Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

KEITH M. MOORE ADJUNCT PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY AND ASSOCIATE PROGRAM DIRECTOR AND SARAH SWENSON RESEARCH ASSISTANT SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCE.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "KEITH M. MOORE ADJUNCT PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY AND ASSOCIATE PROGRAM DIRECTOR AND SARAH SWENSON RESEARCH ASSISTANT SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCE."— Presentation transcript:

1 KEITH M. MOORE ADJUNCT PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY AND ASSOCIATE PROGRAM DIRECTOR AND SARAH SWENSON RESEARCH ASSISTANT SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM Challenges and Opportunities for Smallholder Adoption of Conservation Agriculture Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

2 Outline Introductory framework innovation, knowledge networks, technology transfer, adaptive management, frame of reference Conservation agriculture innovation pathways United States Brazil Ghana Some component questions Challenges and opportunities for smallholder CA Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

3 Technology Transfer to Adaptive Management Two paradigms: Technology Transfer Adaptive Management In reality we can see these along a continuum Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

4 Reflecting on Networks and Technical Change How should we think about technical change in agriculture? What is the role of learning in the process of innovation? Is learning a matter of information transfer resulting in adoption of innovations? Or, is learning a matter of developing capacities for on-going adaptation? Whose capacities should be developed? Where, in fact, does innovation occur? Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

5 From Douthwaite, 2002

6 People and technologies are interconnected in ways that reproduce some types of knowledge and behavioral practices and not others Knowledge networks rationalize socio-material relationships in the agro-ecology There is often competition between knowledge network segments Knowledge Networks/Systems Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

7 Knowledge Network Characteristics of Technology Transfer Technology Transfer operates well under conditions where: Technological change is a matter of component replacement Shared knowledge systems extend from conception to execution Ecological and market conditions are stable and relatively homogeneous Linking investments with outputs allows for quantitative priority setting Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

8 Social Learning for Adaptive Management Learning by doing Local stakeholders innovate management techniques adapted to local conditions Negotiation Resistance Accommodation From: Sayer and Campbell, 2004 Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

9 Scientific Knowledge Commercial Knowledge Conventional Agro Ecology constructed to control variability Social Learning: Negotiation Resistance Accommodation Transformation and Feedback Resistant Agro Ecologies indigenously constructed to minimize risk Local Knowledge and Socio-Ecological System Knowledge Network Relationships Conservation Agro Ecology constructed to enhance natural processes Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

10 Negotiation Successful negotiation requires building trust across boundaries To influence stakeholders scientific information needs to be: Credible : scientific adequacy for technical evidence & arguments Salient : relevance of assessment to needs of decision makers Legitimate : perception that information has been respectful of stakeholder divergent values & beliefs Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

11 Inputs Farmer Organizations Farm Farmer Mechanisms Relationships Institutions Benefit Streams fsdf Research Private Sector Where does input X come from? How can input X be delivered? What is potential for integrating input X? Can output Y be valorized? Can input X produce desired output? Ecological I NGOS Manufacturing State Government Economic Non-Market Externalities Markets Local Researchers Suppliers Farmers Extension Agents Market Equipment Fertilizer Generic Conservation Agriculture System Financing Herbicides Physical Knowledge

12 Frames of Reference and CA Pathways CAs technological frame includes a wide variety of material, social, and technical elements, a few are listed here: What is the problem? (erosion, moisture conservation, management of labor, lack of income) Who is involved in defining the problem? (farmers, researchers, government officials, commercial interests) How is the problem approached? (technological fix, adaptive management, farmer problem solving) Why are CA practices adopted? (increased income, resolves production constraint: weeds, double cropping, timeliness) Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

13 Non-LocalLocal Chemical Company Vendor National Research National Research Local Manufacturer Informal Farm Organizations Informal Farm Organizations Farm Farmer Farm Farmer Technology Extension Agent Research Facilitator Equipment Company United States Conservation Agriculture Technology Department of Agriculture

14 Non-LocalLocal Chemical Company Vendor Ministry of Agriculture International Research National Research National Research Local Manufacturer Farm Organizations Farm Organizations NGO Farm Farmer Farm Farmer Technology Extension Agent Research Facilitator Equipment Company Brazilian Conservation Agriculture Technology

15 Non-LocalLocal Chemical Company Vendor Ministry of Agriculture International Research National Research National Research Informal Farm Organizations Informal Farm Organizations Farm Farmer Farm Farmer Technology Extension Agent Research Facilitator Equipment Company Ghana Conservation Agriculture Technology Credit Providers Non- Farm Options Non- Farm Options

