Presentation on theme: "The complex sentence book"— Presentation transcript:
1The complex sentence book are used to express complex ideas by:Complex SentencesThecomplexsentencebookSue Palmer
2are used to express complex ideas by: Complex Sentencesshowing how ideas and/or events arerelated to each other*providing extra information aboutcertain words or phrases.*A consistsof a main clause and one ormore subordinate clauses.complex sentence
3Clauses 1 What is a clause? simple sentences 1 A clause has a subject. A clause isa single ideaor event.What isa clause?sThe knight killedthe dragon.The knightThe knight killedthe dragon.The subject usuallycarries out any action suggested by the verbis a noun, noun phrase or pronoun.A simple sentence= one clauseA clause may containfurther detail.A clause has only oneverb (or verb chain).One misty morning, thethehandsome knight in shining armourknightvThe knight killed the dragon.killed the ferociouskilled thedragon outside its mountain lair.dragonThe extra detail may be:adjectival (telling more about a noun)adverbial – answering the questions how? where? when? ABut, as long as there’s only one verb, there’s only one clause.vDidDid the knight kill the dragon?killAA
4Clauses 2 A clause may have c c A clause can be active or passive simplesentences 2Clauses 2A clausemay havean objecta complementsvOsvcThe knight killed the dragon.The knight felt strangely sad.An object usually:has something done to itis a noun, noun phrase or pronoun.svcThe dragon had been a mighty beast.A complement usually:occurs with a verb like ‘be’ whichexpresses staterefers back to the subjectis a noun or adjectival phrase.A clause can beactive or passiveThe knight killed the dragon.svOThe dragon was killed by the knightsvA.subject ‘actively’ does somethingsubject ‘passively hassomething done to it.In a passive sentence you donot have to say ‘whodunnit’.The passive is oftenfound in formal,impersonal writing.e.g.England was last invaded in 1066.Morning dress is worn on formal occasions.The equipment is operated by means of anelectric switch.
5Subordinate and main clauses complexsentencesSubordinate and main clausesmain clause:expresses one ideaor eventWhen he killed the dragon,makes sense on itsownthe knight felt strangely sadcould be a simplesentence.because it had been a mighty beast.subordinate clause:The main andsubordinate clauses gotogether to make acomplex sentenceexpresses one idea orevent butdoes not make sense onits ownneeds a main clause tocomplete the sense.There are several sorts ofsubordinate clause.
6Subordinate clauses 1 when? how? where? why? on what condition? complexsentencesSubordinate clauses 1Grammatical name= adverbial clauseswhen?how?BecauseBecause it had been a mighty beastWhen he killed the dragonwhen beforeafter sincewheneverwhile asuntilas soon as…as thoughas ifthe knight felt strangely sadwhere?because it had been a mighty beast.when he killed the dragon.whenwherewhereverSome subordinate clauses:why?conjunctionon whatcondition?start with a conjunctionwhich make a clear linkto the main clausebecauseassince so thatin order thatalthough ifwhenin casecan usually be movedaround the sentence.These are examples of subordinatingconjunctions.Try moving these clausesaround to vary therhythm or emphasis of asentence.e.g. The knight felt strangely sadwhen he killed the dragon,because it had been a mighty beast.
7Subordinate clauses 2 complex sentences Grammatical name= relative clausethat had terrorised the village.,who was called Sir George,,The knight killed the dragon .Some subordinate clauses:The knight, was calledSir George,…whoare embedded in the mainclauseThe knight, we met onpage 2,…whomgive more information abouta nounThe knight, name wasGeorge,…whosebegin with a pronoun, whichrefers back to the noun, e.g.…the dragon hadterrorised the village.whichwho peoplewhich animalsor things…the dragon, hadterrorised the village.thatthat eitherEmbedded clauses oftenneed commas to separatethem off from the mainclause.These pronouns may change their form, dependingon the job they’re doing in the sentence:S subject – whoO object – whom (we met whom)possessive – whose
8Subordinate clauses 3 The dragon, snorting loudly, collapsed on complexsentencesSubordinate clauses 3Grammatical name= non-finite clausesExhausted by the battle,edSnorting loudly,ingSir George fell to his knees.The dragon collapsed onthe ground.the dragon collapsed onthe ground.The dragon, snortingloudly, collapsed onthe ground.Some subordinate clauses:don’t have a complete verbchain, just the ing or ed partingedSir George, exhaustedby the battle, fell tohis knees.give more information abouta noun in the main clausecan come before the nounorcan be embedded after it.This suggests the sun was lying outside the lair.e.g. Lying outside the dragon’s lair, therising sun awoke Sir George.When using these clauses,make sure it is clear whichnoun they are about.Lying outside the dragon’s lair, SirGeorge was awoken by the rising sun.
9linked by coordinating Compound sentencesIt was midnightandHe was tiredbutGeorge lay awake.he could not sleep.The coordinatingconjunctions areWhen main clauses arelinked by coordinatingconjunctions, it isWords are often omittedfrom the second clauseto make the sentenceless clumsy, e.g.is ‘understood’.forandnorit iscalled a compoundsentence.butyetorsohe could(FAN BOYS)FANBOYSHe could go homeThe dragon was deadorsolook for another dragon.his work was done., , , are verycommon in speech and writing,but subordinating conjunctions canoften make clearer links.andbutsoorIn formal writing, coordinatingconjunctions cannot come at thebeginning of a sentence.(See also The Standard English Book.)
10Punctuating sentences boundaries areshown by. ? !Commas are used toshow breaks betweenclauses when:Punctuation marksare used to showgrammaticalboundaries, to helpmake somethingclear.a subordinate clausecomes before themain clauseBoundariesbetween main clausescannot usually bemarked by a comma.Instead choose from- ; : ( )the writer wishesto signal a slightpausean embedded clausetells you more abouta noun (ratherthan defining it).The sun was blood red it looked likea fiery dragon.As he left, George looked up.He gasped, and reached for his sword.The sun, which had turned blood red,looked like a fiery dragon.;,see ‘The Comma Splice’ in The Punctuation Book.This clause defines which beast it was.But clauses don’t alwaysneed commas to separatethem off from the mainclause.e.g. Had the beast that he had just slainfled to the sun?Would it glower at him until the dayhe died?
11Who was George? There never was a Sir George who killed a dragon. non-finiteclauserelativeclauseThere never was a Sir George who killed a dragon.becoming particularly popular with English Christians, who made up stories about George and a ferociousdragon.The real George, asrelativeclauseadverbialclausefar as anyone knows, was a cavalry officer in the Roman army about 1,700 years ago, and a member of the Christian church.They even claimed he wasborn in Coventry!non-finiteclauseBorn in Turkey, herelativeclausewhichdefinesthe flagso nocommatravelled with the army to the Holy Land where, in 303 AD, he was in charge of troops near Palestine.During the Middle Ages, the flag to which English soldiers rallied duringbattle was a red cross on a white background.adverbialclauseIt became known as theadverbialclauseThen the emperor of Rome began to persecute the Christians.“cross of St George”.When herelativeclausewhichdefinessoldierso nocommaordered the burning of Christian scriptures and churches, George toredown the official notice and refused to follow the decree.Eventually, in 1348, George was declared the patron saint of England – a strange fate for a Turkish soldierwho died long before the country of England came into existence.adverbialclauseSummoned torelativeclauseRome, he harangued the emperor, who condemned him to death by torture.adverbialclauseAlthough he suffered terribly, George would not give up his faith.He diedon 23rd April 304 AD, and in 495 was named a saint.Over the centuries hisstory travelled around the world,