Colons and semicolons Colons and semicolons should not be confused because they create different meanings from the same words, e.g. Some people are rich. Some people are poor. A full stop states that the sentences above are two unrelated events: some people are rich and some people are poor. Some people are rich: Some people are poor.Some people are rich; Some people are poor. A colon turns the two events into the same event: some people are rich because some people are poor. A semicolon links the two events but not precisely: some people are rich because/and/however etc. some people are poor. The semicolon works like a connective but it leaves it to the reader to decide what the sentence means. Write two sentences then link them with a colon and then a semicolon. Do the meanings change?

26 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Punctuating complex sentences activity

27 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Complex sentences – Writing complex sentences Writing complex sentences 27 of 29 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

28 28 of 29 Write five sentences about the haunted house below including an adverbial clause in the middle. Then rewrite them with the adverbial clause at the beginning and at the end. Writing descriptively Do you need to make any changes to the punctuation?

29 © Boardworks Ltd of 29 Writing to debate Adverbial clauses are good to use in creative writing to provide more detail about what somebody is doing. They are also useful in formal writing, when you are giving your opinions or exploring an issue. Use connectives to link your main clauses to your additional information (subordinate clauses) and try to include some colons and semicolons for style. Write a paragraph giving your opinions on one of the following topics: Animal testing Nuclear power UFOs War


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