16 Input Questions: Herbicides / Fertilizers / Seeds Available at local market? Appropriately packaged? Local substitutes? Sufficient labor for weeding? Crop rotations to decrease weeds? Possible livestock nutrient management? Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

17 Input Questions: Equipment Forms of power available to farmer? Access to appropriate power? Appropriately scaled equipment? Appropriate implement / tool? Local manufacturers and maintenance available? Use or modify existing equipment? Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

18 Input Questions: Knowledge Use and safety of herbicides and equipment? Maintenance of seedbed and equipment? Knowledge adapted for local implementation? Training / education for extension agents? Local knowledge sufficient for innovation and adaptive learning? Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

19 Input Questions: Financing Is local credit available? Input supplied in kind? Self-financing? Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

20 Delivery Mechanism Questions: State / NGO / Market Vendors present for input supplies? Is there a market demand? Chemical / equipment companies aware of demand? Affordable bank credit? Government support or guarantees? Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

21 Delivery Mechanism Questions: Farmer Organization Group purchases? Can inputs be purchased and transported from elsewhere? Environment conducive to knowledge sharing? Network to consult concerning problems? Network supporting a change in mindset? Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

22 Farmer Questions Problem to be solved by implementing CA? Alternative income generation possibilities? Sufficient resources and willing to take a risk? Adaptive capacity to solve problems? Ability to adjust for labor requirements? Knowledge regarding use of new inputs? Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

23 Farm Questions CA appropriate for soil type? CA impact on pests and diseases? CA adapted to livestock? CA compensates for other crop residues uses? Necessary to integrate all aspects of CA? Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

24 Benefit Stream Questions: Ecological Soil health (structure, quality, moisture) improvement? Increasing biodiversity? Leading to long term carbon sequestration? Otherwise sustainable? Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

25 Benefit Stream Questions: Economic Definite short term income increase? Allow for double cropped grain / soybean systems? Accessible markets for selling crops? Market for more than one crop? Economic incentives for ecological benefits? Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

26 Challenges to Fostering Conservation Agriculture Establishing a foundation for adaptive management to promote local innovation Identifying where particular CA practices best fit and which farmers are most likely to benefit Investigating questions in the CA system beyond biophysical field tests Creating an incentive system that accounts for externalities Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

27 Opportunities for Fostering Conservation Agriculture Growing interest and support for CA globally Growing support for local adaption approaches Increasing support for CA environmental service payments Increasing recognition of the challenges Varied experiences of CA adaptable to new local situations Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

28 Questions - Comments Thank you Office of International Research, Education, and Development, Virginia Tech

29 Non-LocalLocal Chemical Company Vendor Ministry of Agriculture International Research National Research National Research Local Manufacturer Farm Organizations Farm Organizations International NGO International NGO Farm Farmer Farm Farmer Non- Farm Options Non- Farm Options Technology Extension Agent Research Facilitator Equipment Company Complete Conservation Agriculture Technology

30 Non-LocalLocal Chemical Company Vendor Ministry of Agriculture National Research National Research Local Manufacturer Farm Organizations Farm Organizations Farm Farmer Farm Farmer Non- Farm Options Non- Farm Options Technology Extension Agent Equipment Company Conventional Agriculture Technology

31 Non-LocalLocal Vendor Ministry of Agriculture National Research National Research Farm Organizations Farm Organizations Farm Farmer Farm Farmer Non- Farm Options Non- Farm Options Extension Agent Risk Adverse Agriculture Technology

32 Source of Power Human muscle Draught AnimalEngine Sub-Saharan Africa East Asia40 20 South Asia30 40 Latin America & Caribbean25 50 TABLE 2.2: Sources of power for land preparation (% of total) Source: Clarke and Bishop (2002); Mrema and Odigboh (1993) drawing on various sources of information. Excerpted from: Farm power and mechanization for small farms in sub- Saharan Africa, Sims and Kienzle, FAO, 2006.

33 Fertilizer Use Intensity and Growth by Developing Region: 1962, 1982, and 2002 (kg/ha) Calculated from FAOSTAT data: Morris et al Fertilizer Use in African Agriculture. World Bank.

34 from: World Development Report, 2008: Agriculture for Development


Download ppt "KEITH M. MOORE ADJUNCT PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY AND ASSOCIATE PROGRAM DIRECTOR AND SARAH SWENSON RESEARCH ASSISTANT SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCE."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google